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Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Brown DW, Cheung F, Proctor RH, Butchko RA, Zheng L, Lee Y, Utterback T, Smith S, Feldblyum T, Glenn AE, Plattner RD, Kendra DF, Town CD, Whitelaw CA ...
NARAVNE BARVE V PRAHU IN BARVE ZA MILA. NARAVNE BARVE V PRAHU IN BARVE ZA MILA. TRGOVINA. Rdeča pesa v prahu. Rdeča pesa je s svojo sestavo več kot odlična pri izdelavi balzamov za usta, kopeli, kopalnih bomb...
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Arbete och människovärde: Recension av Lena Erikssons avhandling - Arbete till varje pris. Arbetslinjen i 1920-talets arbetslöshetspolitik. Acta Universitatis Stockholmniensis, Stockholm Studies in History, nr 75, Stockholm 2004. ...
Draft Agenda (148.99 KB) Minutes (191.85 KB) Networks Risk assessment in animal health and welfare National Contact Points art. 20 false .... ...
Among the tasks of EFSA, according to its founding regulation (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002), there is the establishment of a system of Networks of organisations operating in the fields within EFSAs mission, the objective being to facilitate a scient .... ...
Eozinofilik gastroenterit gastrointestinal sistemin eozinofilik infiltrasyonu ile karakterize nadir bir hastal kt r. En s k tutulan organ midedir ve takiben ince barsak ve kolon tutulur. Ancak, eozinofilik gastroenteritte mesane tutulumu ok nadirdir. Literat rde u ana kadar yaln zca eozinofilik sistit ile ili kili eozinofilik gastroenterit tan s konulan 6 vaka yay nlanm t r. Periferal hipereozinofili, kar n a r s , diyare ve assit ile ba vuran bu vakalar n hipereozinofili yapan di er hastal klar d land ktan sonra steroid ile efektif olarak tedavi edildi i bildirilmi tir. ...
Braciale, T J., "Immunologic recognition of influenza virus-infected cells. II. Expression of influenza a matrix protein on the infected cell surface and its role in recognition by cross-reactive cytotoxic t cells." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1114 ...
Hemagglutinin (HA) is the receptor-binding and membrane fusion glycoprotein of influenza virus and the target for infectivity-neutralizing antibodies. The structures of three conformations of the ectodomain of the 1968 Hong Kong influenza virus HA have been determined by X-ray crystallography: the single-chain precursor, HA0; the metastable neutral-pH conformation found on virus, and the fusion pH-induced conformation. These structures provide a framework for designing and interpreting the results of experiments on the activity of HA in receptor binding, the generation of emerging and reemerging epidemics, and membrane fusion during viral entry. Structures of HA in complex with sialic acid receptor analogs, together with binding experiments, provide details of these low-affinity interactions in terms of the sialic acid substituents recognized and the HA residues involved in recognition. Neutralizing antibody-binding sites surround the receptor-binding pocket on the membrane-distal surface of HA, ...
Seroconversion for A/England/42/72 (H3N2) virus occurred in a child in Calcutta in August 1971, one month after the virus was first isolated in India. During the following 5 months a small increase was observed in the geometric mean titres (GMT). In
Influenza virus infection of the lungs causes a contagious acute respiratory disease that may result in severe complications such as pneumonia. Despite the acti...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Innate Immune Response to Influenza Virus at Single-Cell Resolution in Human Epithelial Cells Revealed Paracrine Induction of Interferon Lambda 1 ...
Description flu Influenza is an acute infectious disease of the respiratory system that is spread by droplet path. The cause of it is an RNA virus (family of orthomyxoviruses, genus Influenzavirus) that can be propagated and penetrating through the airway mucosa. The incubation period is 1-3 days.
Akupresura vam lahko pomaga, da hitro odpravite utrujene oči, rdeče oči ali suhe oči, ki so lahko posledica branje, gledanje v zaslon, neprespanosti etc.
Influenza atau flu adalah penyakit menular burung dan mamalia yang disebabkan oleh virus RNA dari famili Orthomyxoviridae yang menyerang saluran napas.Virus flu menyerang sel-sel permukaan saluran napas. Jaringan menjadi bengkak dan meradang.Namun,meskipun rusak jaringan ini akan sembuh dalam beberapa minggu. … Continue reading →. ...
Befolkningshistoriska materials underrapportering av kvinnors yrken är känd blandhistoriker men dess omfattning och natur har varit svår att klargöra. För att belysa dennaproblematik och diskutera dess orsaker undersöker studien hur kyrkböcker beskriverkvinnors arbete i Sundsvall 1870-1890 jämfört med andra källor. Även om resultatenförstärker det tvivel som forskare har rest över befolkningshistoriska materials dokumentationav kvinnors yrken, lämnar de viktig information om både kvinnors arbeteoch familj som måste analyseras närmare för att avgöra deras position i historien.. ...
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Koncentrirana emulzija, ki cilja na znake preobčutljivosti, nelagodja in razdraženosti. Serum odpravlja rdečico, srbečico in razdraženost, hkrati pa lajša žgoč občutek na koži. Formula je prijazna do integritete kože ter podpira vlaženje, kožno bariero ter splošno dermalno obnovo. AKTIVNE TEHNOLOGIJE Bioaktivni glukozi
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Antisera to the type-specific internal influenza virus matrix (M) protein of a type A influenza virus were produced in goats. In the presence of complement, anti-M serum was cytotoxic for target cells which were infected with a variety of serologically distinct type A influenza viruses, but did not react with type B influenza virus-infected cells. Absorption experiments indicated that anti-M serum detected a common antigen(s) on the surface of type A-infected cells. This serological cross-reactivity parallels the cross-reactivity observed for the cytotoxic T-cell response to type A viruses. ...
Influenza virus NS2 is well known for its role in vRNP (viral RNP) nuclear export; however, its function has not been fully understood. A recent study showed that NS2 might interact with HIST1H1C (H1C, H1.2). Histones have been found to affect influenza virus replication, such as the H2A, H2B, H3 and H4, but H1 has not been detected. Here, we found that H1C interacts with NS2 via its C-terminal in the nucleus and that H1C affects influenza virus replication. The H1N1 influenza virus replicates better in H1C knockout A549 cells compared to wild-type A549 cells, primarily because of the regulation of H1C on IFN-β. Further studies showed that the H1C phosphorylation mutant (T146A) decreases IFN-β, while H1C methylation mutants (K34A, K187A) increases IFN-β by releasing the nucleosome and promoting IRF3 binding to the IFN-β promoter. Interestingly, NS2 interacts with H1C, which reduces H1C-IRF3 interaction and results in the inhibition of IFN-β enhanced by H1C. In summary, our study reveals a novel
The presence of sulphate groups on various saccharide residues of N-linked carbohydrate units has now been observed in a number of glycoproteins. To explore the cell specificity of this post-translational modification, we evaluated sulphate incorporation into virus envelope glycoproteins by a variety of cells, since it is believed that assembly of their N-linked oligosaccharides is to a large extent dependent on the enzymic machinery of the host. Employing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) envelope glycoprotein (G protein) as a model, we noted that the addition of [35S]sulphate substituents into its complex carbohydrate units occurred in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), Madin-Darby bovine kidney, LLC-PK1 and BHK-21 cell lines but was not detectable in BRL 3A, BW5147.3, Chinese hamster ovary, HepG2, NRK-49F, IEC-18, PtK1 or 3T3 cells. The sulphate groups were exclusively located on C-3 of galactose [Gal(3-SO4)] and/or C-6 of N-acetylglucosamine [GlcNAc(6-SO4)] residues in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of action of the suppression of influenza virus replication by Ko-Ken Tang through inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway and viral RNP nuclear export. AU - Wu, Ming Sian. AU - Yen, Hung Rong. AU - Chang, Chia Wen. AU - Peng, Tsui Yi. AU - Hsieh, Chung Fan. AU - Chen, Chi Jene. AU - Lin, Tzou Yien. AU - Horng, Jim Tong. PY - 2011/4/12. Y1 - 2011/4/12. N2 - Aims of the study: Ko-Ken Tang (KKT, aka kakkon-to), a conventional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for the treatment of the common cold, fever and influenza virus infection. However, the underlying mechanism of its activity against influenza virus infection remains elusive. In this study, the antiviral effect and its underlying mechanism was evaluated, including the investigation of anti-influenza virus activity of KKT on MDCK cells and corresponding mechanism related to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and its consecutive viral RNP nuclear export. ...
10 things to remember about Orthomyxoviridae. 1. "Orthomyxo"means true mucous. a. Influenza is the Italian form of latin "influential" which means influence. 2. Similar to Paramyxoviridae. a. Similar envelope glycoproteins. b. For Orthomyxoviruses, HA functions as tropogen binding and fusion. Neuraminidase has an enzymatic function.. For Paramyxoviruses, HN functions as tropogen binding and enzymatic function. F serves the fusion function.. 3. 5 genera. a. Influenza A - most common in humans. b. Influenza B - can also infect humans. A and B are the principal pathogens that infect humans. c. Influenza C - not usually pathogenic in humans d. Thogotovirus - found in ticks but can be transmitted to humans. e. Isavirus - found in salmon and fish. Non-human. 4. Causes Influenza. a. Influenza or flu is known as a syndrome, and many other illnesses are described as "flu-like symptoms." Symptoms of influenza are rapid onset, high fever, respiratory symptoms, and generalized muscular aches (myalgias). ...
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Influenza virus NS1 protein stimulates translation of the M1 protein.: The influenza virus NS1 protein was shown to stimulate translation of the M1 protein. M-C
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The segmented genome of an influenza virus is encapsidated into ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). Unusually among RNA viruses, influenza viruses replicate in the nucleus of an infected cell, and their RNPs must therefore recruit host factors to ensure transport across a number of cellular compartments during the course of an infection. Recent studies have shed new light on many of these processes, including the regulation of nuclear export, genome packaging, mechanisms of virion assembly and viral entry and, in particular, the identification of Rab11 on recycling endosomes as a key mediator of RNP transport and genome assembly. This review uses these recent gains in understanding to describe in detail the journey of an influenza A virus RNP from its synthesis in the nucleus through to its entry into the nucleus of a new host cell.
The segmented genome of an influenza virus is encapsidated into ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). Unusually among RNA viruses, influenza viruses replicate in the nucleus of an infected cell, and their RNPs must therefore recruit host factors to ensure transport across a number of cellular compartments during the course of an infection. Recent studies have shed new light on many of these processes, including the regulation of nuclear export, genome packaging, mechanisms of virion assembly and viral entry and, in particular, the identification of Rab11 on recycling endosomes as a key mediator of RNP transport and genome assembly. This review uses these recent gains in understanding to describe in detail the journey of an influenza A virus RNP from its synthesis in the nucleus through to its entry into the nucleus of a new host cell.
Influenza viruses have been identified with NA molecules that serve as receptor binding proteins, a function usually reserved for the HA glycoprotein.
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(CIDRAP News) In an effort to overcome the difficult problem of predicting which influenza B strain will circulate in any given season, MedImmune has filed for US approval of a quadrivalent (four-strain) flu vaccine containing two influenza B strains.The idea of a quadrivalent flu vaccine has been discussed for several years, but MedImmunes application apparently is the first attempt to license such a vaccine in the United States.
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in Journal of virology (2016), 90(4), 2039-51. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their ... [more ▼]. Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their profit different pathways of glycan synthesis. Thus, the Bo17 gene of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 protein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M), which is a key player for the synthesis of complex O-glycans. Surprisingly, we show in this study that, as opposed to what is observed for the cellular enzyme, two different mRNAs are encoded by the Bo17 gene of all available BoHV-4 strains. While the first one corresponds to the entire coding sequence of the Bo17 gene, the ...
Zanamivir is used for the treatment and prevention of type A and type B influenza in adults and children. This eMedTV segment offers more detailed information on zanamivir uses, including how the medication works and how it is used in children.
Role of Influenza Virus Polymerase in Host Adaptation: We participate in the virology research team of the New York Influenza Center of Excellence (NYICE), which is part of the NIH Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) network. Our focus is on the influenza virus RNA polymerase, and understanding how it contributes to host adaptation. We characterize the polymerase activities of avian and human strains, and identify residues and subunits of the polymerase complex important for the enhanced activity in mammalian hosts in vitro and in vivo. URSMD Collaborators = David Topham, John Treanor, Steve Dewhurst, Baek Kim. ...
Once the (-) strand influenza viral RNAs enter the nucleus, they serve as templates for the synthesis of mRNAs. These molecules are then transported back to the cytoplasm, where they direct the synthesis of viral proteins. However, the mRNAs are not complete copies of the viral (-) strand RNAs - they are missing sequen
Description: Influenzavirus B Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the Influenzavirus B Infections (Oncology) pipeline landscape.
The latest research in preventing deaths from the flu and its connection to socks, and Storm, the most kick ass of all X-Men. Ok, so this is perhaps a fairly…... ...
The influenza virus, a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae (Greek myxa, means mucus), is one of the worlds most important and dangerous respiratory pathogens.