The ability to adhere onto surfaces is of very high importance for microorganisms, enabling them to stay in a favourable habitat for life. In the case of Bacteria cell surface organelles called fimbriae/pili have been shown to be used for adhesion; corresponding cell surface appendages of Archaea have not yet been defined. The first detailed characterization of archaeal fimbriae, namely those of Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus, allowed us to identify mth60 as the main structural fimbrin gene. Recombinant expression of mth60 in Escherichia coli was used to generate sufficient amounts of Mth60 to induce antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum reacted specifically with the 16 kDa fimbrial glycoprotein and could specifically detach adhering M. thermoautotrophicus cells from various surfaces. In addition we proved that cells adhering to solid surfaces - organic and inorganic ones - express many more fimbriae than cells growing in liquid cultures. The Mth60 fimbriae therefore are used by M. ...
Affinity-purified antibodies that recognize Thymidylate Synthase (TS), Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPD), and Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) that can be used for Western blot or immunohistochemistry
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystal structure of human ornithine decarboxylase at 2.1 Å resolution. T2 - Structural insights to antizyme binding. AU - Almrud, Jeffrey J.. AU - Oliveira, Marcos A.. AU - Kern, Andrew D.. AU - Grishin, Nick V.. AU - Phillips, Margaret A.. AU - Hackert, Marvin L.. PY - 2000/1/7. Y1 - 2000/1/7. N2 - The polyamines spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous and required for cell growth and differentiation in eukaryotes. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17) performs the first step in polyamine biosynthesis, the decarboxylation of omithine to putrescine. Elevated polyamine levels can lead to down-regulation of ODC activity by enhancing the translation of antizyme mRNA, resulting in subsequent binding of antizyme to ODC monomers which targets ODC for proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. The crystal structure of ornithine decarboxylase from human liver has been determined to 2.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement using truncated mouse ODC (Δ425-461) as the search model and ...
APPLIED ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY, VOL. 6, 229-239 (1992) The anti-neoplastic activity of ethylaminecarboxyborane and triphenylphosphinecarboxyborane in L- I 210 lymphoid leukemia cells Iris H Hall, E Stacy Hall, L K Chi,* M C Miller 111, Ken F Bastow, A Soodt and B F Spielvogelt *Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, NC 27599-7360, USA and tBoron Biologicals Inc., 533 Pylon Drive, PO Box 33489, Raleigh, NC 27636-3489, USA Studies on the mode of action of two boroncontaining anti-neoplastic agents, ethylaminecarboxyborane and triphenylphosphinecarboxyborane, are reported. The major site of inhibition was in the pyrimidine de AOUO synthetic pathway at orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase activity. Additional sites which may facilitate the inhibition of cell growth were IMP dehydrogenase, thymidine kinase, TMP kinase and TDP kinase, m-RNA, r-RNA and t-RNA polymerase activities as well as topoisomerase I1 activity. The reduction ...
Sofosbuvir plus Peginterferon/Ribavirin for 12 weeks vs. Sofosbuvir plus Ribavirin for 16 or 24 weeks in genotype 3 HCV infected patients and treatment-experienced cirrhotic patients with genotype 2 HCV: the BOSON ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differences in the allosteric properties of pure low and high phosphate forms of phosphofructokinase from rat liver.. AU - Sakakibara, R.. AU - Uyeda, K.. PY - 1983/7/25. Y1 - 1983/7/25. N2 - Low phosphate and high phosphate forms of phosphofructokinase (Furuya, E., and Uyeda, K. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 11656-11659) from rat liver were purified to homogeneity and various properties were compared. The specific activities of these enzymes and their electrophoretic mobilities on polyacrylamide in sodium dodecyl sulfate are the same. A limited tryptic digestion yields products with no change in the enzyme activity but with a reduction in the molecular weight of about 2000. Both low and high phosphate enzymes can be phosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and approximately twice as much [32P]phosphate is incorporated into the low phosphate than the high phosphate enzyme. A comparison of their allosteric kinetic properties reveal that the high ...
Lithium orotate, is a salt of orotic acid and lithium. It is available as the monohydrate, LiC5H3N2O4·H2O. In this compound, lithium is non-covalently bound to an orotate ion, rather than to a carbonate or other ion, and like other salts, dissociates in solution to produce free lithium ions. It is marketed as a dietary supplement, though only barely researched between 1973-1986 to treat certain medical conditions, such as alcoholism and Alzheimers disease. While lithium orotate is capable of providing lithium to the body, like lithium carbonate and other lithium salts, there are no systematic reviews supporting the efficacy of lithium orotate and it is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of any medical condition. In 1973, Nieper reported that lithium orotate contained 3.83 mg of elemental lithium per 100 mg and lithium carbonate contained 18.8 mg of elemental lithium per 100 mg Nieper went on to claim that lithium did not dissolve from the orotate ...
Get Details of Ammonium Phosphate Suppliers,Ammonium Phosphate Manufacturers,Ammonium Phosphate Exporters, Ammonium Phosphate Dealer, Ammonium Phosphate Producers, Ammonium Phosphate Traders, Ammonium Phosphate Wholesalers, Ammonium Phosphate Companies, in India
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Archaea human intestine prokaryote (Methanobrevibacter smithii). Methanobrevibacter smithii is the main human gut (intestine) archeon (from the Archaea domain) that is a methanotroph (methanogen). It recycles the hydrogen in methane and allows for an increase in energy extraction for nutrients. It plays a role in the digestion of polysaccharides (complex sugars) by consuming the end products of bacterial fermentation. The human gut flora consists of three main groups of hydrogen consuming microbes: methanogens; a polyphyletic group of acetogenic bacteria; and sulphate reducing bacteria. Magnification: x5,335 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/1307
On December 12, 2008, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration issued a warning to healthcare professionals titled, "Oral Sodium Phosphate (OSP) Products for Bowel Cleansing (marketed as Visicol and OsmoPrep, and oral sodium phosphate products available without a prescription).". Included below is a copy of the December warning …. The FDA has become aware of reports of acute phosphate nephropathy, a type of acute kidney injury, associated with the use of oral sodium phosphate products (OSP) for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy or other procedures. These products include the prescription products, Visicol and OsmoPrep, and OSPs available over-the-counter without a prescription as laxatives (e.g., Fleet Phospho-soda). In some cases when used for bowel cleansing, these serious adverse events have occurred in patients without identifiable factors that would put them at risk for developing acute kidney injury.. FDA is requiring the manufacturer of Visicol and OsmoPrep, the two OSPs available by ...
Mucor circinelloides is a human pathogen, biofuel producer, and model system that belongs to a basal fungal lineage; however, the genetics of this fungus are limited. In contrast to ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, basal fungal lineages have been understudied. This may be caused by a lack of attention given to these fungi, as well as limited tools for genetic analysis. Nonetheless, the importance of these fungi as pathogens and model systems has increased. M. circinelloides is one of a few genetically tractable organisms in the basal fungi, but it is far from a robust genetic system when compared to model fungi in the subkingdom dikarya. One problem is the organism is resistant to drugs utilized to select for dominant markers in other fungal transformation systems. Thus, we developed a blaster recyclable marker system by using the pyrG gene (encoding an orotidine-5-phosphate decarboxylase, ortholog of URA3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A 237-bp fragment downstream of the pyrG gene was tandemly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Inhibitors of S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase on Polyamine Content and Growth of L1210 Cells. AU - Pegg, Anthony. AU - Jones, Daniel B.. AU - Secrist, John A.. PY - 1988/3/1. Y1 - 1988/3/1. N2 - Analogues of S-adenosylmethionine that were designed as inhibitors of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase were tested for their abilities to inhibit the purified enzyme from rat prostate. The most potent inhibitors were 5′-deoxy-5′-[N-methyl-N-[2-(aminooxy)ethyl]amino]adenosine (MAOEA) and 5′-deoxy-5′-[N-methyl-N-(3-hydrazinopropyl)amino]adenosine (MHZPA), which had I50values of 400 nM and 70 nM, respectively, when added directly to the assay medium under standard conditions. These compounds were irreversible inactivators of the enzyme, and more than 95% of the activity was lost within 15 min of exposure to 5 μM MAOEA or 0.5 μM MHZPA. Both inhibitors led to a large reduction in the content of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine in LI210 cells and to a substantial ...
Polyamine-biosynthesis activity is known to be negatively regulated by intracellular polyamine pools. Accordingly, treatment of cultured L1210 cells with 10 microM-spermine rapidly and significantly lowered ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) activities in a sequential manner. By contrast, treatment for 48 h with 10 microM of the unsaturated spermine analogue 6-spermyne lowered AdoMetDC activity, but not ODC activity. An initial decrease in ODC activity at 2 h was attributed to a transient increase in free intracellular spermidine and spermine brought about through their displacement by the analogue. Thereafter, ODC activity recovered steadily to control values as 6-spermyne pools increased and spermidine and spermine pools decreased owing to analogue suppression of AdoMetDC activity. The apparent ability of 6-spermyne to regulate AdoMetDC, but not ODC, activity suggests an interesting structure-function correlation and demonstrates that the typical ...
Increased polyamine biosynthesis activity and an active polyamine transport system are characteristics of many cancer cell lines and polyamine depletion has been shown to be a viable anticancer strategy. Polyamine levels can be depleted by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of the key polyamine biosynthesis enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). However, malignant cells frequently circumvent DFMO therapy by up-regulating polyamine import. Therefore, there is a need to develop compounds that inhibit polyamine transport. Collectively, DFMO and a polyamine transport inhibitor (PTI) provide the basis for a combination therapy leading to effective intracellular polyamine depletion. We have previously shown that the pattern of uptake of a series of polyamine analogues in a Drosophila model epithelium shares many characteristics with mammalian cells, indicating a high degree of similarity between the mammalian and Drosophila polyamine transport systems. In this report, we focused on the utility of the
Conventional methods for detecting ornithine decarboxylase activity require an extended period of incubation. The tests generally involve the fermentation of glucose, which lowers the pH of the medium to the optimum hydrogen ion concentration for decarboxylase activity. Decarboxylation results in the formation of amines that will raise the pH. Positive reactions are usually obtained after 18 to 24 hours of incubation, but some strains require up to four days incubation. An overlay of mineral oil acts as a barrier to oxygen and prevents alkalinization of the surface of the medium. Fay and Barry modified the conventional decarboxylase medium by removing the glucose and decreasing the pH to 5.5.(7) A small volume of the broth is heavily inoculated and then overlayed with sterile mineral oil. With the Hardy Diagnostics Rapid Ornithine, results can be obtained after only two to five hours of incubation at 35 to 37ºC.. The test can be used to determine ornithine decarboxylase activity in the family ...
Uridine Monophosphate Disodium Salt Nootropic Uridine monophosphate, also known as 5′-uridylic acid, is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside uridine. UMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase uracil; hence, it is a ribonucleotide monophosphate. As a substituent or radical its name takes the form
TY - JOUR. T1 - Growth arrest- and polyamine-dependent expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase in human tumor cells. AU - Ignatenko, Natalia. AU - Gerner, Eugene W.. PY - 1996/4. Y1 - 1996/4. N2 - Polyamines are essential for optimal cell growth. The regulation of polyamine biosynthetic, but not catabolic, enzymes has been studied in detail. Because intracellular polyamine contents depend on both synthesis and catabolism, we studied the regulation of spermidine/spermine N1- acetyltransferase (N1SSAT), the first enzyme in polyamine catabolism. Steady-state RNA levels of N1SSAT increased 3-5 fold as human colon tumor- derived HCT116 cells traversed the log phase and entered the plateau phase. Depletion of cellular polyamines, using α-difluoromethylornithine, caused a decrease in the steady-state levels of both the 1.3-kb N1SSAT transcript and its 3.5-kb precursor, without affecting the stability of either RNA. N1SSAT enzyme activity was low in cells with normal polyamine contents ...
1. A patient with familial adult-onset hypophosphataemia, whose myopathy was closely related to the plasma phosphate concentration, was investigated by phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P n.m.r.) in vivo of the right flexor digitorum superficialis muscle.. 2. During hypophosphataemia induced by stopping oral phosphate a significant reduction in measured muscle strength occurred, but the ratios of the intramyocellular levels of phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) remained unchanged at rest. During exercise these levels changed, as did the intramyocellular pH, but they did not differ from the pattern previously recorded in normal subjects.. 3. In four adults with inherited infantile-onset hypophosphataemia (vitamin D-resistant rickets, VDRR) without myopathy, the n.m.r. measurements were normal at rest and during exercise.. 4. In one patient with inherited hyperphosphataemia (tumoral calcinosis) the resting PCr: Pi ratio was ...
Lithium Orotate: Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Lithium Orotate at PatientsLikeMe. 27 patients with fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes type 2, systemic lupus erythematosus, post-traumatic stress disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinsons disease, bipolar disorder, high blood pressure (hypertension), panic disorder, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), epilepsy, migraine, hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, bipolar II disorder, asthma, traumatic brain injury, social anxiety disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease or bipolar I disorder currently take Lithium Orotate.
The sodium/phosphate cotransporter is a member of the phosphate:Na+ symporter (PNaS) family within the TOG Superfamily of transport proteins as specified in the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB). Sodium/phosphate cotransporters are also known as: Na+-Pi cotransport proteins (aPi-2a) Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters Phosphate:Na+ symporters The Phosphate:Na+ Symporter (PNaS) family (TC# 2.A.58) includes several closely related, functionally characterized, sodium-dependent, inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporter (NPT) proteins from mammals. Other organisms that possess PNaS family members include many in eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal phyla. Bacterial sodium:phosphate symporters, NptA of Vibrio cholerae (TC#2.A.58.1.2) and YjbB of E. coli (TC# 2.A.58.2.1) have been functionally characterized. The well-characterized mammalian proteins are found in renal (IIa isoform) and intestinal (IIb isoform) brush border membranes and are about 640 amino acyl residues long with 8-12 putative ...
Orotic Acid and/or Orotidine may be elevated secondary to hyperammonemia. Increased excretion of Orotic Acid is seen in Ornithine Transcarbamylase (OTC) Deficiency as well as Hereditary Orotic Aciduria ...
Different environmental samples reveal that methanogenic Archaea are part of a multi-species biofilm on corroding metallic structures. Studies on microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) focus mainly on sulphate reducing Bacteria (SRB), leading to the assumption that they are exclusively responsible for metal corrosion. In fact, methanogenic Archaea are known to be involved in metal corrosion as well (e.g. Methanococcus maripaludis DSM 2067). In some cases SRB and methanogenic Archaea have comparable high corrosion rates. However, the underlying mechanisms causing corrosion are still unknown. The goal of this study is to develop suitable methods for analyzing two environmental isolates (M. maripaludis DSM 2067, M. maripaludis KA1) and two human-related isolates (Methanobrevibacter oralis and Methanobrevibacter smithii) for their ability to deteriorate/transform metals, which are relevant for technical and clinical applications. Moreover, the studies will provide essential information on the interaction
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gyrate Atrophy of Choroid and Retina. T2 - Deficient Activity of Ornithine Ketoacid Aminotransferase in Cultured Skin Fibroblasts. AU - Kennaway, Nancy G.. AU - Weleber, Richard G.. AU - Buist, Neil R.M.. PY - 1977/11/24. Y1 - 1977/11/24. N2 - To the Editor: Takki,1 in 1974, described a 10-fold elevation of plasma ornithine levels in patients with a rare autosomal recessive disorder, gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. She also suggested that the deficient activity was probably ornithine ketoacid aminotransferase. This deficiency has recently been described in fibroblasts in an abstract by Sengers et al.,2 but no quantitative data were reported. Berson, Schmidt and Rabin3 have suggested the possibility of a deficiency of other enzymes, such as ornithine decarboxylase. We have studied two patients with typical gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. Their plasma ornithine levels were. No extract is available for articles shorter than 400 words.. AB - To the Editor: Takki,1 ...
The other disorders involve defects in the pyrimidine degradative pathway. Deficiency of pyrimidine-5′-nucleotidase causes hemolytic anemia, possibly due to accumulation in erythrocytes of pyrimidine nucleotides, mostly uridine triphosphate (UTP) and cytidine triphosphate (CTP). The disorder is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner, and there is no specific treatment available. Pyrimidine 5′-nucleotidase superactivity has been described in four unrelated patients with developmental delay and neurologic abnormalities. The patients were treated with uridine with good effect. Deficiency of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase causes an increase in blood and urine levels of uracil and thymine. This deficiency is detected in a variety of clinical situations including pediatric metabolic screens for neurologic and other problems and adverse reactions to 5-fluorouracil, and is also found in asymptomatic relatives of detected patients. The enzyme deficiency is transmitted in an autosomal recessive ...
Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir have a medium to high potential for interactions with antiretrovirals. Sofosbuvir is a substrate of the important drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), though it is not a substrate for the critical CYP or UGT-1A1 antiretroviral-metabolizing enzymes. The sofosbuvir metabolite GS-331007 is not a substrate of P-gp, BCRP, or other transporters. Velpatasvir is a substrate of P-gp, BCRP, organic anion transport polypeptide (OATP)-1B, and the important metabolizing enzymes CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C8. Velpatasvir inhibits P-gp, BCRP, and OATP1B ...
However, many of the miscarriages occurring in this period are not related to sexual intercourse, but happen as a result of genetic deformations in the baby growing the womb. Major complications, such as pneumonia and meningitis, are more likely to occur in patients with a compromised immune system, i.e., patients with HIV/AIDS or patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. All of the nutrients the fetus receives come directly from the mothers blood. It gets easier every time. But a minor group, the Rh Negative lacks these proteins. Retrieved June 17, 2016. Chlamydia can cause permanent damage to a females reproductive system, making it difficult or impossible to get pregnant.. The mummification process usually makes bacterial and viral analysis, biopsy, and chromosome analysis a futile exercise.25 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from mummified fetuses revealed that two of ten were carriers (heterozygous) of the autosomal-recessive gene for deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase ...
The role of polyamines in macromolecular synthesis has been studied using the synthesis of Semliki-Forest virus (SF virus) in normal and alpha-difluoromethylornithine-treated baby-hamster kidney (BHK21) cells as a model system. The activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis, decreased rapidly in mock- and SF-virus-infected cells, indicating that virus production in BHK21 cells was not dependent on polyamines formed after infection. A prolonged treatment of BHK21 cells with alpha-difluoro-methylornithine, a specific inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, resulted in a marked inhibition of the initial rate of virus production, which appeared 72 h after the beginning of the treatment. This inhibition was reversed by putrescine, spermidine and spermine, and at last partially by several other diamines and polyamine homologues. Polyamine-depletion also markedly reduced viral RNA polymerase activity in SF-virus infected ...
Sofosbuvir is a nucleotide analog used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Sofosbuvir is used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4, in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, or with ribavirin alone. It is also used in combination with the viral NS5a inhibitor ledipasvir in an interferon-free combination for the treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C infection. Sofosbuvir is also used in HCV patients with an HIV coinfection. The treatment is based on a number of clinical trials, for example the ELECTRON trial which showed that a dual interferon-free regimen of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin produced a 24-week post-treatment sustained virological response (SVR24) rate of 100% for previously untreated patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 ...
Methane, the major component of natural gas, has been in use in human civilization since ancient times as a source of fuel and light. Methanogens are responsible for synthesis of most of the methane f
Dore GJ, Lawitz E, Hézode C, et al. Daclatasvir combined with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 12 or 16 weeks in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3 infection: COMMAND GT 2/3 study (Abstract 1418). Paper presented at: 48th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver; 2013 April 24-28; Amsterdam, the Netherlands.. Gane EJ, Stedman CA, Hyland RH, et al. Nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for hepatitis C. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 3;368(1):34-44. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1208953.. Jacobson IM, Gordon SC, Kowdley KV, et al. Sofosbuvir for hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 in patients without treatment options. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 23. Available from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1214854. (Accessed 2013 May 3). Lawitz E, Mangia A, Wyles D, et al. Sofosbuvir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C infection. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 23. Available from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1214853. (Accessed 2013 May ...
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is the fourth enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway which has been extensively studied in trypanosomatids using a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural studies. DHODH catalyzes the oxidation of L-dihydroorotate to orotate, a redox reaction, the only one to do so in the pathway. DHODH in trypanosomatids has emerged as a crucial enzyme of the pyrimidine pathway, as the null mutants of TcDHODH and knockdown strains of TbDHODH displayed retarded growth phenotypes, confirming the crucial presence of DHODH in the pathway. However, the DHODH null background in T. cruzi could not be rescued by the supplementation of uridine, cytidine and thymidine. The non-reversal of the functional loss of DHODH by the pyrimidine supplemention was attributed to additional fumarate reductase activity of TcDHODH, which maintains the redox balance of the parasite [30]. TcDHODH was presumed to be a fumarate reductase owing to its close resemblance with S. ...
This study consists of 2 parts, Part A and Part B. Part A, the Phase 1 drug interaction/early viral kinetic study, will evaluate the effect of selected antiretroviral therapies on the safety, viral kinetics, and pharmacokinetics of sofosbuvir (GS-7977; PSI-7977) and its metabolites in participants with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. Part B, the Phase 2 treatment study, will investigate the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir, pegylated interferon alpha (PEG) and ribavirin (RBV) in participants with HIV/HCV coinfection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Daclatasvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. AU - Temesgen, Zelalem. AU - Rizza, Stacey. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Daclatasvir is a nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) replication complex inhibitor that has shown potent in vitro activity against multiple hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GT). It is currently in advanced clinical development as a component of combination treatment regimens in a variety of HCV-infected patient populations. In studies conducted thus far, it has been generally well tolerated. It has been approved for the treatment of HCV GTs 1-4 in the European Union. The combination of daclatasvir and asunaprevir (an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor) has been approved in Japan for the treatment of patients with GT1 HCV infection. Here we review the available literature on daclatasvir, including its information on its discovery, mechanism of action, pharmacology, preclinical and clinical activity, resistance and safety.. AB - Daclatasvir ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comprehensive X-ray structural studies of the quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase (BNA6) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Di Luccio, Eric. AU - Wilson, David K.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QAPRTase, EC 2.4.2.19) is a 32 kDa enzyme encoded by the BNA6 gene in yeast and catalyzes the formation of nicotinate mononucleotide from quinolinate and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). QAPRTase plays a key role in the tryptophan degradation pathway via kynurenine, leading to the de novo biosynthesis of NAD+ and clearing the neurotoxin quinolinate. To improve our understanding of the specificity of the eukaryotic enzyme and the course of events associated with catalysis, we have determined the crystal structures of the apo and singly bound forms with the substrates quinolinate and PRPP. This reveals that the enzyme folds in a manner similar to that of various prokaryotic forms which are ∼30% identical in sequence. In addition, ...
Well-tolerated, ribavirin-free, pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments for transplant recipients remain a high priority. Once-daily glecaprevir/pibrentasvir demonstrates high rates of sustained virologic response at 12 weeks posttreatment (SVR12) across all major HCV genotypes (GTs). This trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir for patients with chronic HCV GT1-6 infection who had received a liver or kidney transplant. MAGELLAN-2 was a phase 3, open-label trial conducted in patients who were ≥3 months posttransplant. Patients without cirrhosis who were HCV treatment-naive (GT1-6) or treatment-experienced (GT1, 2, 4-6; with interferon-based therapy with or without sofosbuvir, or sofosbuvir plus ribavirin) received glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (300/120 mg) once daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint compared the percentage of patients receiving glecaprevir/pibrentasvir with SVR12 to a historic SVR12 rate based on the standard of care. Safety of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We have developed cermet membranes that nongalvanically separate hydrogen from gas mixtures. The highest measured hydrogen flux was 20.0 cm{sup 3} (STP)/min-cm{sup 2} for an ANL-3a membrane at 900 C. For ANL-3 membranes with thickness of 40-500 {micro}m, hydrogen permeation is limited by the bulk diffusion of hydrogen through the metal phase. The effect of hydrogen partial pressure on permeation rate confirmed this conclusion, suggesting that higher permeation rates may be obtained by decreasing the membrane thickness. Permeation rate in a syngas atmosphere for times up to 190 h showed no degradation in performance, which indicates that ANL-3 membranes may be suitable for long-term, practical hydrogen separation.
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its orally administered prodrug, capecitabine, are fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapeutic agents that are widely used for the treatment of colorectal cancer and other solid tumors.. The dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for fluoropyrimidine catabolism and eliminates over 80% of administered 5-FU. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) activity is subject to wide variability, mainly due to genetic variation. This results in a broad range of enzymatic deficiency from partial (3%-5% of population) to complete loss (0.2% of population) of enzyme activity.(2,3) Patients who are deficient in DPYD are at an increased risk for side effects and toxicity when undergoing 5-FU treatment.(4) In addition, pathogenic homozygous or compound heterozygous variants within DPYD are associated with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency. DPD deficiency shows large phenotypic variability, ranging from no symptoms to a convulsive disorder ...
Oxaloacetate decarboxylase is a carboxy-lyase involved in the conversion of oxaloacetate into pyruvate. It is categorized under EC 4.1.1.3. In some bacteria this enzyme is a trimer, composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The beta and gamma subunits are integral membrane proteins. Pyruvate carboxylase Bott M, Pfister K, Burda P, Kalbermatter O, Woehlke G, Dimroth P (December 1997). "Methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase from Propionigenium modestum--cloning and sequencing of the structural genes and purification of the enzyme complex". Eur. J. Biochem. 250 (2): 590-9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997.0590a.x. PMID 9428714. Laussermair E, Schwarz E, Oesterhelt D, Reinke H, Beyreuther K, Dimroth P (1989). "The sodium ion translocating oxaloacetate decarboxylase of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sequence of the integral membrane-bound subunits beta and gamma". J Biol Chem. 264 (25): 14710-5. PMID 2549031. Schmid M, Wild MR, Dahinden P, Dimroth P (2002). "Subunit gamma of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na(+) ...
Efficiency of feed utilisation is a key economically relevant trait to the beef cattle industry worldwide given that feed typically accounts for the greatest single input cost [24]. Improved feed efficiency is not only linked to increased profitability, but also reduces the environmental burden, with efficient animals producing less nutrient excretion [25] and reduced CH4 emissions [5, 6]. As CH4 is a terminal product of methanogen mediated feed fermentation, recent research has focused on characterising the methanogen population in animals selected for divergent feed efficiency. Studies [17, 26, 27] have identified both a diet effect and a correlation between host feed efficiency and rumen microbial composition. Methanobrevibacter spp. and Methanosphaera sp. are consistently identified as dominant methanogenic archaea in the rumen irrespective of geographical location or dietary feeding regime [17, 27-31]. Rumen methanogens were previously characterised by our group [9] in cattle divergent for ...
To verify the assumption of a specific and potent drug action on de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, isolated dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHO-DH) (EC 1.3.3.1) was exposed to Brequinar Sodium (6-fluoro-2-(2-fluoro-1,1-biphenyl-4-yl)-3-methyl-4-quinoline carboxylic acid sodium salt, NSC 368 390) (Brequinar). The membrane-bound DHO-DH was purified to apparent homogeneity (25,000-fold) from rat liver mitochondria in six steps via detergent extraction and subsequent chromatography using the dye ligand Matrex Gel Orange A. Using molecular mechanistic studies (MM2) this ligand was found to mimic closely the stereochemical conformation of Brequinar. SDS-PAGE revealed two protein bands for the purified enzyme with apparent molecular masses of 58 (major) and 68 kDa (minor). In vitro, two modes of action of the DHO-DH are possible: (i) acting as a dehydrogenase in the presence of ubiquinone as proximal electron acceptor and (ii) direct reaction with oxygen as oxidase. A novel assay for the measurement of the
The anaerobic formation and oxidation of methane involve unique enzymatic mechanisms and cofactors, all of which are believed to be specific for C1-compounds. Here we show that an anaerobic thermophilic enrichment culture composed of dense consortia of archaea and bacteria apparently uses partly similar pathways to oxidize the C4 hydrocarbon butane. The archaea, proposed genus Candidatus Syntrophoarchaeum, show the characteristic autofluorescence of methanogens, and contain highly expressed genes encoding enzymes similar to methyl-coenzyme M reductase. We detect butyl-coenzyme M, indicating archaeal butane activation analogous to the first step in anaerobic methane oxidation. In addition, Ca . Syntrophoarchaeum expresses the genes encoding β-oxidation enzymes, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and reversible C1 methanogenesis enzymes. This allows for the complete oxidation of butane. Reducing equivalents are seemingly channelled to HotSeep-1, a thermophilic sulfate-reducing partner bacterium ...
Looking for online definition of 6-Azauridine or what 6-Azauridine stands for? 6-Azauridine is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Infectious Diseases, AIDS and Clinical Immunology Research Center 1Infectious Diseases, AIDS and Clinical Immunology Research Center, Tbilisi, Georgia; 2Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia; 3Hepatology Clinic Hepa, Tbilisi, Georgia; 4NeoLab, Tbilisi, Georgia; 5Mrcheveli, Tbilisi, Georgia; 6CDC Foundation, Tbilisi, Georgia; 7Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 8National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, Georgia; 9Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia; 10 Goethe University Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany; 11 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA; 12Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA ...
0102]In the silicon nitride film used as a inorganic insulating layer of the present invention, a silicon nitride film which satisfies the parameter shown in FIG. 4 is desirable. That is, as the inorganic insulating layer, it is desirable to satisfy any of (1) using a silicon nitride film having an etching rate of 9 nm/min or less (preferably, 0.5 to 3.5 nm/min or less), (2) having a hydrogen concentration of 1×1021 atoms/cm-3 or less (preferably, 5×102 atoms/cm-3 or less), (3) having a hydrogen concentration of 1×1021 atoms/cm-3 or less (preferably, 5×1020 atoms/cm-3 or less), and an oxygen concentration of 5×1018 to 5×1021 atoms/cm-3 or less (preferably, 1×1019 to 1×1021 atoms/cm-3 or less), (4) having an etching rate of 9 nm/min or less (preferably, 0.5 to 3.5 nm/min or less), and a hydrogen concentration of 1×1021 atoms/cm-3 or less (preferably, 5×1020 atoms/cm-3 or less), and (5) having an etching rate of 9 nm/min or less (preferably, 0.5 to 3.5 nm/min or less), a hydrogen ...
Read "Putrescine promotes changes in the endogenous polyamine levels and proteomic profiles to regulate organogenesis in Cedrela fissilis Vellozo (Meliaceae), Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
With the objective of destruction of organic toxic or recalcitrant compounds by a microbial anaerobic mixed population, a new concept has been devised : the Destox concept. It has been applied here to the destruction of a toxic mixture of about 30 polychlorinated aliphatic compounds (PAC-MIX 1), including 51% of hexachloro-1,3-butadiene. The basic step for initiating the degradation is thought to be reductive dechlorination by microbial interspecies hydrogen transfer in a system using at all times a non-toxic co-substrate as major source of carbon and energy. In an upflow laboratory-scale reactor with a fixed-film stationary-bed, fed with a co-substrate, amounts of 48 mg/litre working volume per day of PAC-MIX 1 have been added during intermittent periods of time. This paper presents, over a period of 421 days, the evolution from a situation of complete inhibition of all microbial activity, from fermentative to methanogenic, into a situation of partial acclimatization, the fermentative and ...
Edema & Jaundice & Sloping Shoulders Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase Deficiency. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
The protein encoded by this gene is a uridine kinase. Uridine kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of uridine to uridine monophosphate. This protein has been shown to bind to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3 as well as natural killer lytic-associated molecule. Ubiquitination of this protein is enhanced by the presence of natural killer lytic-associated molecule. In addition, protein levels decrease in the presence of natural killer lytic-associated molecule, suggesting that association with natural killer lytic-associated molecule results in ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of this protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014] ...
I thought it was because it was sex influenced, not sex linked, that men were more likely to have pattern baldness.... a heterozygous male for pattern baldness is affected, whereas a heterozygous female for pattern baldness is not. If thats the case, then youd have a dihybrid cross with the women homozygous recessive for baldness and heterozygous for colorblindness... the male would be homozygous dominant for baldness and hemizygous recessive for colorblindness. Im just in my first genetics class so this may be completely wrong.... its also almost 2am and Im quite tired... but I tried ...