Introduction: Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a global health problem and responsible for many deaths worldwide every year. It acts by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causing cholinergic crises that lead to muscarinic, nicotinic and central manifestations. One of the most serious complications of organophosphate exposure is cardiac toxicity including electrocardiogram changes.This study aimed to evaluate corrected QT interval as predictor of major outcome events which included mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, number of atropine and toxogonine ampoules and duration of hospital stay in acute organophosphate toxicity. Methods: The study recruited 98 patients suffering from acute OP poisoning, who were admitted to Tanta University Poison Control Unit. QTc interval length and the different outcomes of the patients were recorded. Results: Fifty five patients (56.1 %) showed a prolonged QTc interval. Significant statistical association was recorded between QTc interval and delay time,
An estimated 2-3 million people are acutely poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides each year, mostly in the developing world. There is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes and clonidine has been shown to be effective in animal studies. Our aim was to determine the safety of clonidine given as an antidote in adult patients presenting with signs or symptoms of acute organophosphate ingestion. This study was a dose finding, open-label, multicentre, phase II trial. Forty eight patients with acute organophosphate poisoning were randomized to receive either clonidine or placebo: Four to receive placebo and twelve to receive clonidine at each dose level. The first dose level was an initial loading dose of 0.15 mg followed by an infusion of 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. The initial loading dose was increased to 0.3 mg, 0.45 and 0.6 mg. at all dosing levels however the subsequent infusion remained at 0.5 mg of clonidine over 24 hours. The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. The
Acute poisonings with organophosphate pesticides occur often. The acute phase is characterised by muscarinergic (miosis, bradycardia, hypotension, dyspnoea, cyanosis, salivation, vomiting, and diarrhoea) and nicotinergic symptoms (fasciculations, cramps, paralysis) as well as multiple central nervous manifestations (headache, anxiety, generalised weakness, confusion, convulsion, and coma) caused by an irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In some patients the acute cholinergic crisis is followed by an intermediate syndrome characterised by weakness of proximal limb muscle, neck flexors, and respiratory muscles and paralysis of motor cranial nerves due to a neuromuscular junctional defect. A delayed polyneuropathy manifested as distal motor polyneuropathy may appear 2 to 3 weeks after poisoning.1 In addition, a limited number of case studies are available describing extrapyramidal manifestations after acute organophosphate poisoning such as dystonia,1 2 rest tremor,2cog wheel ...
Background:Cardiovascular effects of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning are common. This study was aimed to assess the cardiovascular effects of OP poisoned patients in Nepal. Methods:This was a prospective hospital-based cross-sectional study of 115 acute OP poisoned patients presenting in emergency department of a tertiary care teaching hospital of central Nepal during November 2008 to October 2011. Cardiovascular manifestations were assessed by physical examination and electrocardiogram (ECG). All data including demographic features, clinical findings and outcomes were entered into a pre-structured proforma. Results:A total of 115 OP poisoned patients were studied. Mean age of the patients was 29.8±13.9 years. Fifty-seven patients (49.6%) developed cardiac effects that all had sinus tachycardia. Sinus bradycardia was observed in 3 patients (2.61%). Hypertension was detected in 23 patients (20%) and pulmonary edema developed in 24 patients (20.9%). The most common ECG abnormalities recorded were
Certain insecticides contain organophosphates that absorb easily into the body and disrupt nerve and muscle tissue. In this case, prevention is the best treatment by limiting your cats exposure to insecticides.
Certain insecticides contain organophosphates that absorb easily into the body and disrupt nerve and muscle tissue. In this case, prevention is the best treatment by limiting your cats exposure to insecticides.
BenzodiazepinesThese agents potentiate effects of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) and facilitate inhibitory GABA neurotransmission.Diazepam (Valium, Diastat, Diazemuls)For treatment of seizures. Depresses ... more
Acute neurotoxic effects during the cholinergic phase of organophosphorus insecticide poisoning and delayed neurotoxic effects appearing two to three weeks later are well recognized. We observed 10 patients who had paralysis of proximal limb muscles,
Organophosphate compounds are commonly used as insecticides in rural areas and powerful warfare agents by military personnel. These agents inhibit cho..
Organophosphate poisoning in children - How can organophosphate poisoning be treated? Decontaminate. Atropine injection as soon as possible. Followed by supportive care. Person might need ventilator support for breathing until effects of OP provisioning wears off.
Cole TB, Jansen K, Park S, Li W-F, Furlong CE, Costa LG. The toxicity of mixtures of specific organophosphate compounds is modulated by paraoxonase 1 status. In: Reddy ST, ed. Paraoxonases in Inflammation, Infection, and Toxicology, Volume 660 of Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Humana Press, 2010, Chapter 6, pp. 47-60 ...
Economic agricultural production requires the use of insecticides. The organophosphate esters have their established position within the available insecticides. Moreover, in practical veterinary medic
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Dr. Walsh responded: Inhibits AChE. Organophosphates inhibit acetocholinesterase, which is responsible for recycling actetocholine. This leads to muscle overstimulation and rigid |a href="/topics/paralysis" track_data="{
04 August 1998 More human guinea-pigs for OP tests MORE human guinea-pigs have been signed up in Scotland to take doses of an organophosphate (OP) insectic
Profenofos resistance was found in field strains of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) collected at late season of 2013 from four Governorates in Egypt. Resistance was high in regions where profenofos were frequently used. Resistance ranged between 31.31 and 59.60% in the tested strains. Profenofos resistance was the highest in the individuals collected from Gharbia Governorate as compared with the other field strains; whereas the lowest resistance percentage was noticed in individuals collected from Kafrel-Sheikh Governorate. Studies carried out through estimation of the detoxification enzymes activity indicated that enhanced acetylcholinesterase, alkaline & acid phosphatases and α & β nonspecific esterases as well as total protein contents were probably important mechanisms for profenofos resistance in field strains. Colorimetric assays showed a significant positive correlation between increased resistance to profenofos in strains of P. gossypiella examined and the hydrolytic
What is the difference between Myasthenic Crisis and Cholinergic Crisis? Myasthenic crisis and cholinergic crisis are two medical crises that can occur in a...
Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus. They are used primarily in pest control as an alternative to chlorinated hydrocarbons that persist in the environment. These compounds are highly effective insecticides, though some are also lethal to humans at minuscule doses (nerve gas) and include some of the most toxic substances ever created by man, including sarin and VX nerve agents. Organophosphorus chemistry is the corresponding science of the properties and reactivity of organophosphorus compounds. Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is in group 15 of the periodic table, and thus phosphorus compounds and nitrogen compounds have many similar properties. The definition of organophosphorus compounds is variable, which can lead to confusion. In industrial and environmental chemistry, an organophosphorus compound need contain only an organic substituent, but need not have a direct phosphorus-carbon (P-C) bond.[citation needed] Thus a large proportion of pesticides (e.g., ...
A recent study published in Environmental Research has found that pre-birth exposure to organophosphate pesticides and persistent organic pollutants may be linked to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, particularly in girls. Researchers sampled the urine of 268 mothers early in their pregnancies to test for DAP levels - levels of metabolites produced when the body breaks down organophosphate pesticides. Cord blood was also sampled after their babies were born to test for the presence of pollutants, insulin and adiponectin-proteins produced by the human body to aid in the breakdown of glucose. Analysis suggested that higher levels of DAP metabolites in a mothers urine during early pregnancy is associated with higher insulin levels in babies. These results provide a link between early prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides via the mother and observable changes at birth that may alter how the body breaks down sugars, potentially contributing to obesity later in ...
A study of farm worker families in California has shown that by age 3.5, children born to mothers exposed to OP insecticides have lessened attention spans and are more vulnerable to attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Male children were more likely to be impacted.. Source: Marks, A.R., et al., "Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Attention in Young Mexican-American Children: The CHAMACOS Study," Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 118, No. 12, December 2010. ...
DELAYED EFFECTS: Intermediate syndrome is characterized by paralysis of respiratory, cranial motor, neck flexor, and proximal limb muscles 1 to 4 days after apparent recovery from cholinergic toxicity, and prior to the development of delayed peripheral neuropathy. Manifestations can include the inability to lift the neck or sit up, ophthalmoparesis, slow eye movements, facial weakness, difficulty swallowing, limb weakness (primarily proximal), areflexia, and respiratory paralysis. Recovery begins 5 to 15 days after onset. Distal sensory-motor polyneuropathy may rarely develop 6 to 21 days following exposure to some organophosphate compounds, however, it has not yet been reported in humans after exposure to phosfolan. Characterized by burning or tingling followed by weakness beginning in the legs which then spreads proximally. In severe cases, it may result in spasticity or flaccidity. Recovery requires months and may not be complete ...
DELAYED EFFECTS: Intermediate syndrome is characterized by paralysis of respiratory, cranial motor, neck flexor, and proximal limb muscles 1 to 4 days after apparent recovery from cholinergic toxicity, and prior to the development of delayed peripheral neuropathy. Manifestations can include the inability to lift the neck or sit up, ophthalmoparesis, slow eye movements, facial weakness, difficulty swallowing, limb weakness (primarily proximal), areflexia, and respiratory paralysis. Recovery begins 5 to 15 days after onset. Distal sensory-motor polyneuropathy may rarely develop 6 to 21 days following exposure to some organophosphate compounds, however, it has not yet been reported in humans after exposure to triazofos. Characterized by burning or tingling followed by weakness beginning in the legs which then spreads proximally. In severe cases, it may result in spasticity or flaccidity. Recovery requires months and may not be complete ...
... Summary Global Markets Directs, Organophosphate And Carbamate Poisoning - - Market research report and industry analysis - 9384452
Sheela , S and Vasantharajan , VN (1978) Acetylcholine Utilization by Organophosphorus Pesticide Metabolizing Microorganisms. In: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 16 (4). 478-480 . Full text not available from this repository ...
Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are widely used for controlling pests and insects for better crop production in many countries. They have become
The adverse effects are discussed with special reference to dichlorvos. Those of other organophosphates will be very similar. The margin of safety is very narrow. The drugs are safe to approximately 2-times the recommended dose. Signs of toxicity are typical of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and include evidence of excessive acetylcholine at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Early signs include salivation, lacrimation, urination, dyspnea, and defecation which have the mnemonic of SLUDD. Treatment is with atropine and pralidoxime. Formulations of the organophosphate compounds are very specific for the target species, especially in flea collars and in the resins intended for oral administration. For more information on why a resin formulation intended for one species might be toxic or ineffective when given to another species consult Roberson (JBM5th 830-831). A summary of the Roberson material follows. Dichlorvos is formulated in resins to make a slow release dose form. Variations in geometry, ...
Summary: Global Organophosphate Pesticides Market is poised to reach $8.49 billion by 2021 - 175 pages report by Market Data Forecast The Global Organopho
Organophosphate poisoning results from poultry exposure to organophosphates (OPs). Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds are used throughout the world as insecticides, herbicides, nematocides, acaricides, fungicides, rodenticides, avicides, and bird repellants. OPs induce poisoning in mammals and avian species by irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity at the nerve terminals and neuromuscular junctions causing accumulation of acetylcholine. The acute (24 h) oral
TY - CONF. T1 - Modelling of Reactive Extraction of Lactic Acid with Organophosphorus Compounds. AU - Lux, Susanne. AU - Siebenhofer, Matthäus. PY - 2012/6/20. Y1 - 2012/6/20. M3 - (Old data) Lecture or Presentation. ER - ...
Click to enlarge. The water had 0.3% salt from the beginning of the nitrification test. This level of salt was not enough to prevent the epistylis from forming with this high level of nitrite.. According to the literature Flexibacter columnaris is typically the primary infection. It takes nourishment from nitrous acid (from the nitrites) to reproduce. The secondary attack is by the ciliated protozoan epistylis. This can then develop into a 3rd attack by Aeromonas eventually resulting in the death of the Koi. Many believe that epistylis can lead to hole in the side disease.. The Epistylis is reported to be sensitive to higher concentrations of salt 3.0%, 25 ppm of formaldehyde, organophosphate compounds like Dylox (Masoten), and swabbing with tincture of iodine .. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This SBIR project is in response to the call for the development of rapid and portable diagnostic tools for chemical threat exposure, suitable for use by emergency care providers in order to guide medical countermeasures. The broad objective of this proposal is to develop an extremely sensitive and selective biosensor device capable of detecting and discriminating proteins in human serum samples taken from personnel that have been exposed to potentially harmful levels of organophosphate-based nerve gas. This represents a novel approach in biomarker analysis because exposure to each different organophosphate (OP) chemical nerve agent results in a distinct protein "fingerprint" structure that can be identified, distinguished from other agents, and quantified. Using novel sensor thin polymer film technology, reporter domains will be customized with specific protein-recognition molecules that detect the OP poisoned proteins. This will make it possible to develop ...
Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani on Tuesday strongly condemned the terrorist attack on the Sri Lankan cricket team and ordered...
Sri Lankan Caste System (Source: @ Library of Congress) When the Portuguese began to trade extensively with South Asia, they quickly noticed a fundamental
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Intraoperative bronchospasm after organophosphate inhalation [13]. AU - Karamchandani, Kunal. AU - Darlong, V.. AU - Rampal, Prashant. AU - Mohan, Virender. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33645515059&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33645515059&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1213/01.ANE.0000199211.07325.33. DO - 10.1213/01.ANE.0000199211.07325.33. M3 - Letter. C2 - 16551947. AN - SCOPUS:33645515059. VL - 102. SP - 1291. EP - 1292. JO - Anesthesia and Analgesia. JF - Anesthesia and Analgesia. SN - 0003-2999. IS - 4. ER - ...
A senior UN official said the civilian death toll from the Sri Lankan governments crushing of the Tamil Tiger insurgency was "unacceptably high" and should be the subject of an official inquiry.. Sir John Holmes, the head of the UN office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs (OCHA), said many thousands of people had died in the final days of the government offensive, and accused the Sri Lankan army of using heavy weapons on a coastal strip that was supposed to have been a no-fire zone.. "When there are allegations of this kind, allegations on both sides, they need to be looked into, they need to be investigated," Holmes said. "We had hoped that the [UN] Human Rights Council would look into this, but as you know they took a different path.". On Wednesday, the council voted in Geneva to uphold a resolution put forward by the Sri Lankan government congratulating it on its military victory, sparking outrage from western countries.. One UN official, who did not wish to be named, noted that ...
I became interested in Sri Lankan cricket in early 1978, as a Sri Lankan team led by Anura Tennakoon toured Bangladesh for a month. They were the strongest associate member nation at the time. Also, many top Sri Lankan cricketers played club cricket in Dhaka in the second half of the 1980s. Their presence not […]
Exposure to organophosphates has acute effects on health, but evidence of chronic effects is unclear. Many people who have been occupationally exposed
We screened 597 newly-diagnosed diabetic patients 201 women mean SD age 42.3 6.2 years to determine the prevalence of diabetic complications ; 22% presented because of symptoms of diabetes, 27% were diagnosed when hyperglycaemia was discovered at a health screening, and 36% were diagnosed while being treated for intercurrent illness....
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Paul Johnson puts the Sri Lankan ethnic problem in its proper perspective. We are happy that The Times has finally realized the treacherous role played by India in the escalating violence in Sri
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Earlier,off-spinner Graeme Swann took three wickets for four runs in just over six overs to clean up the Sri Lankan tail shortly before lunch.