TY - JOUR. T1 - Scale-up study of high osmotic pressure chromatography for separation of poly(ε-caprolactone). AU - Lee, Dean. AU - Teraoka, Iwao. PY - 2003/5/9. Y1 - 2003/5/9. N2 - Methods to prepare fractions of poly(ε-caprolactone) with a narrow molecular mass distribution in large quantities have been examined using high osmotic pressure chromatography under the theta condition. Effects of column dimension and coupling columns in series on the separation resolution were studied. We found that use of a thicker column can improve the resolution if adverse effects of viscous fingering are avoided. We also demonstrated that coupling the columns results in a better separation if the second column does not adsorb high-molecular-mass components purified in the first column.. AB - Methods to prepare fractions of poly(ε-caprolactone) with a narrow molecular mass distribution in large quantities have been examined using high osmotic pressure chromatography under the theta condition. Effects of ...
Osmotic pressure is the basis of reverse osmosis, a process commonly used to purify water. The water to be purified is placed in a chamber and put under an amount of pressure greater than the osmotic pressure exerted by the water and the solutes dissolved in it. Part of the chamber opens to a differentially permeable membrane that lets water molecules through, but not the solute particles. The osmotic pressure of ocean water is about 27 atm. Reverse osmosis desalinators use pressures around 50 atm to produce fresh water from ocean salt water. Osmotic pressure is necessary for many plant functions. It is the resulting turgor pressure on the cell wall that allows herbaceous plants to stand upright, and how plants regulate the aperture of their stomata. In animal cells which lack a cell wall however, excessive osmotic pressure can result in cytolysis. ...
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When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
What is the Difference Between Osmotic Pressure and Oncotic Pressure? Oncotic pressure is the contribution made to total osmolality by colloids. Osmotic pressure
It had been long been believed that water could not pass through the membrane due to the hydrophobic property of the lipid bilayer in the membrane. However, it has been recently found that a 28 kD protein family on the membrane, namely, the AQP protein, that has a structure like other channel proteins, can adjust the transcellular permeability of water. The basic function of AQP is to mediate the transcellular transport of free water molecules. The major difference from other ion channels is that the osmotic pressure gradient only regulates the transport of water (i.e., the water molecules could be diffused through the AQP along the osmotic pressure gradient) instead of the so-called "turn-on" or "turn-off" phases. Thus, water molecules could be directly allowed into and out of the cells. Once the endothelial cells are injured, the expression of AQP increases, which augments capillary permeability and is believed to be closely associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. To date, there are 13 ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increased extracellular leucine concentration on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle cells when exposed to 3 different osmotic stresses. L6 skeletal muscle cells were incubated in either a normal or supplemental leucine (1.5mM) medium set to hypo-osmotic (230 ± 10 Osm), iso-osmotic (330 ± 10 Osm) or hyper-osmotic (440 ± 10 Osm) conditions. 3H-tyrosine was used to quantify protein synthesis. Western blotting analysis was performed to determine the activation of mTOR, p70S6k, ubiquitin, actin, and μ-calpain. Hypo-osmotic stress resulted in the greatest increase in protein synthesis rate under the normal-leucine condition while iso-osmotic stress has the greatest increase under the elevated-leucine condition. Elevated-leucine condition had a decreased rate in protein degradation over the normal condition within the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (p,0.05). Leucine and hypo-osmotic stress therefore creates a favourable environment for ...
Definitions of osmotic pressure. What is osmotic pressure: The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions with different concentrations of solute.. Synonyms: pressure, hypertonicity, pressure level, force per unit area, hypotonicity
I am a PhD student working the group of Zoya Ignatova. Cellular and extracellular changes like crowding and osmotic stress conditions play a major role in protein aggregation. A change in the cytoplasmic composition is the result of an interplay between high osmotic pressures outside the cell volume and the cellular response to it in terms of uptake of K+ and secondary organic osmolytes. My research focuses on elucidating the role of natural osmolytes (known also as chemical chaperones or compatible ...
I am a PhD student working the group of Zoya Ignatova. Cellular and extracellular changes like crowding and osmotic stress conditions play a major role in protein aggregation. A change in the cytoplasmic composition is the result of an interplay between high osmotic pressures outside the cell volume and the cellular response to it in terms of uptake of K+ and secondary organic osmolytes. My research focuses on elucidating the role of natural osmolytes (known also as chemical chaperones or compatible ...
Osmotic pressure maintained by liver or kidney tissue measured by its water equilibrium with solutions of sodium chloride remains unchanged from 5 minutes up to 1½ hours following removal of the tissue from the body. Then with autolytic increase of molecular concentration within the cytoplasm of cells it reaches a higher level. Osmotic pressure maintained by pancreas or submaxillary gland, as ascertained in the same way, remains unchanged during ½ hour and later increases. Liver tissue of rat, mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, and cat maintains an osmotic pressure greater than twice that of the blood, and kidney tissue maintains an osmotic pressure somewhat less than twice that of blood. Fasting throughout a period of 7 days has little influence upon osmotic pressure maintained by cells of liver or kidney. Low protein diet has been found to depress osmotic pressure of liver cells after about 4 weeks, and with degenerative changes in the parenchyma, notably fatty infiltration, this pressure has ...
Osmotic pressure is the pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. The osmotic pressure of an ideal solution, with low concentration can be approximate calculated by the molarity and the temperature of the solution
Osmotic Pressure Definition - Osmotic Pressure is the minimum amount of pressure that is applied on a solution to stop the inward flow of a liquid...
... 4.98 bar. If the osmotic pressure of the solution is 1.52 bar at the same temp
results when a two solutions of differing concentrations are placed on either side of a semipermeable membrane; solvent flows down a concentration gradient from a solution with a high concentration (and a high osmotic pressure) to a solution with a low concentration (low osmotic pressure). Lesson 25 - Glossary Terms. equilibrium ...
The osmotic pressure for a macrogel is described by Flory-Rehner theory: where the left side of the Equation 1 represents the total osmotic pressure, and the right side represents the mixing and elastic contributions to osmostic pressure, respectively. As the particles are compressed by the applied pressure, the particles become squeezed together, forming a tightly packed network. As the network compresses, the elastic contribution to osmotic pressure dominates the Flory-Rehner equation giving rise to the sharp increase in osmotic pressure for low polymer concentrations. However, as the pressure is increased further, the polymer matrix becomes fully compressed, and the only way for the matrix to further contract is through the expulsion of entrapped solvent (raising the polymer concentration). As the solvent escapes the gel matrix and begins to mix with the rest polymer of the polymer, the osmotic pressure contribution as a result of mixing increases. Thus, at high polymer concentration when the ...
Osmophillic organisms are extremophiles that are able to grow in environments with a high sugar concentration. Osmophiles are similar to halophillic (salt-loving) organisms because a critical aspect of both types of environment is their low water activity, aW. High sugar concentrations represent a growth-limiting factor for many microorganisms, yet osmophiles protect themselves against this high osmotic pressure by the synthesis of osmoprotectants such as alcohols and amino acids. Nearly all osmophillic microorganisms fall under the yeast genus.. Osmophile yeasts are important because they cause spoilage in the sugar and sweet goods industry, with products such as fruit juices, fruit juice concentrates, liquid sugars (such as golden syrup), honey and in some cases marzipan.. Among the most osmophillic are:. ...
Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by various stress factors. The molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in plant species have been well established. Metabolic pathways involving the synthesis of metabolites such as polyamines, carbohydrates, proline and glycine betaine have been shown to be associated with stress tolerance. Introduction of the stress-induced genes involved in these pathways from tolerant species to sensitive plants seems to be a promising approach to confer stress tolerance in plants. In cases where single gene is not enough to confer tolerance, metabolic engineering necessitates the introduction of multiple transgenes in plants ...
Some dikaryan anamorphs (especially coelomycetes) grow in dead leaves and stems of desert plants, and other moulds are the most drought tolerant of all organisms, able to grow at water activities below 0.70 (for example, on jams, salt fish and other substrates of extremely high osmotic pressure - see Chapter 20). While many zygomycetes can assimilate only accessible substrates like sugars and starch, ascomycetes can often exploit cellulose, and many basidiomycetes can digest both cellulose and lignin, carbon sources that are available to remarkably few other organisms. Though fungi cannot fix atmospheric nitrogen (this talent seems to be restricted to the bacteria), dikaryan fungi can use many different forms of combined nitrogen: some ascomycetes even specialize in metabolizing the protein keratin, which is the main component of hair and skin. In case you were wondering if members of this group constitute a health hazard -- they do. Some other orders of ascomycetes are obligate parasites of ...
They are but im concerned with how someone can have high osomtic blood pressure which means(i think) not having enough water and too much salt. Wouldnt not having enough enough water in your blood NOT cause presure. Or...Does high osmotic pressure refer to what will happen: that the blood with try to retain more water to dilute all the Na in it(that makes sense to me). But then again....all that has to happen to begin with to solve this problem is to inhibit aldolsterone which will stop Na reabsorption ...
I dare say most of you will remember this classroom demonstration, in which water passes through a semi-permeable membrane and causes the liquid level to rise in the stem of the thistle funnel. The phenomenon is called osmosis, and at equilibrium the osmotic pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure. Historical background This experiment has…
A method and system for the extracorporeal treatment of blood to remove fluid from the fluid overloaded patient is disclosed that non-invasively measures osmotic pressure across a filter membrane of a blood filter. The filter is permeable to water and electrolytes, but not to blood protein. The osmotic pressure indicates the protein concentration in the blood. Osmotic pressure is used to detect when hypotension is about to occur in a patient, as a result of excessive blood volume reduction during treatment of the blood. Using the osmotic pressure measurement as a feedback signal, the rate of fluid extraction is automatically controlled to achieve the desired clinical outcome and avoid precipitating a hypotensive crisis in the patient.
This example problem demonstrates how to calculate the amount of solute to add to create a specific osmotic pressure in a solution.
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An osmotic active agent dispenser is comprised of: (1) a first helical compartment of relatively impervious material containing an active agent and provided with a dispensing head for releasing active agent to the exterior of the dispenser; (2) a second helical compartment of controlled permeability to water containing a solution of an osmotically effective solute which exhibits an osmotic pressure gradient against water, the second compartment being interconnected with said first compartment to define a continuous helix therewith; and (3) a movable barrier member separating the first from the second compartment. The barrier member is slidably responsive to an increase in volume in the second compartment via absorption of water by osmosis therein; whereby as water flows into the compartment (2) of the dispenser in a tendency towards osmotic equilibrium with its environment, corresponding pressure is exerted behind the barrier (3) driving it into and diminishing the volume of the compartment (1), in turn
Tonicity is a measure of the osmotic pressure (as defined by the water potential of the two solutions) of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane. It is commonly used when describing the response of cells immersed in an external solution. Like osmotic pressure, tonicity is influenced only by solutes that cannot cross the membrane, as only these exert an osmotic pressure. Solutes able to freely cross the membrane do not affect tonicity because they will always be in equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane ...
An osmotic device is disclosed for delivering two beneficial drugs to an environment of use. The device comprises a wall surrounding a lumen divided into a first compartment containing a drug that is separated by a hydrogel partition from a second compartment containing a different drug. An orifice through the wall communicates with the first compartment for delivering drug formulation from the first compartment, and another orifice through the wall communicates with the second compartment for delivering drug formulation from the second compartment. In operation, drug formulation is dispensed separately from each compartment by fluid being imbibed through the wall into each compartment at a rate controlled by the permeability of the wall and the osmotic pressure gradient across the wall against the drug formulation in each compartment thereby producing in each compartment a solution containing drugs, and by the expansion and swelling of the hydrogel, whereby drug formulation is dispensed through their
Cordell E Logan. Aquagen™ may be one of the greatest discoveries since air. Since 1776, it is estimated that the oxygen in our atmosphere has declined about 11%. Oxygen is needed now more than ever before. Oxygen is a healer and a preventer of disease. Aquagen™ is a stabilized water-oxygen-salt mixture typically used by putting 10-15 drops in pure drinking water as a nutritional supplement.. A lack of oxygen has been assisted with almost all degenerative disease conditions. Lack of oxygen impairs nutrient transport by the red blood cells. Oxygen prevents build up of excess fluid around the cells. Excessive fluid causes oxygen to be pulled in from the blood stream as well as pulling blood proteins into this excess fluid (osmotic pressure gradient changes). This results in less oxygen in the blood and lymphatic congestion. Lack of oxygen contributes to pain. One final stage is when the cells, in a last ditch effort to survive, turns more or less into a "plant" cell. Plant cells don t use ...
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Date: Thu, 15 Jan 2004 15:58:37 -0500 From: -S ,-s at adelphia.net, Subject: re: Yeast Washing/Osmotic Pressure Travis Dahl asks, ,So for the microbiology geeks in the crowd: Not a biologist but ... , Can osmotic pressure differences harm yeast. Yes, obviously. Some basics [ref Microbial Water Stress Technology, A.D.Brown]. the concept of osmotic pressure in biological systems is confusing and at least a bit of that confusion begins with its calculation. First we need to consider Water Activity (Aw). Water activity is literally the mole fraction of water in a solution. A kilogram of water (a liter more or less) at a MW of 18 contains 55.51 moles. If we have a 1 molal solution of some non-electrolyte solute then the water activity is just: Aw = 55.51 / (55.51 + 1) = 0.9823 I can understand that this solution comes to equilibrium with air at 98.23% relative humidity. I have a little harder time understanding its exact meaning at the biological membrane level ... Ill leave that to a real ...
To study the effect of osmotic forces on bacteria, we apply osmotic shock to a variety of organisms and monitor the effect on cell growth and division.
To study the effect of osmotic forces on bacteria, we apply osmotic shock to a variety of organisms and monitor the effect on cell growth and division.
d) 27 atm. 21) 100 cc of 1.5% solution of urea is found to have an osmotic pressure of 6.0 atm and 100 cc of 3.42% solution of cane sugar is found to have an osmotic pressure of 2.4 atm. If the two solutions are mixed, the osmotic pressure of the resulting solution will be ...
One of the reasons (among others that are too lengthy to describe here) you are having problems with your proceedures is related to the disequalibrium in osmotic pressure between the solutions and the fluid trapped behind the yeast cell walls. This condition will cause the cell structures to rupture. The beer solution should be avoided due to the difficulty of adjusting for pressure and is unnecessary anyway as they need no nutrition or alcohol protection at these temperatures. The ASBC research I have read relating to cryogenic storage has utilized distilled water that is adjusted to match the osmotic pressure with saline. Now... how to determine how much to use is out of my league. If you are really into this concept, I can find out how this is done, but I think there is a cheaper, safer option. If you are only looking for 12 months of shelf life, simply transfer a single colony of yeast into a slant tube of media composed of agar and hopped wort and refrigerate it at about 35 deg. F. This is ...
When a solution of higher concentration and a solution of lower concentration are separated by a semi-permeable membrane, one through which solvent mo...
I got this answer correct, but Im not sure why C isnt also correct. Here is my reasoning for each option. A was wrong because if you increase the input...
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View, run, and discuss the Child of Osmotic Pressure model, written by Nathan Holbert. The Modeling Commons contains more than 2,000 other NetLogo models, contributed by modelers around the world.
Adrover, M. À.; Zi, Z.; Duch, A.; Schaber, J.; González-Novo, A.; Jimenez, J.; Nadal-Ribelles, M.; Clotet, J.; Klipp, E.; Posas, F.: Time-dependent quantitative multicomponent control of the G1-S network by the stress-activated protein kinase Hog1 upon osmostress. Science Signaling 4 (192), p. ra63 (2011 ...
Yeast cells are exposed to a wide variety of environment stresses, among them changes in the osmotic conditions. An osmolar upshift leads to fast loose of intracellular water, so living cells have developed mechanisms to ...
Making use of the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water and seawater is an attractive, renewable and clean way to generate power and is known as ...
... characterized. A total of 0.135g of this subunit was dissolved in enough water to produce 2.00 mL of solution. At 28 ∘C the osmotic pressure produced by the solution was 0.138 atm. What is the molar mass of the protein? ...
The hyperosmotic upregulation of AQP5 is induced by the stimulation of gene transcription. mRNA expression was determined with real-time RT-PCR analysis. A. I
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of plasma colloid osmotic pressure in neonatal foals under intensive care. T2 - Comparison of direct and indirect methods and the association of COP with selected clinical and clinicopathologic variables. AU - Magdesian, K G. AU - Fielding, C. Langdon. AU - Madigan, John E. PY - 2004/6. Y1 - 2004/6. N2 - Objectives: To describe and compare admission colloid osmotic pressure (COP) measurement using both direct and indirect methods in neonatal foals under intensive care, and to evaluate for associations between COP and clinical/clinicopathologic parameters. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Intensive care unit at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Animals: Twenty-six critically ill neonatal foals were studied. A control group consisted of 9 clinically healthy neonatal foals. Interventions: Clinicopathologic data were collected at the time of admission. COP was measured directly using a colloid osmometer. Indirect COP was calculated using equations by both ...
The regulation of glycine betaine accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The accumulation of glycine betaine was regulated by the osmotic pressure of the medium and the low affinity transport system played the major role in this regulation. Mutants were isolated that lack the low affinity, osmotically activated glycine betaine/proline transport system. Such mutants accumulated glycine betaine via the high affinity system but the glycine betaine pool was smaller and responded poorly to osmotic pressure changes. The regulation of glycine betaine transport has revealed that at the steady state net influx is reduced and that this is achieved by inhibition of both the low affinity and the high affinity transport systems. Cells pre-loaded with glycine betaine exhibited a reduced V max for both systems: the low affinity system was reduced in activity fivefold and the high affinity system was reduced 10-fold and became virtually undetectable. Although glycine betaine transport at the steady
The decision about which side of the membrane to call "high" osmotic pressure is a troublesome one. The choice made here is the opposite of that made in many biology texts, which attribute "high" osmotic pressure to the solution and zero osmotic pressure to pure water. The rationale for the choice is that the energy which drives the fluid transfer is the thermal energy of the water molecules, and that energy density is higher in the pure solvent since there are more water molecules. The thermal energy of the solute molecules does not contribute to transport, presuming that the membrane is impermeable to them. The choice is also influenced by the observed direction of fluid movement, since under this choice the fluid transport is from high "pressure" to low, congruent with normal fluid flow through pipes from high pressure to low. The final rationale has to do with the measurement of osmotic pressure by determining how much hydrostatic pressure on the solution is required to prevent the transport ...
Read "Effects of Purinergic Stimulation, CFTR and Osmotic Stress on Amiloride-sensitive Na+ Transport in Epithelia and Xenopus Oocytes, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
This project will evaluate fluid balance and oedema formation in children with the same congenital heart disease (Atrial Septal Defect) who will either go through heart surgery with the use of Cardio Pulmonary Bypass and hypothermia or through interventional catheterization. The investigators will measure interstitial colloid osmotic pressure, distribution of proteins and cytokines. The study hypothesis is that Oedema developed during heart surgery is caused by reduced colloid osmotic pressure gradient through the capillary membrane ...