TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing Sensorineural Hearing Loss Using Various Transient-Evoked Otoacoustic Emission Stimulus Conditions. AU - Putterman, Daniel B.. AU - Keefe, Douglas H. AU - Hunter, Lisa L.. AU - Garinis, Angela C.. AU - Fitzpatrick, Denis F.. AU - McMillan, Garnett P.. AU - Feeney, M. Patrick. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objectives: An important clinical application of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) is to evaluate cochlear outer hair cell function for the purpose of detecting sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Double-evoked TEOAEs were measured using a chirp stimulus, in which the stimuli had an extended frequency range compared to clinical tests. The present study compared TEOAEs recorded using an unweighted stimulus presented at either ambient pressure or tympanometric peak pressure (TPP) in the ear canal and TEOAEs recorded using a power-weighted stimulus at ambient pressure. The unweighted stimulus had approximately constant incident pressure magnitude across ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Do "optimal" conditions improve distortion product otoacoustic emission test performance?. AU - Kirby, Benjamin J.. AU - Kopun, Judy G.. AU - Tan, Hongyang. AU - Neely, Stephen T.. AU - Gorga, Michael P.. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an "optimal" distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) protocol that (1) used optimal stimulus levels and primary-frequency ratios for each f2, (2) simultaneously measured 2f2 - f1 and 2f1 - f2 distortion products, (3) controlled source contribution, (4) implemented improved calibration techniques, (5) accounted for the influence of middle ear reflectance, and (6) applied multivariate analyses to DPOAE data results in improved accuracy in differentiating between normal-hearing and hearing-impaired ears, compared with a standard clinical protocol. DESIGN: Data were collected for f2 frequencies ranging from 0.75 to 8 kHz in 28 normal-hearing and 78 hearing-impaired subjects. The protocol included a control ...
Objective. Deferoxamine therapy in lifelong transfusion-dependent anaemias, as beta-thalassemia major, is associated with an increased risk of ototoxic changes. With increasing survival rates, prevention and/or early detection of ototoxicity are important for providing management options. The predictive value of pure-tone audiometry in early detection of ototoxicity has been questioned, particularly in the higher frequencies. Otoacoustic emissions appear to be more sensitive to cochlear insult than the conventional pure-tone audiometry. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of otoacoustic emissions (distortion-product otoacoustic emissions) with that of pure-tone audiometry as method of audiological monitoring ...
On the basis of recent advances in auditory physiology, new tests of cochlear function have been developed using measures of otoacoustic emissions. In the present report, the clinical potential for each of the four basic emission types is examined. In addition, the practical advantages of examining the ear with two specific types of evoked emissions, transiently evoked and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, are reviewed in detail. Finally, the future role of tests of otoacoustic emissions in the diagnosis of hearing impairment is discussed. The current view is that evoked emissions hold promise as an essential part of the clinical examination of the auditory system.. ...
Background During leisure activities teenagers are often exposed to excessive noise levels resulting in an increase of noise-induced symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus and hyperacusis. 16 kHz, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and speech-in-noise screening will become performed prior to and within PF-04971729 7 hours after noise exposure. By use of a combined effects statistical model, the effects of antioxidants compared to placebo intake will become assessed. Discussion As adolescents and young adults often do not use hearing safety while being exposed to loud music, the use of preventive antioxidant intake may provide a useful and harmless way to prevent noise-induced hearing damage with this populace. Furthermore, when exposed to dangerous noise levels the safety provided by hearing protectors is probably not adequate to prevent hearing damage and antioxidants may provide additive otoprotective effects. Prior research centered on ...
Background During leisure activities teenagers are often exposed to excessive noise levels resulting in an increase of noise-induced symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus and hyperacusis. 16 kHz, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and speech-in-noise screening will become performed prior to and within PF-04971729 7 hours after noise exposure. By use of a combined effects statistical model, the effects of antioxidants compared to placebo intake will become assessed. Discussion As adolescents and young adults often do not use hearing safety while being exposed to loud music, the use of preventive antioxidant intake may provide a useful and harmless way to prevent noise-induced hearing damage with this populace. Furthermore, when exposed to dangerous noise levels the safety provided by hearing protectors is probably not adequate to prevent hearing damage and antioxidants may provide additive otoprotective effects. Prior research centered on ...
CRITIQUE: Hair Cell Micromechanics and Otoacoustic Emissions is replete with highly detailed explanations of hair cell motility and the chemical and genetic forces behind it. It is an excellent guide for the scientist and clinician seeking a better understanding of hair cell mechanics. This books highly focused collection of scientific works successfully makes the argument toward the goal of expanding clinical applications. Although the body of the book is about hair cell mechanics and the heart is otoacoustic emissions, the reader will find that the soul is in the discussion of how OAEs can be utilized in the clinic. The innovative concepts presented here are worthy not just for scientific informations sake, but as valuable tools necessary to expand the audiologists prominence in the clinical arena. This book demonstrates that, audiologically, we live in an exciting time as we are able to witness the emergence and development of such sensitive tools capable of assisting the clinician in ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
GUIDA, Heraldo Lorena; SOUSA, Ariane Laís de and CARDOSO, Ana Cláudia Vieira. Relationship between the findings of pure-tone audiometry and otoacoustic emission tests on military police personnel. Arquivos Int. Otorrinolaringol. [online]. 2012, vol.16, n.1, pp.67-73. ISSN 1809-4856. http://dx.doi.org/10.7162/S1809-48722012000100010.. INTRODUCTION: Otoacoustic emissions can be an alternative for cochlear evaluation in noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between the findings of audiometry results and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in the military police. METHOD: from cross-sectional and retrospective study, 200 military police officers were submitted to audiological evaluation - pure tone audiometry and DPOAE. RESULTS: considering the provisions of Ordinance 19 of the Labour Department, the results were suggestive of induced hearing loss by high sound pressure levels in 58 individuals, distributed as follows: 28 (48.3%) bilateral cases ...
The sensitivity and specificity of automated auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emission in neonatal hearing screening: a systematic review
A Bordetella hinzii model of otitis media (OM) in the mouse was developed following a spontaneous outbreak of this pathogen. The goal of the present study was to compare the utility of middle ear wideband absorbance (WBA) tympanometry and inner ear distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) measures in detecting the presence of OM in the mouse. Ten C57BL/6J and ten CBA/CaJ mice were used in the present study. Experimental mice received nasal inoculations of B. hinzii while control mice received sterile phosphate buffer saline. WBA and DPOAE were measured at weekly intervals. Otitis media proved to be strain-dependent, affecting 7 of 8 C57 mice, but none of the CBA strain. Both physiological measures revealed significant changes associated with the presence of OM. DPOAE amplitudes were decreased in some mice by 1 week post-inoculation. An analysis of WBA, plotted as a function of frequency and pressure using paired samples t-test, revealed significant reduction between baseline and final measures
This site contains information on the otoacoustic emissions, details on available OAE hardware and software and on-line OAE lectures and white papers
In depth analysis of Otoacoustic Emissions Market is a crucial thing for various stakeholders like investors, CEOs, traders, suppliers and others. The Otoa
Galloni P, Lovisolo GA, Mancini S, Parazzini M, et al. (2005): The authors conducted a series of experiments to test the response of the cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) activity. OHC motility causes emissions spontaneously and in response to external stimuli. These otoacoustic emisssions (OAE) can be recorded and are used as a simple and non-invasive way to analyze OHC function. The authors focussed on distortion products otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), which are evoked by stimulation with two pure tones of different frequencies.. The authors used Sprague-Dawley rats in their experiments to test the effect of radiofrequency radiation (RFR), at 900 MHz frequency, on DPOAE. A variety of different protocols were used. These included different SAR levels (1 or 2 W/kg), modulation (GSM or CW), exposure time (2 or 3 h/day, 1 or 4 weeks), and EM source (horn or loop antenna). No changes in the OAE parameters, measured before and after the exposure, were seen.. ...
The concert was presented with Labrinthitis, an installation by sound artist Jacob Kirkegaard. Kirkegaard explores the tones generated in the inner ear: spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. These sounds are produced without stimulation by some peoples ears. Whereas the combinations of tones emitted from one ear can be dissonant, microtonal and complex, tones emitted from another ear might be harmonious and in tune. Each ear produces something akin to an acoustic fingerprint. Through Kirkegaards intimate aural recordings, we can hear our own hearing. ...
The three general approaches for assessing the mouse auditory system presented in UNITS 8.21B-8.21D are complementary, but differ in the time required for testing as well as the goals of the tests: the auditory brainstem response (ABR; UNIT 8.21B), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE; UNIT 8.21C), and lick suppression behavioral test (UNIT 8.21D). Various issues that need to be addressed in the testing of mouse hearing are discussed in this overview, including accurate nomenclature of the strain and/or mutations, environmental versus genetic influences, selection of frequencies to be tested, and appropriate animal care and use.
Every day pediatricians must diagnose middle ear disease and decide whether to prescribe antibiotics. To help meet this challenge, consider using the technologies described here--tympanometry, spectral gradient acoustic reflectometry, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions audiometry.
Parazzini M, Galloni P, Piscitelli M, Pinto R et al. (2007): The authors have previously reported studies on the effect of RFR on the auditory system of animals. In this study they compared the effect of RFR exposure with that of gentamicin. Four groups of rats were used, with 8 in each group. Group 1 was treated with daily intramuscular injections of 150 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. Group 2 was similar but also exposed to RFR. Group 3 was exposed only to RFR. Group 4 was sham-exposed. The RFR exposure was for 2 h/day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks at a frequency of 900 MHz and a SAR of 4 W/kg.. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions tests were carried out before, during and after the combined exposure. There was no effect of the RFR exposure on the inner auditory system of the animals, either in normal ears or in those damaged by gentamicin.. ...
I am looking for this paper by Ganz and Berg in ORL. My university doesnt have access to the databases that host it, but here is the PubMed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10529649 ...
This site contains information on the otoacoustic emissions, details on available OAE hardware and software and on-line OAE lectures and white papers
Click-evoked oto-acoustic emissions CEOAE are acoustic responses produced by the inner ear, reflecting functional auditory integrity. We studied both the success rate of the CEOAE method and the CEOAE presence in preterm infants during their stay at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit NICU, by analysis of the results of longitudinal CEOAE...
In the Netherlands all neonates are routinely screened for hearing during the first weeks after birth with the Otoacoustic Emissions (OAE) procedure. After the second refer an Automated Auditory Brainstem Response (AABR) is performed. The parents of all newborns, born at ≥ 37 weeks gestational age, that fail this AABR in the Netherlands (about 550 yearly) will be asked for consent for CMV-testing on the dried blood spots. Newborns diagnosed with congenital CMV and with confirmed SNHL (≥ 20 dB) are eligible for inclusion. After informed consent infants will be randomized before the age of 13 weeks to a treatment group (6 weeks valganciclovir 32 mg/kg daily dose; oral solution) or control group (no antiviral treatment). Infants will be monitored for leucopenia and liver- and kidney function. Inclusion will continue for at least 1.5 years, or until 25 infants in each treatment arm have been randomized.. At 1 year follow-up hearing and child development are assessed. Hearing will be assessed ...
1430] Ketten, D. R., A. T. Mooney, R. C. Williams, K. Matassa, K. Patchett, J. J. Arruda, and S. R. Cramer, Hearing Loss in Harbor Seals: Differential Diagnoses of Conductive and Sensorineural Losses via Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEP), Otoacoustic Emissions (OAE), and Computerized Tomography (CT), 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Tampa, FL, Society for Marine Mammology, pp. 156, 11/2011. Abstract ...
Nowadays development of techniques enables detection of hearing impairment in a very short time, immediately after birth by using otoacoustic emissions. They are low-pitched sounds produced in physiologically clear cochlea and can be recorded in coch
ShareThis[48] Ketten, D. R., W. F. Dolphin, R. S. Williams, J. J. Arruda, and J. T. O Malley, In vivo imaging correlated with otoacoustic emissions as a metric for ear disease in seals, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 116, pp. 2532, 10/2004. Get PDF: Full Text.pdf (format PDF / 502 KB) ...
Sasongko, S. (2015). PENGARUH GLUTATION PEROKSIDASE MIMETIK PERORAL TERHADAP KADAR GLUTATION PEROKSIDASE DAN MALONDIALDEHID DARAH SERTA NILAI EMISI OTOAKUSTIK PADA PRAJURIT DENGAN RISIKO TRAUMA AKUSTIK AKIBAT LEDAKAN MERIAM HOWITZER 105-Effect Of Orally Administered Glutathione Peroxidase Mimetic Towards Glutathione And Malondialdehyde Blood Level And Otoacoustic Emissions Result In Soldiers With Acoustic Trauma Risk Caused By Howitzer 105 Artillery Weapon Blast. Indonesian Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(1 ...
did not exist. The way to create a new base type was to create its input function first. In this approach, PostgreSQL will first see the name of the new data type as the return type of the input function. The shell type is implicitly created in this situation, and then it can be referenced in the definitions of the remaining I/O functions. This approach still works, but is deprecated and may be disallowed in some future release. Also, to avoid accidentally cluttering the catalogs with shell types as a result of simple typos in function definitions, a shell type will only be made this way when the input function is written in C.. In PostgreSQL versions before 7.3, it was customary to avoid creating a shell type at all, by replacing the functions forward references to the type name with the placeholder pseudotype ...
did not exist. The way to create a new base type was to create its input function first. In this approach, PostgreSQL will first see the name of the new data type as the return type of the input function. The shell type is implicitly created in this situation, and then it can be referenced in the definitions of the remaining I/O functions. This approach still works, but is deprecated and might be disallowed in some future release. Also, to avoid accidentally cluttering the catalogs with shell types as a result of simple typos in function definitions, a shell type will only be made this way when the input function is written in C.. In PostgreSQL versions before 7.3, it was customary to avoid creating a shell type at all, by replacing the functions forward references to the type name with the placeholder pseudo-type ...
In parallel with the auditory afferent system, the auditory efferent system is active in all parts of the auditory pathways from auditory cortex to the cochlea....
American driver Josef Newgarden -- the 2017 IndyCar champion -- says he wants to contest at least one season of Formula One before he retires from motor racing.
Atat rk niversitesi Di Hekimli i Fak ltesinin resmi yay n organ d r. Y lda 4 kez yay mlan r.. T B TAK/ULAKB M taraf ndan dizinlenmektedir.. T rk Di Hekimli i Birli i S rekli Di Hekimli i E itim (TDB-SDE) Y ksek Kurulu Taraf ndan Kredilendirilmi tir. ISSN 1300-9044. Dergimiz ilk olarak 1986da bas lm t r, 1993 y l ndan beri d zenli olarak yay nlanmaktad r.. T rkiye At f Dizinine kay tl d r.. Anahtar kelimelerin T rkiye Bilim Terimleri (http://www.bilimterimleri.com)nden se ilmesi gerekmektedir.. ...
Atat rk niversitesi Di Hekimli i Fak ltesinin resmi yay n organ d r. Y lda 4 kez yay mlan r.. T B TAK/ULAKB M taraf ndan dizinlenmektedir.. T rk Di Hekimli i Birli i S rekli Di Hekimli i E itim (TDB-SDE) Y ksek Kurulu Taraf ndan Kredilendirilmi tir. ISSN 1300-9044. Dergimiz ilk olarak 1986da bas lm t r, 1993 y l ndan beri d zenli olarak yay nlanmaktad r.. T rkiye At f Dizinine kay tl d r.. Anahtar kelimelerin T rkiye Bilim Terimleri (http://www.bilimterimleri.com)nden se ilmesi gerekmektedir.. ...
HI gurus, I have just purchase a 500D and exploring around. Previously was using a couple of PnS and a Lumix Prosumer. I have some questions out here relating to lens. The kit lens is 18-200mm F3.5-5.6. I was wondering what kinda difference does it have from 24-70mm F2? WHen the spec is F2 does it means that the aperture is fixed at f2?
File input/output is an important part of many applications and the Java I/O libraries provide many classes to read/write from files. There are also different …. ...
Objectives: Young people are often exposed to high music levels which make them more at risk to develop noise-induced symptoms such as hearing loss, hyperacusis, and tinnitus of which the latter is the symptom perceived the most by young adults. Although, subclinical neural damage was demonstrated in animal experiments, the human correlate remains under debate. Controversy exists on the underlying condition of young adults with normal hearing thresholds and noise-induced tinnitus (NIT) due to leisure noise. The present study aimed to assess differences in audiological characteristics between noise-exposed adolescents with and without NIT.Methods: A group of 87 young adults with a history of recreational noise exposure was investigated by use of the following tests: otoscopy, impedance measurements, pure-tone audiometry including high-frequencies, transient and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, speech-in-noise testing with continuous and modulated noise (amplitude-modulated by 15 Hz), auditory
Salicylate (aspirin) is a widely used drug in clinics. Acute application of salicylate may cause reversible hearing loss, reduction of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), and loss of outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility. A long-term application may cause tinnitus. Interestingly, it has been reported that a long-term salicylate application up-regulated expression of prestin, the OHC m
Fluid Shifts - Baseline Imaging: The first of three 49Soyuz subjects performed their Baseline Imaging measurements with assistance from both onboard operators and ground remote guiders. Ultrasound imaging was taken of arterial and venous measures of the head and neck, cardiac, ophthalmic and portal vein, and tissue thickness of lower and upper body. Additional measurements using the Cerebral and Cochlear Fluid Pressure (CCFP), Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAE), Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), ESAs Cardiolab (CDL) Holter Arterial Blood Pressure Device, and Intraocular Pressure (IOP) using the tonometer were taken as well. Fluid Shifts is a joint NASA-Russian experiment that investigates the causes for severe and lasting physical changes to astronauts eyes. Because the headward fluid shift is a hypothesized contributor to these changes, reversing this fluid shift with a lower body negative pressure device is investigated as a possible intervention. Results from this study may ...
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are sounds of cochlear origin, which can be recorded by a microphone fitted into the ear canal. They are caused by the motion of the cochleas sensory hair cells as they energetically respond to auditory stimulation. An OAE hearing screener is designed to detect otoacoustic emissions for improved clinical outcomes in the treatment of hearing loss in young children. It is used widely in hospital-based newbornhearing screening programs. The analysts forecast the global oae hearing screener market to exhibit a CAGR of 6.17% during the period 2019-2024. The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global oae hearing screener for 2019-2024. To calculate the market size, the report considers the oae hearing screener sales volume and revenue.. The projections featured in the report have been derived using proven research methodologies and assumptions. By doing so, the research report serves as a repository of analysis and information for every ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MB11 BERAphone and Auditory Brainstem Response in newborns at audiologic risk. T2 - Comparison of results. AU - Melagrana, Andrea. AU - Casale, Sara. AU - Calevo, Maria Grazia. AU - Tarantino, Vincenzo. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Objective: To compare the diagnostic effectiveness of Automated Auditory Brainstem Responses (MB11 technique) with that of standard Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR) in a sample of newborns evaluated after the second month of life. Methods: From October 2002 to February 2005, audiologic evaluations were performed in full-term newborns who presented altered otoacoustic emissions and in newborns considered at audiologic risk admitted to the ENT (Ear Nose Throat) Unit of Giannina Gaslini Institute, Genoa, Italy. Our sample included 201 children (104 males and 97 females) who underwent on the same day an audiologic test using MB11 BERAphone Maico and standard ABR test. Results: Out of the 388 ears examined, 378 (97.4%) showed agreement between the two ...
Since this recognition of the major clinical applications of OAEs, other uses have emerged including resolving the legitimacy of medico-legal claims involving compensatory payments for hearing loss based on the sensitivity of emitted responses to the intactness of the OHC system and its susceptibility to noise-induced damage. Another relatively new application of OAEs over the past decade has been the use of emissions to measure the functional intactness of the descending auditory nervous system. This capability is based on the knowledge that the suppressive effects of cochlear efferents mainly affect OHC activity, since these receptors are the primary targets of the descending neural system. Indeed, recent research in experimental models of noise-induced hearing loss indicates that the susceptibility of the ear to the harmful effects of, for example, intense noise may be determined by the amount of indigenous efferent activity. That is, the more robust the efferent activity, the more resistant ...
School Health is the largest distributor of school nurse, sports medicine, special education, speech and health supplies to school nurses, athletic trainers and special education departments in the U.S.
Background and Aim: Analysis of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions(TEOAEs) is of considerable interest due to their close relation with cochlear mechanisms which reveal cochlear function.The particular structure of TEOAEs requires a method with both a satisfactory time and frequency resolution. Among different methods the time -frequency techniques are the most suitable approaches. ...
DPOAE amplitude was measured following the audiometric testing completion at approximately 30 minutes post music. Test time was approximate as DPOAE tests began as soon as threshold testing was completed. F1 and F2 frequency pairs included 3328 and 3984 Hz, F1 sound levels started at 65 dB SPL at each frequency, and decreased in 5 dB steps to a level of 25 dB SPL. F2 levels were 10 dB lower than F1 levels. Threshold tests began precisely at 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, 3 hr 15 min. Threshold tests take approximately 15 min, but the exact duration of testing varies from subject to subject. The OAE testing began as soon as threshold testing completed. Thus, OAE tests began approx. 30 min, 1 hr 30 min, 2 hr 30 min, and 3 hr 30 min post music, but for some it may have been a little bit earlier or a little bit later (i.e., the test may have begun as early as 25 min or as late as 35 min post music, depending on how quickly the subject completed threshold testing ...
Between 50% and 75% of infants with moderate to profound bilateral SNHL have one or more specific risk factors (see "Clinical Considerations").5,6 Until recently, most newborn hearing screening programs in the United States focused on identifying and screening infants at risk for SNHL. However, these programs typically do not identify infants at risk for hearing loss due to failure to administer screening questionnaires or loss to follow-up, and they will miss affected infants who have no risk factors.. In the late 1990s, the development of rapid, low-cost screening tests made it feasible to implement screening programs for all newborns for congenital hearing loss during the birth hospitalization. Two types of tests are commonly used: otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Typically, screening programs use a two-stage screening approach (either OAE repeated twice, OAE followed by ABR, or automated ABR repeated twice). Criteria for defining a "pass" or "fail" on the ...
Grant finansowany przez: The J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board & The U.S. Department of State Nr P008/00 (2000-2001) - Kierownik Projektu i Główny Wykonawca "Identifying in an Animal Model Criteria for the Intraoperative Monitoring of Cochlear Function During Neuro-Otologic Surgery in Patients with Cerebello-Pontine Angle Tumors Using Otoacoustic Emissions ...
Article Warehouse Optimization: Balancing Equipment Performance and Worker Safety Through Emissions Measurements and Air Quality Monitoring. Successful warehouse functionality is dependent on both maximizing equipment performance and providing a safe...
Health, ...ANN ARBOR Mich.--- A healthy ear emits soft sounds in response to the...New research involving the University of Michigan and Oregon Health an...A paper on the research is published in the current issue of Proceedin...The former wisdom on how otoacoustic emissions left the ear was that t...,New,findings,contradict,a,prevailing,belief,about,the,inner,ear,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
|P|PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an information input/output device, with which information can efficiently be read or written from/to a card. |P|SOLUTION: The information input/output device 10, for transmitting information between itself and the information recording part 102 of the card 100, is provided with a card support part 12 having a card support face 11 for sliding the card 100; while it supports the card 100 from one side, a card striking part 20 having a card-striking face 21, which is arranged to protrude from the card support face 11; and an input/output execution part 32 which is arranged to face the information recording part 102 of the card 100, when the card 100 is made to slide on the card support face 11, while the card 100 is struck to the card striking face 21 and which reads information from the information recording part 102 or writes information into the information-recording part 102. |P|COPYRIGHT: (C)2005,JPO&NCIPI
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We investigated the onset and spread of Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events (OAEs). We reconstructed timing, succession of events and feedback mechanisms such as continental weathering and nutrient release by ocean anoxia at the onset of the two most pronounced Cretaceous OAEs. Additionally, we used climate and biogeochemical ocean models to explore the nutrient, carbon and oxygen budgets of the global ocean under different orbital configurations.. Contact: ...