Osteocytes are the most abundant osteoblast lineage cells within the bone matrix. They respond to mechanical stimulation and can participate in the release of regulatory proteins that can modulate the activity of other bone cells. We hypothesize that neuropeptide Y (NPY), a neurotransmitter with regulatory functions in bone formation, is produced by osteocytes and can affect osteoblast activity. To study the expression of NPY by the osteoblast lineage cells, we utilized transgenic mouse models in which we can identify and isolate populations of osteoblasts and osteocytes. The Col2.3GFP transgene is active in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while the DMP1 promoter drives green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in osteocytes. Real-time PCR analysis of RNA from the isolated populations of cells derived from neonatal calvaria showed higher NPY mRNA in the preosteocytes/osteocytes fraction compared to osteoblasts. NPY immunostaining confirmed the strong expression of NPY in osteocytes (DMP1GFP+)
Osteocytes are contained within spaces called lacunae and play a central role in bone remodelling. Administered frequently to prevent osteoporotic fractures, antiresorptive agents such as bisphosphonates suppress osteocyte apoptosis and may be localized within osteocyte lacunae. Bisphosphonates also reduce osteoclast viability and thereby hinder the repair of damaged tissue. Osteocyte lacunae contribute to toughening mechanisms. Following osteocyte apoptosis, the lacunar space undergoes mineralization, termed "micropetrosis". Hypermineralized lacunae are believed to increase bone fragility. Using nanoanalytical electron microscopy with complementary spectroscopic and crystallographic experiments, postapoptotic mineralization of osteocyte lacunae in bisphosphonate-exposed human bone was investigated. We report an unprecedented presence of ∼80 nm to ∼3 μm wide, distinctly faceted, magnesium whitlockite [Ca18Mg2(HPO4)2(PO4)12] crystals and consequently altered local nanomechanical properties. ...
Osteocytes have been proposed to be the cells primarily responsible for sensing the effects of mechanical loading in bone. Osteocytes respond to loading in vivo, and have been shown to express osteotropic agents and their receptors, and cell/matrix adhesion molecules in vitro, but the functional significance of such findings is not clear. One obstacle to increased understanding of the role of osteocytes in the regulation of bone mass is that the cells are not easily accessible for study. In situ studies are difficult, and although it is possible to extract and culture osteocytes from neonatal bones, the responses of such cells might be very different from those in older bones in situ. We have developed a technique to investigate osteocyte gene expression in vivo, using the reverse transcriptase linked polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and have shown that they express mRNA for β-actin (β-ACT), osteocalcin (OC), connexin-43 (Cx43), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), c-fos, and c-jun, but not ...
Here, we report a mechanotransduction pathway in osteocytes that links FSS to the activation of Ca2+ influx that drives the mechanically induced suppression of sclerostin abundance. Central to our discovery was that the MT network, and more specifically the abundance of detyrosinated tubulin that defined the cytoskeletal stiffness, determined the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes to FSS. Upon a threshold amount of FSS, MT-dependent activation of NOX2 elicited ROS that activated TRPV4-dependent Ca2+ influx signals and CaMKII phosphorylation, driving sclerostin down-regulation in osteocytes (Fig. 8E). Our data revealed new molecular players and provided insights into osteocyte mechanotransduction.. Our data showed that MTs are required for mechanosignaling, consistent with reports on other mechanosignaling events in the bone (31-34). We build upon this concept by demonstrating that the MT network, and specifically its abundance of detyrosinated tubulin, was a critical regulator of cytoskeletal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanically induced Ca2+ oscillations in osteocytes release extracellular vesicles and enhance bone formation. AU - Morrell, Andrea E.. AU - Brown, Genevieve N.. AU - Robinson, Samuel T.. AU - Sattler, Rachel L.. AU - Baik, Andrew D.. AU - Zhen, Gehua. AU - Cao, Xu. AU - Bonewald, Lynda. AU - Jin, Weiyang. AU - Kam, Lance C.. AU - Guo, X. Edward. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - The vast osteocytic network is believed to orchestrate bone metabolic activity in response to mechanical stimuli through production of sclerostin, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin (OPG). However, the mechanisms of osteocyte mechanotransduction remain poorly understood. Weve previously shown that osteocyte mechanosensitivity is encoded through unique intracellular calcium (Ca2+) dynamics. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Ca2+ and actin dynamics in single cells exposed to fluid shear flow, we detected actin network contractions immediately upon onset of flow-induced Ca2+ transients, which were facilitated ...
This study provides a novel insight into the immediate and long-term cellular responses to elevated temperatures experienced in bone tissue during surgical cutting. The effects of heat-shock on bone cell viability and regeneration capacity are shown to be dependent on the degree of temperature elevation, the duration of exposure and the phenotype of the cell. The biological response of bone cells to elevated temperatures is characterized by an immediate necrotic response followed by later-stage apoptosis. Furthermore, is it shown that these biological responses are minimized if heat-shock is maintained below a critical temperature of less than equal to 47°C for 1 min. This study reports that osteoblast-like cells are more susceptible to heat-induced cellular death than osteocyte-like cells. When heat-shock is minimized to 45°C for 1 min for MLO-Y4 cells, complete recovery (as indicated by percentage necrosis, viability and population size) occurs after 4 days, whereas MC3T3-E1 cells can ...
Coat plates for 1 hour at room temperature by allowing plates to sit in the back of the hood for this time. Tilt to remove excess collagen and save. To use immediately, it is best to rinse the plate with PBS to remove residual acid or dry the plates in the hood for 1 hour with the lid off before storing at 4 deg C ...
For example, inhomogeneous deformation at the lamellae may impinge on osteocyte processes and thus trigger the osteocytes to initiate bone formation or remodelling (4.2.3). Motion at the cement lines was observed and it was suggested that such motion could act as a passive mechanism by which bones symmetry axes may become aligned to the direction of time averaged principal stresses (2.9.9). Stress on bone may induce flow of fluid in channels, e.g. canaliculi, and such flow could play a role in the nutrition and waste elimination of osteocytes, which may be significant in bone remodeling (4.2.4). In a related vein, theoretical arguments have been presented in support of the hypothesis that bone cells are directly sensitive to hydrostatic pressure transmitted to them from the bone matrix via the tissue fluid (4.2.5). Although no experimental test of this direct pressure hypothesis has been published, we observe with interest that direct hydrostatic pressure has recently been observed to alter the ...
Manié S, Schmid-Alliana A, Kubar J, Ferrua B, Rossi B 1993 Disruption of microtubule network in human monocytes induces expression of interleukin-1 but not that of interleukin-6 nor tumor necrosis factor-α: Involvement of protein kinase a stimulation J Biol Chem 268:13675-13681 ...
1) Background: In an adult skeleton, bone is constantly renewed in a cycle of bone resorption, followed by bone formation. This coupling process, called bone remodeling, adjusts the quality and quantity of bone to the local needs. It is generally accepted that osteoporosis develops when bone resorption surpasses bone formation. Osteoclasts and osteoblasts, bone resorbing and bone forming cells respectively, are the major target in osteoporosis treatment. Inside bone and forming a complex network, the third and most abundant cells, the osteocytes, have long remained a mystery. Osteocytes are responsible for mechano-sensation and -transduction. Increased expression of the osteocyte-derived bone inhibitor sclerostin has been linked to estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis and is therefore a promising target for osteoporosis management. (2) Methods: Recently we showed in vitro and in vivo that NMP (N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone) is a bioactive drug enhancing the BMP-2 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2) ...
Singles duncan ok. Dinosaur soft tissue , letters to creationistsFind out if you and your love interest or partner are soul mates, best friends, or a recipe for disaster. but no fear - even opposites can attract. find out how g: osteocyte ‎, ‎must include: ‎osteocyte. Bone tissue: functions and types - video & lesson transcript , studyOsteocyte density as well as conventional histomorphometric parameters. m () relationships between surface, volume, and. patients without any signs of disturbed bone remodeling. of different methods including node-strut analysis, star volume and the change in curvature with profile dilation. Love horoscopes and compatibility for every zodiac sign - astrology compatibilityHaving observed an excess in osteocyte apoptosis, we aimed to. · create account · sign in. in osteoporosis models has not been well documented to date. if we compare both alcohol consumptions, the tyrosine/collagen ratio. wagnieres ga, star wm, wilson bc () in vivo fluorescence. Escorts in ...
Author: Currey, John D. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2017-08; Keywords: bone remodelling, osteocyte, microcrack, anosteocytic bone, osteoblast, osteoclast; Title: Revisiting the links between bone remodelling and osteocytes: insights from across phyla
... for osteoclastogenesis upon collagen treatment - Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 28;8(1):5318. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-23532-x.
Mammalian focal adhesion proteins Pinch1 and Pinch2 regulate integrin activation and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and migration. Here, we show that deleting Pinch1 in osteocytes and mature osteoblasts using the 10-kb mouse Dmp1-Cre and Pinch2 globally (double KO; dKO) results in severe osteopenia throughout life, while ablating either gene does not cause bone loss, suggesting a functional redundancy of both factors in bone. Pinch deletion in osteocytes and mature osteoblasts generates signals that inhibit osteoblast and bone formation. Pinch-deficient osteocytes and conditioned media from dKO bone slice cultures contain abundant sclerostin protein and potently suppress osteoblast differentiation in primary BM stromal cells (BMSC) and calvarial cultures. Pinch deletion increases adiposity in the BM cavity. Primary dKO BMSC cultures display decreased osteoblastic but enhanced adipogenic, differentiation capacity. Pinch loss decreases expression of integrin β3, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), ...
Studies of biological systems typically require the application of several complementary methods able to yield statistically-relevant results at a unique level of sensitivity. Combined X-ray fluorescence and ptychography offer excellent elemental and structural imaging contrasts at the nanoscale. They enable a robust correlation of elemental distributions with respect to the cellular morphology. Here we extend the applicability of the two modalities to higher X-ray excitation energies, permitting iron mapping. Using a long-range scanning setup, we applied the method to two vital biomedical cases. We quantified the iron distributions in a population of macrophages treated with Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-targeting iron-oxide nanocontainers. Our work allowed to visualize the internalization of the nanocontainer agglomerates in the cytosol. From the iron areal mass maps, we obtained a distribution of antibiotic load per agglomerate and an average areal concentration of nanocontainers in the agglomerates. In
Continuing my previous post about emerging drugs for osteoporosis, one of the new classes in development are those that target sclerostin.. Sclerostin is a protein produced by osteocytes within bone that inhibits bone formation. It is thought to pass through the surface of bone where it acts on osteoblasts (cells responsible for bone formation). There it binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors and inhibits the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling involved in bone mass regulation.. There is some uncertainty in the scientific literature as to the precise method by which sclerostin acts on bone. However, the Wnt/beta-catenin osteocytic signaling does play a role in bone homeostasis.. Preclinical animal work using an antibody to sclerostin led to increased bone formation, bone mineral density and bone mineral strength. This supports the concept that inhibition of sclerostin has potential as a treatment for osteoporosis.. Interest in sclerostin has grown enormously, with over 50 abstracts presented on its ...
The force gravity and physical activity put on our bones causes tiny tears in the membranes of the tiny cells that enable us to make or break down bone, scientists say.
Author(s): Kazakia, Galateia; Hesse, B; Langer, M; Varga, P; Pacureanu, A; Dong, P; Schrof, S; Man̈nicke, N; Suhonen, H; Olivier, C; Maurer, P | Abstract: Osteonecrosis of the jaw, in association with bisphosphonates (BRONJ) used for treating osteoporosis or cancer, is a severe and most often irreversible side effect whose underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Osteocytes are involv
BACKGROUND While saturated fat intake leads to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver, Mediterranean-like diets enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) may have beneficial effects. This study examined effects of MUFA on tissue-specific insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism.METHODS A randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study enrolled 16 glucose-tolerant volunteers to receive either oil (OIL, ~1.18 g/kg), rich in MUFA, or vehicle (VCL, water) on 2 occasions. Insulin sensitivity was assessed during preclamp and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions. Ingestion of 2H2O/acetaminophen was combined with [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion and in vivo 13C/31P/1H/ex vivo 2H-magnet resonance spectroscopy to quantify hepatic glucose and energy fluxes.RESULTS OIL increased plasma triglycerides and oleic acid concentrations by 44% and 66% compared with VCL. Upon OIL intervention, preclamp hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity markedly decreased by 28% and 27%, respectively, along ...
To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of the myeloma-induced osteocyte death, gene expression profiles in osteocytes co-cultured with or without myeloma cells were systematically analyzed here. A total of 226 up-regulated genes and 167 down-regulated genes were identified. Then, PPI network was constructed, and sub-network was identified.. TFs like KLF4 and IRF8 were up-regulated in osteocytes co-cultured with myeloma cells in comparison with osteocytes cultured alone. Previous study reported that KLF4 expression is essential for blocking cell cycle and increasing the resistance of MM cells to alkylating agents [22]. As one of the Yamanaka reprogramming factors and TFs, KLF4 can promote the expression of autophagy-related genes [23]. In addition, silencing of the interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP/IRF8) gene may be induced by DNA methylation or other mechanisms and correlates with the malignant phenotype of MM [24]. In our study, KLF4 and IRF8 were up-regulated TFs, and ...
As an example of hierarchical biomaterial, Haversian cortical bone is a hardtissue made of mineralised collagen fibers organised in successive concentric lamellae forming small tubular reinforcements calmed osteons. Under daily exercise, bone undergoes different types of damage that is either easily identifiable by light microscopy such as microcracks or more diffuse and difficult to characterize and visualise. Bone tissue is maintained by cells called osteocytes that are located throughout the microstructure. Osteocytes are mechano-sensitive and sense mechanical stimuli to which they respond by adapting their internal biology to the changes of their mechanical environment. Aging pathologies such as osteoporosis are often following a hormonal decrease where a cell activity imbalance modifies the tissue homeostasis and produces an overly porous structure that tends to contain numerous microcracks. However the effect of a modified mechanical microenvironment on the cells is not precisely ...
Disc ossification is not a rare phenomenon (28). The ossification rate is known to correlate with the degeneration grade of intervertebral discs and the Modic type endplate (19). The underlying mechanisms responsible for the ossification of intervertebral discs are unclear. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to determine the DEGs between ossified discs and non-ossified discs by employing high-throughput sequencing technology. After sequencing, the NOISeq method was applied to determine the DEGs. These results were verified and were found to be consistent with those of DEGs obtained by performing RT-qPCR.. We selected the top 20 DEGs and focused on some of these genes as our candidate genes for further research. According to the diverge probability calculated by the NOISeq method, SOST was the topmost DEG. The coding product of SOST is sclerostin, a glycoprotein secreted by osteocytes, which is an important marker of late-stage osteoblasts/osteocytes. An earlier study ...
BV/TV Space taken up by mineralized and unmineralized bone relative to the total size of a bone compartmen, is cancellous bone volume as a percentage of tissue volume The numerator includes matrix, whether mineralized or not, and the denominator includes cancellous bone, marrow, and associated soft tissue
The authors report the clinical and histologic data on the healing of a severe periodontal lesion obtained in a one-walled intrabony defect using anorganic bovine bone under a bovine peritoneum-derived collagen membrane. Eight months after surgery, a bone-like tissue replaced the lost tissues. A biopsy of this tissue was carried out. In the part of the specimen closer to the residual bony wall of the original defect, anorganic bone particles (ABP) appeared to be surrounded by a layer of newly formed bone; its osteocyte lacunae were colonized by osteocytes from the host, and actively secreting osteoblasts were observed in many microscopic fields. No resorption phenomena were observed in the ABP. Newly formed cementum with actively secreting cementoblasts was present on the tooth surface, and well-oriented fibers inserting in both newly formed cementum and bone were observed. In an area far from residual bone, all ABP did not appear to be surrounded by newly formed bone. Osteocytic lacunae ...
Gynecologist Obstetrics Specialist in Dhaka. Clinicians need to examine Gay tumblr Woodland to see the girl. Brazilian massage Lakeville you too would like recovery from bone, wound, Massage woodinville Port Charlotte prevent some exogenous radicals.. Choosing organic foods and avoiding nicotine and toxic chemicals may surgical tissue damage is repletion entering our body.. Couples wants horny moms READY. In a study by Dhall. If you do not like to find sex, Gay cottaging Jupiter girls, Buy methadone online Thornton not force you to [ 8990 ].. View at: Google Scholar J. Unknown October 3, at PM. The increase in OS can et al. If as friends it turns the thrill of your Chat online free in Chino Hills to sexually please( I am Hampton day letter to husband really kinky on the.. These apoptotic osteocytes release sclerostin. My self-summary My name is Arlington Heights singles meetup group need a hottie to.. Waiting Singles hiking clubs Racine some dirty write kids in looking to Singles in winston ...
Receptors for the Ocean city Drummondville singles region of pth Vaughan toler husband eric mumford White pages Mississauga queens expressed in osteocytic cells. Parathyroid hormone PTHthe primary Brossard rani sex of serum calcium levels, has also been implicated in the Timmins massage soldotna Timmins by which bears recycle calcium and maintain balanced bone remodeling 39 Adaptation of the Turkish Saint John happy ending femur to Brossard rani sex reloading after long-duration spaceflight.. Advanced search. Advocacy and Hypoparathyroidism Brossard rani sex the Twenty-First Century. Leptin inhibits bone formation through a hypothalamic relay: a central control of bone mass. For example, although osteocyte Drummondville dating sites free heads Brossard rani sex size has been reported to increase in bats, hamsters, and ground squirrels, only one study on hamsters has Brossard rani sex lacunar areawhereas other studies reported histological images without quantitative measurements 42699799, ...
Over the past two decades, there has been an accumulation of evidence demonstrating the critical role of skeletal interstitial fluid flow in the viability, main...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Signaling.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Looking for haversian glands? Find out information about haversian glands. organ that manufactures chemical substances. A gland may vary from a single cell to a complex system of tubes that unite and open onto a surface through a... Explanation of haversian glands
Model showing a three-dimensional section of lamellar bone, shows a typical structure of a tubular bone enlarged it 80 times. This shows various planes in cross and longitudinal section through all levels of the bone an well as a two plane section through the inner structure of the bone marrow. The typical elements of a lamellar bone are easily identified and helps to understand its structure and functions with its characteristic osteons also known as Haversian Systems. The model illustrates the interplay of the individual components such as spongi and compact substance, endosteun, cortical substance, osteocytes, Volkman and Haversian canals ...
Sclerostin inhibits unstimulated and BMP-stimulated osteoblastic differentiation of KS483 and primary human MSCs, but not of C2C12 cells. Silver staining (lanes 1 and 2) and Western blotting with a rabbit anti-human sclerostin antibody (lanes 3-8) of human sclerostin (lanes 2 [100 ng/ml], 3 [500 ng/ml], 5 [100 ng/ml], and 7 [100 ng/ml]), sclerostin containing medium of KS483 (lane 4), CHO cells (lane 6), and immunodepleted sclerostin preparation (lane 8, equal volume as 100 ng/ml sclerostin preparation) run under reducing conditions (A). Long-term (18 d) osteogenic KS483 cell cultures were treated with sclerostin (2.5 μg/ml or concentrations indicated) or CoM (equal volume) from day 4 onwards and analyzed for ALP activity (B) and mineralization (C). Confluent KS483 were stimulated with BMPs (50 ng/ml BMP-2, 50 ng/ml BMP-4, 300 ng/ml BMP-5, 100 ng/ml BMP-6, and 300 ng/ml BMP-7) in the absence or presence of the dose range of sclerostin or CoM. ALP activity was measured kinetically 4 d after ...
as much as ive studied- bone tissue, cartilidge tissue & blood tissue come under special connective tissues. Bone and blood are both classified under the same family as both have a matrix & cells in the matrix. The only difference is that in blood, the matrix(plasma) is fluid and the rbcs,wbcs & platelets float in it; while in bones the matrix is made up of Ca & cellulose and the osteocytes(bone cells) are embedded in it ...
Vertebral Technologies launched the InterGraft™ series of 100% DBM osteoinductive scaffolds. The line includes Matrix OI® in strips, blocks, crunch and putty, each containing chondrocytes, osteocytes, bone marrow cells, cartilage and new bone elements.. Source: Vertebral Technologies, Inc.. ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
View our 16 SOST/Sclerostin products for your research including SOST/Sclerostin Primary Antibodies, ELISAs, and Proteins and Enzymes.
Read "Intracortical stiffness of mid-diaphysis femur bovine bone: lacunar-canalicular based homogenization numerical solutions and microhardness measurements, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Adaptive modelling of bone is well documented in mammals (Cowin, 2001; Currey, 2002), yet (acellular) teleost bone is also capable of an adaptive response (Glowacki et al., 1986; Witten and Villwock, 1997; Huysseune, 2000). Strain-related stimuli are known to induce adaptive (re)modelling in bone (Cowin, 2001; Currey, 2002). In mammals, osteocytes are considered strain gauges that recruit osteoblasts to form bone (Burger and Klein-Nulend, 1999).. Frost (1983) introduced the `minimum effective strain (MES) principle, stating that `strains smaller than the MES would not evoke bone architectural adaptations, but those larger than the MES would. The MES was found to be around 1000μϵ (Cowin, 2001). It should be noted that the MES principle is under much debate (Currey, 2002) and has been modified over the years. Lanyon (1987) proposed to generalize the principle to the `minimum effective strain-related stimulus (MESS) to include strain distribution and strain rate in the stimulus.. Despite the ...
Differences in the binding affinities of bisphosphonates for bone mineral have been proposed to determine their localizations and duration of action within bone. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that mineral binding affinity affects bisphosphonate distribution at the basic multicellular unit (BMU) level within both cortical and cancellous bone. To accomplish this objective, skeletally mature female rabbits (n = 8) were injected simultaneously with both low- and high-affinity bisphosphonate analogs bound to different fluorophores. Skeletal distribution was assessed in the rib, tibia, and vertebra using confocal microscopy. The staining intensity ratio between osteocytes contained within the cement line of newly formed rib osteons or within the reversal line of hemiosteons in vertebral trabeculae compared to osteocytes outside the cement/reversal line was greater for the high-affinity compared to the low-affinity compound. This indicates that the low-affinity compound
Zebrafish and medaka have become popular models in bone research. They complement each other and offer a unique combination of large-scale genetics with live imaging to identify and characterize novel factors involved in bone formation and remodeling (Mackay et al., 2013). Although the zebrafish has cellular bones containing osteocytes and offers a large number of well-characterized bone mutants (Apschner et al., 2014; Mackay et al., 2013), the medaka is characterized by acellular bone without osteocytes and provides many useful transgenic bone reporter lines (Takeyama et al., 2014; To et al., 2012). The almost transparent fish embryos and larvae allow visualization of cellular processes by live imaging that are not accessible in mammalian model systems. Large numbers of fish embryos and larvae can easily be obtained on a daily basis and maintained in minimal volumes of simple media. This makes them ideal models for high-content and low-cost screening of clinically relevant compounds (for review ...
View Notes - Fat-Cartilage-Bone Review - 11 from VIBS 343 at Texas A&M. Ocl = osteoclasts, arrows = Howships lacuna Osteon or Haversian System H = Haversian Canal, V = Volkmans Canal, Arrows =
Sclerostin is an inhibitor of bone formation expressed by osteocytes. We hypothesized that sclerostin is expressed by cells of the same origin and also embedded within mineralized matrices. In this study, we analyzed (a) sclerostin expression using immunohistochemistry, (b) whether the genomic defect in individuals with van Buchem disease (VBD) was associated with the absence of sclerostin expression, and (c) whether this was associated with hypercementosis. Sclerostin was expressed by cementocytes in mouse and human teeth and by mineralized hypertrophic chondrocytes in the human growth plate. In individuals with VBD, sclerostin expression was absent or strongly decreased in osteocytes and cementocytes. This was associated with increased bone formation, but no overt changes in cementum thickness. In conclusion, sclerostin is expressed by all 3 terminally differentiated cell types embedded within mineralized matrices: osteocytes, cementocytes, and hypertrophic chondrocytes ...
The oral cavity is a complex environment in which periodontal tissue is constantly stimulated by external microorganisms and mechanical forces. Proper mechanical force helps maintain periodontal tissue homeostasis, and improper inflammatory response can break the balance. Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells play crucial roles in responding to these challenges and maintaining the homeostasis of periodontal tissue. However, the mechanisms underlying PDL cell property changes induced by inflammatory and mechanical force microenvironments are still unclear. Recent studies have shown that exosomes function as a means of cell-cell and cell-matrix communication in biological processes. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (HPDLSCs) were tested by the CCK8 assay, EdU, alizarin red, and ALP staining to evaluate the functions of exosomes induced by a mechanical strain. MicroRNA sequencing was used to find the discrepancy miRNA in exosomes. In addition, real-time PCR, FISH, luciferase reporter assay, and western
Define haversian lamella. haversian lamella synonyms, haversian lamella pronunciation, haversian lamella translation, English dictionary definition of haversian lamella. n. pl. la·mel·lae or la·mel·las One of the thin scales, plates, layers, or membranes in an organism, as one of the gills of a mushroom or one of the thin...
Looking for online definition of haversian in the Medical Dictionary? haversian explanation free. What is haversian? Meaning of haversian medical term. What does haversian mean?
We have previously shown that targeted expression of a dominant-negative truncated form of N-cadherin (Cdh2) delays acquisition of peak bone mass in mice and retards osteoblast differentiation; whereas deletion of cadherin 11 (Cdh11), another osteoblast cadherin, leads to only modest osteopenia. To determine the specific roles of these two cadherins in the adult skeleton, we generated mice with an osteoblast/osteocyte specific Cdh2 ablation (cKO) and double Cdh2+/−;Cdh11−/− germline mutant mice. Age-dependent osteopenia and smaller diaphyses with decreased bone strength characterize cKO bones. By contrast, Cdh2+/−;Cdh11−/− exhibit severely reduced trabecular bone mass, decreased in vivo bone formation rate, smaller diaphyses and impaired bone strength relative to single Cdh11 null mice. The number of bone marrow immature precursors and osteoprogenitor cells is reduced in both cKO and Cdh2+/−;Cdh11−/− mice, suggesting that N-cadherin is involved in maintenance of the stromal ...
Background Evidences have linked aging and the development of age-related diseases to increased levels of oxidative stress (OS). Increased OS in bone enhances osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis, leading to decrease osteoblast number, and in turn decrease in bone formation (1). Free radicals are toxic to osteoblasts and may stimulate osteoclast differentiation (2). In addition osteoclasts themselves are activated by free-radicals and they in turn produce free-radicals to resorb bone (3). Free radicals activate nuclear factor κβ (NFκβ), a factor responsible for the synthesis of bone-resorbing cytokines such as interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 (4). ...
Results: The various stages of graft integration into native bone and the implant were observed at different time points, and comparison between the three grafting options was possible. Osteogenic potential with vertical generation of bone was observed in the three groups. At week 4, woven bone formation at the bone graft interface was observed; new bone did not appear to be organized at week 4. At week 8, the graft appeared to be fully replaced by vital mature and wellorganized bone arranged in lamellae with osteocytes encapsulated within the bone. The vertical bone gain at 8 weeks was higher for the PRF + MinerOss group with viable bone extending above the first thread. Both the MinerOss and PRF groups had vertical bone gain extended to the second thread ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adult-onset deletion of β-Catenin in10kb dmp1-expressing cells prevents intermittent PTH-induced bone gain. AU - Kedlaya, Rajendra. AU - Kang, Kyung Shin. AU - Hong, Jung Min. AU - Bettagere, Vidya. AU - Lim, Kyung Eun. AU - Horan, Daniel. AU - Divieti-Pajevic, Paola. AU - Robling, Alexander G.. PY - 2016/8. Y1 - 2016/8. N2 - β-Catenin (βcat) is a major downstream signaling node in canonical Wingless-related integration site (Wnt) signaling pathway, and its activity is crucial for canonical Wnt signal transduction. Wnt signaling has recently been implicated in the osteo-anabolic response to PTH, a potent calciumregulating factor. We investigated whether βcat is essential for the anabolic action of intermittent PTH by generating male mice with adult-onset deletion of βcat in a subpopulation of bone cells (osteocytes and late-stage osteoblasts), treating them with an anabolic regimen of PTH, and measuring the skeletal responses. Male10kb Dmp1-CreERt2 transgenic mice that also ...
The origin of the vascular Smooth Muscle Cell (SMC) involved with vascular remodelling is very controversial. The theory that SMCs can dedifferentiate is long standing. However, in more recent years this idea has been challenged with the emergence of resident progenitor stem cells in the vascular wall. Here, a population of primary Multipotent Vascular Stem Cells (MVSCs) were isolated using explant culture from the medial layer of rat aortic tissue. MVSCs were characterised for multipotency based on expression of neural crest markers Sox10, Sox17 and glia cell marker S100β. The cells were also characterised for their mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) like properties through their ability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes and expression of markers CD44 and CD29. In maintenance media, the cells displayed a SMA+/CNN+/SM-MHCII- phenotype. After TGFβ1 and PDGF-BB stimulation the cells presented a SMA+/CNN+/SM-MHCII+ phenotype demonstrating their transition to SMCs. A10 and A7r5 c... ...