The theory of Shannon entropy was applied to the Choi-Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD) of time series in order to extract entropy information in both time and frequency domains. In this way, four novel indexes were defined: (1) partial instantaneous entropy, calculated as the entropy of the CWD with respect to time by using the probability mass function at each time instant taken independently; (2) partial spectral information entropy, calculated as the entropy of the CWD with respect to frequency by using the probability mass function of each frequency value taken independently; (3) complete instantaneous entropy, calculated as the entropy of the CWD with respect to time by using the probability mass function of the entire CWD; (4) complete spectral information entropy, calculated as the entropy of the CWD with respect to frequency by using the probability mass function of the entire CWD. These indexes were tested on synthetic time series with different behavior (periodic, chaotic and random)
We review the relative entropy method in the context of hyperbolic and diffusive relaxation limits of entropy solutions for various hyperbolic models. The main example consists of the convergence from multidimensional compressible Euler equations with friction to the porous medium equation \cite{LT12}. With small modifications, the arguments used in that case can be adapted to the study of the diffusive limit from the Euler-Poisson system with friction to the Keller-Segel system \cite{LT13}. In addition, the $p$--system with friction and the system of viscoelasticity with memory are then reviewed, again in the case of diffusive limits \cite{LT12}. Finally, the method of relative entropy is described for the multidimensional stress relaxation model converging to elastodynamics \cite[Section 3.2]{LT06}, one of the first examples of application of the method to hyperbolic relaxation limits.. ...
Y. Takahashi, Y. Watanabe, and M. Sato, "Application of the Maximum Entropy Method to Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JTuD53 ...
The method of multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis is useful for investigating complexity in physiologic signals and other series that have correlations at multiple (time) scales.. A tutorial about multiscale entropy analysis is available here (a PDF version is also available). The tutorial introduces the concept of MSE, describes an algorithm for calculating MSE using sample entropy (SampEn), presents a portable implementation of this algorithm, and illustrates its use with interbeat (RR) interval time series from PhysioBank.. The software described in the tutorial is here, and a reference ...
ARTICLE SYNOPSIS...Cycle Analysis: A comparison of the Fourier and Maximum Entropy methods by John F. Ehler The motivation for reducing price history to a mathematical expression is clear. If we can describe the prices mathematically, we have the means to extend the equat. ...
The maximum entropy method, or MAXENT, is variational approach for computing probability distributions given a list of moment, or expected value, constraints.. Here are some links for background info.. A good overview of applications: http://cmm.cit.nih.gov/maxent/letsgo.html. On the idea of maximum entropy in general: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principle_of_maximum_entropy. Use this package to compute discrete maximum entropy distributions over a list of values and list of constraints.. Here is a the example from Probability the Logic of Science ...
The problem of analyzing data from a multisphere neutron spectrometer to infer the energy spectrum of the incident neutrons is discussed. The main features of the code MAXED, a computer program developed to apply the maximum entropy principle to the deconvolution (unfolding) of multisphere neutron spectrometer data, are described, and the use of the code is illustrated with an example. A user`s guide for the code MAXED is included in an appendix. The code is available from the authors upon request.
The aim of this book is to provide an overview of current works addressing the topics of research that explore the geometric structures of information and entropy. The papers in this book includes the extended versions of a selection of the paper published in Proceedings of the 34th International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering (MaxEnt 2014), Amboise, France, 21-26 September 2014. Chapter 1 of the book is a historical review of the origins of thermodynamics and information theory. Chapter 2 discusses the mathematical and physical foundations of geometric structures related to information and entropy. Lastly, Chapter 3 is dedicated to applications with numerical schemes for geometric structures of information and entropy. ...
This paper proposes a global multi-level thresholding method for image segmentation. As a criterion for this, the traditional method uses the Shannon entropy, originated from information theory, considering the gray level image histogram as a probability distribution, while we applied the Tsallis entropy as a general information theory entropy formalism. For the algorithm, we used the artificial bee colony approach since execution of an exhaustive algorithm would be too time-consuming. The experiments demonstrate that: 1) the Tsallis entropy is superior to traditional maximum entropy thresholding, maximum between class variance thresholding, and minimum cross entropy thresholding; 2) the artificial bee colony is more rapid than either genetic algorithm or particle swarm optimization. Therefore, our approach is effective and rapid.
Depending on the nature of the specimen to be reconstructed, the commonly used reconstruction techniques can create a problem, since in order to obtain creditable reconstructions, filters, which are obtained in an ad-hoc manner, have to be applied. These filters which effectively exclude high resolution data (e.g. noise), also remove any non-noise data thereby leading to artifacts in the reconstruction. The generation of these artifacts however can be overcome if the object lends itself to some sort of symmetry or if many copies of the object being reconstructed have the same structure. However, chromatin fibres do not lend itself towards this type of analysis and hence in order to get reconstructions which are devoid of artifacts, all the information present in the sample has to be preserved. Thus an alternate method namely the maximum entropy method, which does not involve the use of filters, was developed.. The maximum entropy method is used extensively in astronomy and medical tomography and ...
Of Men and Moths is a popularized account of Bernard Kettlewell s investigations of the phenomenon of industrial melanism, the rapid rise in frequency of dark forms of many moth species downwind of manufacturing centers that occurred as an apparent consequence of large-scale air pollution associated with the industrial revolution. Kettlewell s experiments are widely cited as demonstrating that this change is due to natural selection, and, in particular, the selective advantage of dark coloration against birds in sootdarkened environments. Hooper accuses Kettlewell of committing fraud and members of E.B. Ford s Oxford School of Ecological Genetics of conspiring to hide details of outstanding problems surrounding the phenomenon to advance their own pan-selectionist agenda. The book concludes by reviewing how the career of a lone dissenter, Ted Sargent, was derailed as a result of his heresy. The subtitle is apt, but not for reasons the author intends. The intrigue surrounding this book rests in ...
The evolutionary forces that produced the canonical genetic code before the last universal ancestor remain obscure. One hypothesis is that the arrangement of amino acid/codon assignments results from selection to minimize the effects of errors (e.g., mistranslation and mutation) on resulting proteins. If amino acid similarity is measured as polarity, the canonical code does indeed outperform most theoretical alternatives. However, this finding does not hold for other amino acid properties, ignores plausible restrictions on possible code structure, and does not address the naturally occurring nonstandard genetic codes. Finally, other analyses have shown that significantly better code structures are possible. Here, we show that if theoretically possible code structures are limited to reflect plausible biological constraints, and amino acid similarity is quantified using empirical data of substitution frequencies, the canonical code is at or very close to a global optimum for error minimization ...
A variant of the invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code was previously identified in arthropods (Abascal et al. 2006a, PLoS Biol 4:e127) in which, instead of translating the AGG codon as serine, as in other invertebrates, some arthropods translate AGG as lysine. Here, we revisit the evolution of the genetic code in arthropods taking into account that (1) the number of arthropod mitochondrial genomes sequenced has triplicated since the original findings were published; (2) the phylogeny of arthropods has been recently resolved with confidence for many groups; and (3) sophisticated probabilistic methods can be applied to analyze the evolution of the genetic code in arthropod mitochondria. According to our analyses, evolutionary shifts in the genetic code have been more common than previously inferred, with many taxonomic groups displaying two alternative codes. Ancestral character-state reconstruction using probabilistic methods confirmed that the arthropod ancestor most likely translated AGG as ...
There is great significance in lie detection for the criminal investigations and lawtrials. In this study,according to the nonlinear characteristics of electroencephalography( EEG),it is the first time to use the sample entropy( SE),a nonlinear dynamical parameter of EEG,to see if someone is lying. The sample entropy values of 30 subjects EEG signals in lying or honesty states were calculated and analyzed. The study found that the fluctuating range of SE values in honesty was obviously less than that in lying. It is more important that the SE values in lying was significantly higher than the honesty,which indicated that SE could be used to distinguish EEG signals between two different states of honesty and lying. This research provides a newway for EEG-based lie detection.
Bayesian probability theory and maximum entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These new ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers, allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. This volume records the Proceedings of Eleventh Annual Maximum Entropy Workshop, held at Seattle University in June, 1991. These workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this volume. There are tutorial papers, theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being
This dissertation takes a step toward a general framework for solving network information theory problems by studying the capacity region of networks through the entropy region. We first show that the capacity of a large class of acyclic memoryless multiuser information theory problems can be formulated as convex optimization over the region of entropy vectors of the network random variables. This capacity characterization is universal, and is advantageous over previous formulations in that it is single letter. Besides, it is significant as it reveals the fundamental role of the entropy region in determining the capacity of network information theory problems. With this viewpoint, the rest of the thesis is dedicated to the study of the entropy region, and its consequences for networks. A full characterization of the entropy region has proven to be a very challenging problem, and thus, we mostly consider inner bound constructions. For discrete random variables, our approaches include ...
Check out photos and highlights from the event.. The first-ever Genetic Code Expansion (GCE) Conference was hosted by the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at Oregon State University August 11-14, 2016. The conference brought together diverse scientific disciplines that focus on developing and using GCE technology.. Nearly 100 scientists from industry, academia and other research institutions converged to discuss the latest GCE techniques and approaches applicable to drug discovery efforts, material science, bioorganic chemistry within cellular and molecular processes, the development of interdisciplinary research tools and probes, and more.. The conference was organized and chaired by Ryan Mehl, associate professor in biochemistry and biophysics at OSU, and Jason Chin head of the Centre for Chemical & Synthetic Biology at the University of Cambridge. Mehl is the director of OSUs Unnatural Protein Facility, the first laboratory of its kind and provides researchers full access to current ...
A polycrystalline Ni 41Co 9Mn 40Sn 10 (at. %) magnetic shape memory alloy was prepared by arc melting and characterized mainly by magnetic measurements, in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), and mechanical testing. A large magnetoresistance of 53.8% (under 5 T) and a large magnetic entropy change of 31.9 J/(kg K) (under 5 T) were simultaneously achieved. Both of these values are among the highest values reported so far in Ni-Mn-Sn-based Heusler alloys. The large magnetic entropy change, closely related to the structural entropy change, is attributed to the large unit cell volume change across martensitic transformation as revealed by our in-situ HEXRD experiment. Furthermore, good compressive properties were also obtained. Lastly, the combination of large magnetoresistance, large magnetic entropy change, and good compressive properties, as well as low cost makes this alloy a promising candidate for multifunctional applications. ...
You might better understand the macroscopic definition of entropy (uakron, 9min) if you consider isothermal reversible expansion of an ideal gas. Note the word "isothermal" is different from "adiabatic." If the expansion was an adiabatic and reversible expansion of an ideal gas, then we know from Chapter 2 that the temperature would go down, ie. T2/T1=(P2/P1)^(R/Cp)=(V1/V2)^(R/Cv). Therefore, holding the temperature constant must require the addition of heat. We can calculate the change in entropy for this isothermal process from the microscopic balance, then show that the amount of heat added is exactly equal to the change in entropy (of this reversible process) times the (isothermal) temperature. Studying the energy and entropy balance for the irreversible process helps us to appreciate how entropy is a state function. As suggested by the hint at the end of this video, you can turn this perspective around and infer the relation of entropy to volume by starting with the macroscopic definition ...
The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the
20% for two amber codons). In 2010 the group of Jason W. Chin presented a further optimized version of the orthogonal ribosome. The Ribo-Q is a 16S rRNA optimized to recognize tRNAs, which have quadruplet anti-codons to recognize quadruplet codons, instead of the natural triplet codons. With this approach the number of possible codons rises from 64 to 256. Even accounting for a variety of stop codons, more than 200 different amino acids could potentially be encoded this way. The orthogonal ribosomes described above all focus on optimizing the 16S rRNA. Thus far, this optimized 16S rRNA was combined with natural large-subunits to form orthogonal ribosomes. If the 23S rRNA, the main RNA-component of the large ribosomal subunit, is to be optimized as well, it had to be assured, that there was no crosstalk in the assembly of orthogonal and natural ribosomes (see figureX B). To ensure that optimized 23S rRNA would only form into ribosomes with the optimized 16S rRNA, the two rRNAs were combined into ...
Chan, F. and Harris, M. and Singh, R. 2015. Modelling Body Mass Index Distribution using Maximum Entropy Density, 21st International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM) held jointly with the 23rd National Conference of the Australian-Society-for-Operations-Research / DSTO led Defence Operations Research Symposium (DORS, pp. 1036-1042: MODELLING & SIMULATION SOC AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND INC ...
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) has outlined a number of possible changes to the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code including the prospect
Genetic Code Poster for biology and life science will increase your students understanding of the key concepts in the genetic processes of transcription and translation.
US scientists have tried to change a persons DNA by editing their genetic code directly inside their body. This has never attempted before and the team hopes it will permanently cure the disease the patient suffers from.. As reported in an exclusive Associated Press news story, the procedure was conducted on Monday in California, where the patient, Brian Madeux, was injected with billions of copies of a corrective gene and a genetic tool for swapping his DNA around. The first results are expected within a month, but the team will know for certain whether it has worked in three months time.. Madeux, who is 44 years old, suffers from Hunter Syndrome, a rare genetic condition. The syndrome is inherited, and caused by a missing or malfunctioning gene that stops the body from breaking down complex molecules. These molecules then build up in the body leading to permanent and progressive damage.. As the first person to try this radical new approach, Madeux told the Associated Press: "Its kind of ...
Lists of the world's ugliest animals sometimes include the naked mole rat. But scientists who have just analyzed its entire genetic code say this
Mistranslation can follow two events during protein synthesis: production of non-cognate amino acid:transfer RNA (tRNA) pairs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and inaccurate selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs by the ribosome. Many aaRSs actively edit non-cognate amino acids, but editing mechanisms are not evolutionarily conserved, and their physiological significance remains unclear. To address the connection between aaRSs and mistranslation, the evolutionary divergence of tyrosine editing by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) was used as a model. Certain PheRSs are naturally error prone, most notably a Mycoplasma example that displayed a low level of specificity consistent with elevated mistranslation of the proteome. Mycoplasma PheRS was found to lack canonical editing activity, relying instead on discrimination against the non-cognate amino acid by kinetic proofreading. This mechanism of discrimination is inadequate for organisms where translation is more accurate, as Mycoplasma PheRS ...
Codon usage bias refers to differences in the frequency of occurrence of synonymous codons in coding DNA. A codon is a series of three nucleotides (a triplet) that encodes a specific amino acid residue in a polypeptide chain or for the termination of translation (stop codons). There are 64 different codons (61 codons encoding for amino acids plus 3 stop codons) but only 20 different translated amino acids. The overabundance in the number of codons allows many amino acids to be encoded by more than one codon. Because of such redundancy it is said that the genetic code is degenerate. The genetic codes of different organisms are often biased towards using one of the several codons that encode the same amino acid over the others-that is, a greater frequency of one will be found than expected by chance. How such biases arise is a much debated area of molecular evolution. Codon usage tables detailing genomic codon usage bias for most organisms in GenBank and RefSeq can be found in ...
Translating nucleic acid based information into a protein product is at the heart of the genetic code. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) function is the basis of decoding the genetic code by ligating the cognate tRNA and amino acid together. Given this role, aaRSs maintain an enormous level of specificity for their amino acid and tRNA substrates. This thesis sought to uncover the mechanisms of substrate specificity in aaRSs using glutaminyl- and glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (GlnRS and GluRS, respectively) as model systems. The work addresses the macromolecular coevolution in this subfamily, revealing the nucleic acid recognition signatures within the tRNA utilized by eukaryotic GlnRS and GluRS. Furthermore a rational engineering method discovered that the aforementioned tRNA signatures also assist the corresponding GlxRS in amino acid recognition, a novel concept in genetic code translation. These generalized principles and engineering strategy can be applied to further our understandings in
ScienceDaily (Apr. 13, 2010) - With few exceptions, all known forms of life on our planet rely on the same genetic code to specify the amino acid composition of proteins. Although different hypotheses abound, just how individual amino acids were assigned to specific three-letter combinations or codons during the evolution of the genetic code is still subject to speculation.. Taking their hints from relics of this evolution left behind in modern cells, researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies concluded that after only two waves of "matching" and some last minute fiddling, all 20 commonly used amino acids were firmly linked with their respective codons, setting the stage for the emergence of proteins with unique, defined sequences and properties.. Their findings, which will be published in next weeks online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, provide the first in vivo data shedding light on the origin and evolution of the genetic code.. "Although ...
Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927- present) shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 with Har Gobind Khorana and Robert W. Holley for describing the genetic code and how it helps make protein. Using RNA composed solely of uracil, Nirenberg showed that the genetic code for phenylalanine was UUU (three uracil bases in a row). This was the first step in deciphering the codons and the first demonstration of messenger RNA. Within a few years, Nirenbergs research team found that three repeats of adenosine (AAA) produced the amino acid lysine, three cytosine repeats (CCC) produced proline, and three guanine repeats (GGG) produced nothing at all. The three scientists eventually developed a method for determining the genetic code from pieces of tRNA, which greatly sped up the assignment of codons. Fifty codons were identified by Nirenberg this way ...
Were very pleased to welcome the 1000 Genomes Project data to Amazon S3. The original human genome project was a huge undertaking. It aimed to identify every letter of our genetic code, 3 billion DNA bases in total, to help guide our understanding of human biology. The project ran for over a decade, cost billions of dollars and became the corner stone of modern genomics. The techniques and tools developed for the human genome were also put into practice in sequencing other species, from the mouse to the gorilla, from the hedgehog to the platypus. By comparing the genetic code between species, researchers can identify biologically interesting genetic regions for all species, including us.. A few years ago there was a quantum leap in the technology for sequencing DNA, which drastically reduced the time and cost of identifying genetic code. This offered the promise of being able to compare full genomes from individuals, rather than entire species, leading to a much more detailed genetic map of ...
This article proves the existence of a hyper-precise global numerical meta-architecture unifying, structuring, binding and controlling the billion triplet codons comprising the sequence of single-stranded DNA of the entire human genome. Beyond the evolution and erratic mutations like transposons within the genome, its as if the memory of a fossil genome with multiple symmetries persists. This recalls the "intermingling" of information characterizing the fractal universe of chaos theory. The result leads to a balanced and perfect tuning between the masses of the two strands of the huge DNA molecule that constitute our genome. We show here how codon populations forming the single-stranded DNA sequences can constitute a critical approach to the understanding of junk DNA function. Then, we suggest revisiting certain methods published in our 2009 book "Codex Biogenesis". In fact, we demonstrate here how the universal genetic code table is a powerful analytical filter to characterize single-stranded ...
Marine cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus represent numerically dominant photoautotrophs residing throughout the euphotic zones in the open oceans and are major contributors to the global carbon cycle. Prochlorococcus has remained a genetically intractable bacterium due to slow growth rates and low transformation efficiencies using standard techniques. Our recent successes in cloning and genetically engineering the AT-rich, 1.1 megabase (Mb) Mycoplasma mycoides genome in yeast encouraged us to explore similar methods with Prochlorococcus. Prochlorococcus MED4 has an AT-rich genome, with a GC content of 30.8%, similar to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (38%), and contains abundant yeast replication origin consensus sites (ACS) evenly distributed around its 1.66 Mb genome. Unlike Mycoplasma cells, which use the UGA codon for tryptophane, Prochlorococcus uses the standard genetic code. Despite this, we observed no toxic effects of several partial and 15 whole Prochlorococcus MED4 genome ...
Page 3 of 3 - From building Blocks To All Life On Earth - posted in Creation vs Evolution: the following is almost certain proof that the components of at least DNA formed almost at once. The standard genetic code, which is a mapping of 64 codons to 20 standard amino acids and the translation stop signal, is shared, with minor modifications only, by all life forms on earth (Woese, Hinegardner et al. 1964; Woese 1967; Ycas 1969; Osawa 1995). The apparent universality of t...
Tryptophan (IUPAC-IUBMB abbreviation: Trp or W; IUPAC abbreviation: L-Trp or D-Trp; sold for medical use as Tryptan) is one of the 20 standard amino acids, as well as an essential amino acid in the human diet. It is encoded in the standard genetic code as the codon UGG. the D-stereoisomer is occasionally found in naturally produced peptides (for example, the marine venom peptide contryphan). The distinguishing structural characteristic of tryptophan is that it contains an indole functional group. It is an essential amino acid as defined by its growth effects on rats ...
The discovery of the three-dimensional double helix architecture of DNA in 1953 was not only a defining moment for biology but arguably one of the most significant scientific achievements of all time. It fundamentally and permanently changed the course of biology and genetics.. The unraveling of DNAs structure, combined with its elegant mechanism for self-replication and the existence of a universal genetic code for all living beings, have together provided the basis for the understanding of fundamental cellular processes, mutation and genetic repair, genetic variation, the origin of life and evolution of species, and the structure/function/regulation of genes. The double helix is also proving to be of immense significance to advances in agriculture, medicine and such other diverse fields as anthropology, criminology, computer science, engineering, immunology, nanotechnology, etc.. It was the study of DNA that led to the development of tools that brought about the biotechnology revolution, the ...
Redundancy of the genetic code implies that there are more codons than amino acids. Consequently, many amino acids are encoded by more than one codon, which are known as synonymous codons. As a result, some substitutions between these codons are silent and do not change the coded amino acid. For example, in the case of the codons known as fourfold degenerated (4FD), the third codon positions can be freely changed to any nucleotide, without consequences for the coded amino acid, and subsequently for protein composition and function. However, synonymous codons are not used uniformly in real protein coding sequences (e.g., Comeron 2004; Grantham et al. 1980; Ikemura 1985; Plotkin and Kudla 2011; Sharp and Li 1986). Such preference of one synonymous codon over others is commonly known as codon usage bias (Sharp and Li 1986). Usage can differ for various genomes and genes within one genome, and even within a single gene.. As far as the evolution of codon bias is concerned, two explanations, which are ...
The Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services, is responsible for providing federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. The provision of health services to members of federally-recognized Tribes grew out of the special government-to-government relationship between the federal government and Indian Tribes. The IHS is the principal federal health care provider and health advocate for Indian people, and provides a comprehensive health service delivery system for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The IHS Mission is to raise the physical, mental, social, and spiritual health of American Indians and Alaska Natives to the highest level.
The Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services, is responsible for providing federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. The provision of health services to members of federally-recognized Tribes grew out of the special government-to-government relationship between the federal government and Indian Tribes. The IHS is the principal federal health care provider and health advocate for Indian people, and provides a comprehensive health service delivery system for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The IHS Mission is to raise the physical, mental, social, and spiritual health of American Indians and Alaska Natives to the highest level.
Codon usage pattern and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) of mtDNA of Meloidogyne graminicola.Numbers on the Y-axis refer to the total number of codons (A)
In all biological systems, gene expression is exquisitely controlled. The cell devotes vast resources to ensure that a given gene is expressed not only at the proper time but also at the appropriate level. Inappropriate or ectopic dosages often have grave consequences that cause developmental delay and organism death. Changes to the genetic code are not the only factors that influence the expression but another system of influence on the expression of genes is referred to as epigenetics; a system that switches the genetic information on and off. The cells of the body contain the genes for the cell to make all the necessary products for our bodies to grow and work normally. X-inactivation is such a phenomenon that enables men and women to have equal expression of the genes carried on the X chromosome despite the fact that women have two X chromosome copies and men have only one in addition to a Y chromosome. The cellular system of X-inactivation ensures that only one copy of most of the X ...
The same set of genetic code can be read and interpreted differently, giving rise to the variety of differentiated cell types in a multicellular organism. This principle is best illustrated by the landmark discovery by Yamanaka and colleagues, in which they demonstrated that differentiated cells such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) following the expression of four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. These iPSCs can give rise to all cell types including the germlines. Following this initial discovery in 2006, many researchers used similar approaches expressing different combinations of transcription factors, to derive a large variety of cell types including those of therapeutic values (neurons, cardiomyocytes, beta cells and more). Although most of these derivation processes are of low efficiency and the resulted cellular products are functionally inferior than their in vivo counterparts, the success in these ...
A recent report published in the American Journal of Medical Genetics (Smith et al. 2014) describes a methodical comparison of buccal cells and blood as potential surrogates for brain tissue in epigenomic studies aimed at assessing the methylation status of DNA. The methylation patterns of specific genes are thought to be biomarkers for a variety of psychological disorders and may be the result of such factors such as childhood abuse, malnutrition, and traumatic stress. The authors find that DNA methylation patterns in buccal cells are more similar than blood to those of brain tissue. Certainly it is an attractive notion that permanent changes in the methylation patterns of the genetic code are at least partially responsible for some chronic psychiatric and behavioral traits, but the idea that a simple cheek swab can help unravel these mysteries even better than a blood sample is the part we find the most fascinating.. ...
Tlustys topological analysis of the genetic code suggests ecosystem changes in available metabolic free energy that predated the aerobic transition enabled a punctuated sequence of increasingly complex genetic codes and protein translators, protein folding codes, and monosaccharide cell-surface codes. These coevolved via various Cambrian explosions until, very early on, the ancestors of the present narrow spectrum of such biological machineries outcompeted other codings and became evolutionarily locked in at surprisingly modest levels of fitness likely reflecting a modest embedding metabolic free energy ecology. Thus biochemical Cambrian singularities must have occurred at different scales and levels of organization on Earth, with competition or chance-selected outcomes frozen at a far earlier period than the physical bauplan Cambrian explosion. Beyond codes, other examples might include explosive variations in mechanisms of photosynthesis, and the subsequent manifold oxygen metabolisms.
So now there are 21 proteogenic amino acids…right?. Actually, there are 22 of them discovered till now. The last one is named Pyrrolysine, but it makes proteins only in prokaryotes (methanogenic archaea and bacteria).. So is there any other amino acids that are not "PROTEOGENIC"?. The proteogenic pool of amino acid is only a small part of the whole amino acid pool. There are many times more amino acids that dont produce proteins. Usually, the amino acids that dont have any associated genetic code wont produce proteins (they cant take part in translation), and so are non-proteogenic.. This is quite logical. Any organic molecule having at least one of each amine and carboxyl group can be called an amino acid and we have only limited number of genetic codes.. Examples of non-proteogenic amino acids are - ornithine, citrulline etc. in hepatic metabolism. The argininosuccinic acid in the urea cycle, S-adenosylmethionine, azaserine in streptomycin, synthetically produced (at least commercially) ...
The genetic code is the Rosetta Stone by which we interpret the 3.3 billion letters of human DNA, the alphabet of life, and the discovery of the code has had an immeasurable impact on science and society. In 1968, Marshall Nirenberg, an unassuming government scientist working at the National Institutes of Health, shared the Nobel Prize for cracking the genetic code. He was the least likely man to make such an earth-shaking discovery, and yet he had gotten there before such members of the scientific elite as James Watson and Francis Crick ...
Mr. Speaker, despite the terrible way I sound this morning, I would like to be able to give you my message to the end. I am counting on the co-operation and indulgence of yourself as well as my colleagues so that I may manage to do so properly.. Bill S-10, with which we are dealing today, addresses a most interesting and timely subject, DNA evidence.. DNA is located in the nucleus of human cells and contains each human beings genetic code. In fact, each of us has a personal genetic code, with the exception of identical twins. A persons DNA yields his or her genetic fingerprint. For law enforcement officers and lawyers, the advancement of science in the area of genetics is an indispensable tool for solving crimes, that is for finding the guilty parties and clearing innocent ones.. Before addressing the main thrust of Bill S-10, an act to amend the National Defence Act, the DNA Identification Act and the criminal code, I would like to provide a brief overview of Canadian legislation as it ...
Since the Human Genome Project, scientists have become masters at reading the genetic code. But now, new technologies allow us to not only read DNA sequences, but also to write the genetic code! Scientists now regularly custom design and then synthesize short DNA sequence and are pioneering techniques to assemble larger custom genes and genomes. This unprecedented ability to create and manipulate living organisms has opened new frontiers in our ability to create life in the lab. In this 5-session "Build-a-Gene" class, we will learn and practice the techniques that synthetic biologists use in genome synthesis, including creation of synthetic genes, assembly of larger DNA fragments by Gibson Assembly, and the use of yeast cells for gene assembly. In addition to lab work, we will be discussing this brave new frontier in biological engineering- how this technology is currently being used to redesign cells and systems, and how society should respond to and regulate this new field. ...
The power of genetic information has shaped virtually every aspect of my medical education. On one hand, we have learned about diseases and treatments that are now defined by patients genomes. Certain genes can predict colon cancer with near certainty and, in women, the BRCA1/2 mutations, famously discussed by Angelina Jolie, can denote a greater than 80 percent risk of developing breast cancer. We can screen newborns for dozens of genetic diseases and immediately know which diets to avoid giving them or which medications to begin early. Physicians are using genetic markers to better tailor therapies to the individual patients before them. We are certainly entering a new era of medicine. Yet, amid these exciting advances, we are constantly reminded of the risks of this brave new world. Genetics is progressing faster than we can understand its consequences and, in the middle of this chaos, ordinary Americans have become subject to technology that we cannot entirely control.
Figure 1: A parallel genetic code. There are several major challenges in genetically encoding multiple unnatural amino acids into proteins in living cells. First, unique new codons are required that can be used to encode the incorporation of unnatural amino acids at specific sites in proteins. Since the 64 triplet codons are used in the genome of most organisms for encoding natural proteins additional codons (such as quadruplet codons) might be used to encode the incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Second, new aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase tRNA pairs that are orthogonal to the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs in the host organism, and that uniquely direct the incorporation of an unnatural amino acid in response to a unique codon, are required. Finally the scope of cellular protein translation is limited to alpha-L amino acids and their close analogs, and alteration of the ribosome and potentially other components of the translational machinery are required to increase the chemical scope ...
Schistomiasis is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the most socioeconomically devastating diseases, besides malaria, and is in urgent need of extensive research and improved control. Dr Neil Young and Professor Robin Gasser from the University of Melbournes Faculty of Veterinary Science led the project conducted with the worlds largest genome sequencing facility, BGI-Shenzhen and an international research team. They sequenced the nuclear genome of Schistosoma haematobium from a single pair of tiny worms using an advanced approach. The work has been published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Genetics. Schistosoma haematobium is one of three related species of schistosome to be sequenced, but is the most devastating, particularly because of its link to cancer and AIDS. The other two species are Schistosoma mansoni (Africa and South America) and Schistosoma japonicum (in parts of Asia) which both cause intestinal/liver disease in humans. "This genome was the missing ...
FeLV invades and replicates in various cells, including cells in the cats immune system and blood-forming tissues. To replicate, the nucleic acid (genetic code) of FeLV inserts itself into the nucleic acid of the cells it has invaded. The result can be death of the cell or a mutation or change in its genetic code. Such a change can make the cell potentially cancerous; the cancerous change may not occur for months or years after infection.. Cancers can occur in a variety of tissues, organs and body sites, depending on the type and location of cells that have been infected with FeLV. Such cancers can involve any type of the circulating white blood cells (leukemia) or other cells of the blood-forming tissues. The most common tumor associated with FeLV is that of lymphoid cells known as lymphoma or lymphosarcoma. These tumors may occur at single or multiple sites in the body.. Although the development of cancer is one outcome of FeLV infection, other diseases more commonly develop. In many cats, ...
FeLV invades and replicates in various cells, including cells in the cats immune system and blood-forming tissues. To replicate, the nucleic acid (genetic code) of FeLV inserts itself into the nucleic acid of the cells it has invaded. The result can be death of the cell or a mutation or change in its genetic code. Such a change can make the cell potentially cancerous; the cancerous change may not occur for months or years after infection.. Cancers can occur in a variety of tissues, organs and body sites, depending on the type and location of cells that have been infected with FeLV. Such cancers can involve any type of the circulating white blood cells (leukemia) or other cells of the blood-forming tissues. The most common tumor associated with FeLV is that of lymphoid cells known as lymphoma or lymphosarcoma. These tumors may occur at single or multiple sites in the body.. Although the development of cancer is one outcome of FeLV infection, other diseases more commonly develop. In many cats, ...
FeLV invades and replicates in various cells, including cells in the cats immune system and blood-forming tissues. To replicate, the nucleic acid (genetic code) of FeLV inserts itself into the nucleic acid of the cells it has invaded. The result can be death of the cell or a mutation or change in its genetic code. Such a change can make the cell potentially cancerous; the cancerous change may not occur for months or years after infection.. Cancers can occur in a variety of tissues, organs and body sites, depending on the type and location of cells that have been infected with FeLV. Such cancers can involve any type of the circulating white blood cells (leukemia) or other cells of the blood-forming tissues. The most common tumor associated with FeLV is that of lymphoid cells known as lymphoma or lymphosarcoma. These tumors may occur at single or multiple sites in the body.. Although the development of cancer is one outcome of FeLV infection, other diseases more commonly develop. In many cats, ...
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Dec 2;111(48):17206-11. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1420193111. Epub 2014 Nov 17. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
Researchers have long known that diabetes runs in families, but its only been about 20 years since they have successfully isolated gene and antibody combinations that serve as reliable genetic predictors of the risk of developing Type 1 diabetes.. A great many people who have Type 1 also have inherited genetic codes for antigens known as DR4 and DQ8; an antigen is any substance that may cause your body to produce antibodies against it. Post-diagnostic genetic testing of patients who have developed Type 1 diabetes has shown that about 90% have one or both of these genetic codes, and 60% have the DQ8 gene alone. The DQ8 gene also has been linked, although less conclusively, to a very small population of people with Type 2 diabetes.. The DQ8 gene is heavily distributed among people in Central America and northern South America. Its also found in high frequency among Americans who live near the Gulf of Mexico and in the Mississippi Valley whose lineages go back to Caribbean and indigenous North ...
Admittedly, this first critique of the Vaticans engagement with PGD is partly semantic. By contrast, my second critique of the documents response to genetic manipulation is founded on my understandings of both biology and Christian theology. In short, the authors adopt a status quo bias appropriate if Christians were called to padlock themselves inside Eden, but not if they are to help build the "Kingdom of God" or "the New Jerusalem" to which Jesus and the Greek scriptures regularly refer. Put another way, we might ask what is really behind the Vaticans insistence on "accepting human life in its concrete historical finite nature" (n. 27). Scientifically, such conservatism ignores the fact that human life expectancy in developed countries has risen by approximately two decades over the last century, a development to which the Catholic Church presumably does not object. Theologically, the Vaticans emphasis on passive acceptance of our fates implies that the story of Christianity ought be one ...
Isaac Asimov was born in Petrovichi, Russia, on January 2, 1920. His family immigrated to the United States in 1923 and settled in Brooklyn, New York, where they owned and operated a candy store. Asimov became a naturalized U.S. citizen at the age of eight. As a youngster he discovered his talent for writing, producing his first original fiction at the age of eleven. He went on to become one of the worlds most prolific writers, publishing nearly 500 books in his lifetime. Asimov was not only a writer; he also was a biochemist and an educator. He studied chemistry at Columbia University, earning a B.S., M.A. and Ph.D. In 1951, Asimov accepted a position as an instructor of biochemistry at Boston Universitys School of Medicine even though he had no practical experience in the field. His exceptional intelligence enabled him to master new systems rapidly, and he soon became a successful and distinguished professor at Columbia and even co-authored a biochemistry textbook within a few years. Asimov ...
NSFs mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education made by scientists, engineers, and educators from across the country.
Esta é uma lista de espécies do género Potentilla, ordenadas alfabeticamente. Potentilla acaulis sensu, non L. subsp. arenaria (Borckh.) M. Guinochet in Guinochet & R. Vilmorin (sinónimo = P. cinerea) subsp. cinerea (Chaix ex Vill.) M. Guinochet in Guinochet & R. Vilmorin (sinónimo = P. cinerea) subsp. pusilla (Host) M. Guinochet in Guinochet & R. Vilmorin (sinónimo = P. pusilla) subsp. tommasiniana (F.W. Schultz) J. Soják (sinónimo = P. cinerea) subsp. velutina (Lehm.) M. Guinochet in Guinochet & R. Vilmorin (sinónimo = P. cinerea) Potentilla acutifolia Gilib. (sinónimo = P. recta) Potentilla adenophylla Boiss. & Hohen. (sinónimo = P. humifusa Willd. ex Schltdl.) Potentilla adscendens Lapeyr. (sinónimo = P. crantzii subsp. latestipula) Potentilla adscendens Willd. (sinónimo = P. inclinata) Potentilla adriatica Murbeck (sinónimo = P. recta) Potentilla aestiva Haller fil. in Ser. (sinónimo = P. neumanniana) Potentilla agrivaga Jeanb. & Timb.-Lagr. (sinónimo = P. neumanniana) ...
Before going ahead and understanding proteins - the biomolecules, it is important to first understand amino acids. Amino acids are the organic compounds mainly bonded to a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group (COO-) and an amine group (NH2) along with a side chain (represented as R in the diagram) which is specific to every amino acid. There are about 500 amino acids known. The two broad groups into which these amino acids can be distributed are: proteinogenic amino acids and non-proteinogenic amino acids. The word proteinogenic means protein building. Interesting to note is that of these 500 amino acids, only 23 naturally occurring amino acids come under proteinogenic amino acids i.e.; these amino acids are precursors to proteins. Of these 23, 20 proteinogenic amino acids are encoded by codons (triplet) in genetic code and are called standard amino acids. The other three which are non-standard amino acids are pyrrolysine, selenocysteine and N-formylmethionine. The pyrrolysine is found in ...
All life on Earth uses three integrated molecular systems in which genetic information contained in DNA base sequences is transmitted to ribosomes by RNA and a genetic code, then translated into the amino acid sequences of structural and catalytic proteins. Therefore, the most important point for understanding the origin of life is to determine how such systems could emerge from random processes on the early Earth. In this review, two alternatives are compared: the RNA world hypothesis and the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis. [GADV] refers to four amino acids, Gly [G], Ala [A], Asp [D] and Val [V] that are conserved in the amino acid sequences of many common proteins. Here I will argue that the origins of the three primary processes required for life to begin can be better explained by the GADV hypothesis than the RNA world hypothesis. The GADV hypothesis also incorporates a conversion process by which random polymers can evolve into proteins with ordered sequences.
Organisms use highly accurate molecular processes to transcribe their genes and a variety of mRNA quality control and ribosome proofreading mechanisms to maintain intact the fidelity of genetic information flow. Despite this, low level gene translational errors induced by mutations and environmental factors cause neurodegeneration and premature death in mice and mitochondrial disorders in humans. Paradoxically, such errors can generate advantageous phenotypic diversity in fungi and bacteria through poorly understood molecular processes. In order to clarify the biological relevance of gene translational errors we have engineered codon misreading in yeast and used profiling of total and polysome-associated mRNAs, molecular and biochemical tools to characterize the recombinant cells. We demonstrate here that gene translational errors, which have negligible impact on yeast growth rate down-regulate protein synthesis, activate the unfolded protein response and environmental stress response ...
Mitochondrial peptide chain release factor that directs the termination of translation in response to the peptide chain termination codons UAA and UAG.
In 2003, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act identified the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) as the standard code set for reporting medical and surgical diagnoses and inpatient procedures. ICD is a diagnostic tool used for epidemiology, health management, and clinical purposes.* Currently, ICD-9-CM includes both diagnosis and procedural codes.. ICD-9 will be transitioning to the ICD 10th Revision (ICD-10), October 1. ICD-10 is expected to be an expanded code set, including additional information for ambulatory and managed care and injuries. It is expected to combine diagnosis and symptom codes to better define certain conditions, increase specificity through greater code length, and provide the ability to specify laterality.†. ICD-10 will consist of two parts: ICD-10-Clinical Modification (CM) and ICD-10-Procedure Coding System (PCS). Surgeons and other health care professionals will use ICD-10-CM to report medical ...
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS EASTERN DIVISION WILLIAM CHABAN, Plaintiff, v. TARRY WILLIAMS, et al., Defendants. ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Case No. 15 C 1926 MEMORANDUM ORDER This action is one of a very small group of cases that, after a case-by-case review of its entire calendar in late August of this year, this Court determined should be excepted from the reassignment to its colleagues under the computer-generated random assignment system applicable whenever a District Judge departs from his or her own regular receipt of newly-filed civil cases -- most frequently the result of a Judges death or departure from the District Court, but in this instance the unsought consequence of the onset of what turned out to be spinal stenosis requiring major surgery, followed by a post-surgical program aimed at rehabilitating the nerves that had been damaged as a result of the stenosis. Each exception from the almost total September 1 group of reassignments was based on a ...
Yale Cancer Center researchers may have discovered a new way of harnessing lupus antibodies to sabotage cancer cells made vulnerable by deficient DNA repair. The findings were published recently in Natures journal Scientific Reports. The study, led by James E. Hansen, M.D., assistant professor of therapeutic radiology at Yale School of Medicine, found that cancer cells with deficient DNA repair mechanisms (or the inability to repair their own genetic damage) were significantly more vulnerable to attack by lupus antibodies. "Patients with lupus make a wide range of autoantibodies that attack their own cells and contribute to the signs and symptoms associated with lupus. Some of these antibodies actually penetrate into cell nuclei and damage DNA, and we suspected that we may be able to harness the power of these antibodies for use in targeted cancer therapy," Hansen said. The genetic code that determines how a cell develops is written in DNA. Damage to this code can cause a cell to malfunction, ...
Food contains natural chemicals, including carbohydrates, sugars, proteins and vitamins. But some foods contain potentially harmful natural toxins. Sometimes a toxin is present as a naturally occurring pesticide to ward off insect attack or to protect the plant from spoilage when damaged by weather, handling, UV light or microbes.. Your own sensitivity to a natural toxin, the concentration (level) of the toxin in the food, and the amount of the food consumed will determine whether you have an adverse reaction and the severity of symptoms you experience.. If you have symptoms or feel unwell contact the Poisons Information Centre on 13 11 26 (24 hours). The commonly eaten foods listed here may contain natural toxins and consumers are protected by maximum limits for them in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code You can also limit your exposure to natural toxins by following the simple practices outlined below.. Alcohol. The National Health and Medical Research Councils Australian ...
Nestlé Australia Limited and Nestlé New Zealand Limited filed the application in May 2012, seeking a reduction in the minimum requirement for L-histidine in all infant formula products.. They proposed amending the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code - reducing minimum requirements from 12mg/100kJ to 10mg/100kJ.. L-histidine, which is naturally present in breast milk, is the chemical precursor to histamine, helps to maintain a healthy heart and circulatory system, and boosts the immune system.. In its application, Nestlé argued that the proposed reduction is "safe and will promote normal growth and development in infants." ​It added that the amendment would promote international regulatory consistency, which would be beneficial for trade.. "Appropriate" reduction​. "Based on our assessment, FSANZ considers it is appropriate to reduce the minimum required level of L-histidine in infant formula products from 12mg/100kJto 10mg/100kJ, as requested by the Applicant,"​ said the FSANZ ...
Interorganizational system standards have reached a new era in industry. An era that has largely been overlooked in research but is on the verge of immense widespread diffusion. The notion of an interorganizational system (IOS) has nearly been lost. Virtually eclipsed by the attention towards e-commerce, B2B, P2P and many others. When asked about interorganizational systems, invariably most think of electronic data interchange (EDI). Albeit EDI still remains the preeminent type of interorganizational system, IOS solutions have been overhauled since the mid-1990s. IOS solutions are now collaboratively developed, structured around discretely defined cross-company business process standards and able to be distributed via the web. Compared with EDI technology from the past, the notions of open standards code, modularity, scalability, and interorganizational business process reengineering are embedded in modern-day IOS development. Fundamentally, this work bridges the research gap between prior ...
The Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) Facilities Development Division (FDD) reviews and inspects health facility construction projects. FDD enforces building standards, per the California Building Standards Code, as they relate to health facilities construction.. ...
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) is seeking comments on its proposed approach to revising infant formula requirements in the Food Standards Code.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the U.S. Reducing the population burden of CVD will require an increased focus on understanding how to promote and support population-level cardiovascular health (CVH), which will include the ability to measure the presence of CVH, not merely the presence or absence of CVD. Recently, the American Heart Association developed a comprehensive metric designed to measure CVH at the population level. The metric includes smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose. The purpose of this study was to assess how population-level CVH is related to the availability of health care providers and services within the county. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to calculate age-adjusted CVH for each county in 2009. Federal Information Processing Standards codes were used to obtain scores for counties with a sample size of 15 or more. Data on county-level health ...
This ongoing collaboration develops, supplements and publicizes a free online resource with guidance to help promote efficient electronic exchange of standardized newborn screening data. Related efforts include studying the screening process for diseases including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), and critical congenital heart disease (CCHD), and developing standard codes for ordering and reporting the results of newborn screening for SCID, CCHD, and other conditions added to the Uniform Recommended Screening Panel by the Secretarys Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. ...
I advocate consensual prosthetic self-determination myself, after all, so I cant say I disapprove of folks seeking to change themselves, either, so long as they arent under duress or unduly misinformed about risks and costs and benefits and so on. I take consensual prosthetic self-determination to be the usual Pro-Choice politics, simply elaborated to include both the right of all women to end their unwanted pregnancies safely as well as to facilitate wanted ones through assistive reproductive techniques, but also elaborated further to include a host of familiar civil libertarian positions on biomedical and lifeway issues concerning the self-determination of end-of-life conditions, informed consensual comparatively harmless recreational drug use, consensual body modification (cosmetic procedures, sexual reassignments, body modifications like tattoos and piercings and so on), and elaborated further still in the context of actually emerging genetic, prosthetic, and cognitive interventions to ...
Akabane, S., Ueda, T., Nierhaus, K. H. and Takeuchi, N. (2014). "Ribosome rescue and translation termination at non-standard stop codons by ICT1 in mammalian mitochondria. PLoS Genetics 10(9):e1004616. Anderson, S., Bankier, A.T., Barrell, B.G., de Bruijn, M.H., Coulson, A.R., Drouin, J., Eperon, I.C., Nierlich, D.P., Roe, B.A., Sanger, F., Schreier, P.H., Smith, A.J., Staden, R. and Young, I.G. (1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome." Nature 290(5806):457-465. Barrell, B.G., Anderson, S., Bankier, A.T., de Bruijn, M.H., Chen, E., Coulson, A.R., Drouin, J., Eperon, I.C., Nierlich, D.P., Roe, B.A., Sanger, F., Schreier, P.H., Smith, A.J., Staden, R. and Young, I.G. (1980). "Different pattern of codon recognition by mammalian mitochondrial tRNAs." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 77(6):3164-3166. Barrell, B.G., Bankier, A.T. and Drouin, J. (1979). "A different genetic code in human mitochondria." Nature 282(5735):189-194. ...
Why is the changing of a single base the least serious form of mutation? Addition and deletion mutations generally produce nonfunctional proteins or no protein product at all. They are frameshift mutations. A frameshift mutation alters the reading frame of the DNA sequence and changes all the amino acids in the protein product after the point of mutation. Substitution mutations merely replace one base with another. Because the genetic code is redundant some substitutions will have no effect at all. For example the substitution of a uracil for a cytosine in the codon CCU will have no effect on the protein produced as both CCU and CCC code for proline. Substitutions that replace one amino acid with another vary widely in their effect depending on the substitution and its location in the amino acid chain.. A substitution that produces the stop codon (AUG) is the most serious as it will end an amino acid chain prematurely. Other substitutions can have severe effects if the replacement of an amino ...
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.[1][2][3] The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 naturally occurring amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways.[4] They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity, pH level, and side chain group type (aliphatic, acyclic, aromatic, containing hydroxyl or sulfur, etc.). In the form of proteins, amino acid residues form the second-largest component (water is the largest) of human muscles and other tissues.[5] Beyond their role as residues in proteins, amino acids participate in a number of processes ...
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyw (-COOH) functionaw groups, awong wif a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.[1][2][3] The key ewements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, awdough oder ewements are found in de side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known (dough onwy 20 appear in de genetic code) and can be cwassified in many ways.[4] They can be cwassified according to de core structuraw functionaw groups wocations as awpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or dewta- (δ-) amino acids; oder categories rewate to powarity, pH wevew, and side chain group type (awiphatic, acycwic, aromatic, containing hydroxyw or suwfur, etc.). In de form of proteins, amino acid residues form de second-wargest component (water is de wargest) of human muscwes and oder tissues.[5] Beyond deir rowe as residues in proteins, amino acids participate in a number of processes such as neurotransmitter transport and ...
codon) 16 and alterations in receptor downregulation upon prolonged exposure to β2-receptor agonists.9 SNPs such as this that result in amino acid substitution are referred to as nonsynonymous. SNPs that do not result in amino acid substitution are called synonymous. Referring to a previous example of redundancy in the genetic code, replacement of adenine (A) with cytosine (C) in the codon GGA is an example of a synonymous SNP because both GGA and GGC code for glycine. Synonymous SNPs usually are abbreviated based on the nucleotides involved and the nucleotide base position. For example, 1166A>C indicates that either adenine or cytosine may occur, with adenine occurring most often at position 1166 of a given gene region. Nonsynonymous SNPs usually are designated by the amino acids and codon involved. For example, Arg16Gly (or R16G using amino acid symbols) indicates that glycine may be substituted for arginine at codon 16. Alternatively, SNPs may be referred to by their reference SNP number (or ...
Taxonomy codes are administrative codes set for identifying the practitioner type and area of specialization for health care practitioners. Each taxonomy code is a unique ten character alphanumeric code that enables practitioners to identify their specialty at the claim level. Taxonomy codes are assigned at both the individual practitioner and organizational practitioner level.. Taxonomy codes have three distinct levels: Level I is the practitioner type, Level II is Classification, and Level III is the Area of Specialization. A complete list of taxonomy codes can be found within the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).. Taxonomy codes are self-reported, both by registering with the National Plan and Provider Enumeration System (NPPES) and by electronic and paper claims submission.. Taxonomy Codes registered with NPPES at the time of NPI application are reflected on the confirmation notice document received from NPPES with the providers assigned NPI number. Current ...
Credit: Columbia University. They compressed the files into a master file, and then split the data into short strings of binary code made up of ones and zeros. Using an erasure-correcting algorithm called fountain codes, they randomly packaged the strings into so-called droplets, and mapped the ones and zeros in each droplet to the four nucleotide bases in DNA: A, G, C and T. The algorithm deleted letter combinations known to create errors, and added a barcode to each droplet to help reassemble the files later.. In all, they generated a digital list of 72,000 DNA strands, each 200 bases long, and sent it in a text file to a San Francisco DNA-synthesis startup, Twist Bioscience, that specializes in turning digital data into biological data. Two weeks later, they received a vial holding a speck of DNA molecules.. To retrieve their files, they used modern sequencing technology to read the DNA strands, followed by software to translate the genetic code back into binary. They recovered their files ...
The ribosome is a complex macromolecule consisting of RNA and protein subunits that is responsible for translating the genetic code and protein synthesis. Within its large subunit, the exit tunnel exists as a conduit for nascent peptides to traverse before reaching the cytoplasm or membrane translocon. The tips of the extended loops (also called tentacles) of two proteins, L4 and L22, contribute to the surface of the narrowest portion of Escherichia colis exit tunnel. Mutations in the tentacles of the L4 and L22 proteins promote resistance to a class of antibiotics referred to as macrolides. Although the mutant strains have the advantage of growing in the presence of the antibiotic, erythromycin, they have the disadvantage of growing slower than the wildtype. The decreased rate of growth may be a reflection of structural changes within the 23S rRNA component of the large subunit induced by structural changes in L4 and L22, which in turn result in defects in ribosomal assembly and/or peptide ...
Courtesy of the National Human Genome Research Institute and AncestryDNA.com). Allele. An allele is a variation at a specific location along the genetic code. As a simplified example, at the locus that contains the code for eye color, some people have the allele for blue eyes, and others have the allele for brown eyes. When comparing individuals to determine they share a common ancestor, the allele values at each of the tested loci (also known as markers) are compared.. Autosomal DNA. Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans, 22 are autosomal (the other pair being sex chromosomes). Autosomal DNA gets shuffled and recombined in the process of sexual reproduction, unlike Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which are passed on relatively unchanged onto the next generation. Most of your physical characteristics come from your autosomal DNA; however, this personal genetic information is neither relevant nor tested for in genetic genealogy. In genealogical autosomal DNA tests, only the non-coding DNA ...
Neurofibrillary tangles, often referred to as "tangles," are one of the characteristic brain changes in Alzheimers disease. Tangles are made from abnormal clumps of the protein tau, which normally functions as part of the cell structure and machinery to transport nutrients throughout the cell. The mechanisms that trigger the formation of tangles are not well understood. RNA (ribonucleic acid) is a long-stranded molecule that performs several functions in the cell, but one of its most prominent functions is to carry the genetic code from the genes in your DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) to the machinery for making proteins. Several proteins bind to RNA, also known as RNA-binding proteins, some of which are responsible for making sure the RNA is folded into the right shape to make it function correctly. In some situations, such as when cells are under stress, RNA-binding proteins form clumps that store RNA for later use; these clumps are known as stress granules. Benjamin Wolozin, Ph.D., and ...
The PCR technique was first presented as recently as 1985 but is nevertheless already one of the most widespread methods of analysing DNA. With PCR it is possible to replicate several million times, in a test tube, an individual DNA segment of a complicated genetic material. Mullis has described how he got the idea for the PCR during a night drive in the Californian mountains. Two short oligonucleotides are synthesized so that they are bound correctly to opposite strands of the DNA segment it is wished to replicate. At the points of contact an added enzyme (DNA polymerase) can start to read off the genetic code and link code words through which two new double strands of DNA are formed. The sample is then heated, which makes the strands separate so that they can be read off again. The procedure is then repeated time after time, doubling at each step the number of copies of the desired DNA segment. Through such repetitive cycles it is possible to obtain millions of copies of the desired DNA ...
Subject: Lambda Lunch update To: [email protected] Lambda lunch update, 5/26/09: 5/28/09*: Amar Klar "Asymmetric cell division through selective chromatid segregation" 6/4/08*: Dolph Hatfield: "A single codon decodes specifically two amino acids at internal positions of protein: A new wrinkle in the genetic code" 6/11/08*: Masha Kireeva: "Mechanism of sequence-specific pausing of bacterial RNA polymerase" 6/18/09*: ASM and Berlin RNA meeting Review 6/25/09: No Lambda Lunch -- FASEB procaryotic transcription meeting 7/2/09*: Tony Furano 7/16/09*: Michael Laub (MIT) (Bob Weisberg) *Regular lambda lunch at 11:00 AM in Bldg 37, Rm 6107/6041. To schedule seminars, contact Susan Gottesman ...
In order for an accidentally generated string of letters to convey a meaningful message, it needs to satisfy three very stringent conditions, each more difficult than the last: first, the letters need to be arranged into meaningful words; second, the sequence of words has to conform to the rules of syntax; and finally, the sequence of words has to make sense at the semantic level: in other words, it needs to express a meaningful proposition. For a string of letters generated at random to meet all of these conditions would indeed be fantastically improbable. But heres the thing: living things dont need to satisfy any of these conditions. Yes, it is true that all living things possess a genetic code. But it is quite impossible for this code to generate anything like nonsense words like "sdfuiop", and additionally, there is nothing in the genome which is remotely comparable to the rules of syntax, let alone the semantics of a meaningful proposition. The sequence of amino acids in a protein needs ...
Actin Cytoskeletal 43 kD protein forming the backbone of the cytoplasmic microfilament system and the thin filament system of muscle sacomeres. In humans, there are distinct muscle (4 alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, alpha-smooth, gamma-smooth) and non-muscle (2 cytoskeletal beta-, gamma-) actin isoforms. Exists as globular actin monomer (G-actin) and microfilament polymer (F-actin). Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling. These gene is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an inherited disorder characterized by the development of myriad polyps in the colon. The gene is located on chromosome 5. [47] Amino acid One of the 20 building blocks of protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein and, hence, the function of that protein are determined by the genetic code in the DNA. Amino acids are molecules that (in technical terms) contain a basic amino (NH2) group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side chain attached to an alpha carbon ...
Raymond Gesteland, biologist, has made progress in describing essential mechanisms for controlled gene expression. His research on recoding provides insight into replication of RNA viruses such as HIV and the genetic code. Gesteland also concentrates on ribosome function and response to mRNA signals. He received a masters degree in biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin and earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University. After working at Alfred Tissières Laboratory in Geneva, in 1967, Gesteland arrived at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory to work under Jim Watson as Assistant Director for Research.. Gesteland is currently Vice President for Research, Distinguished Professor of Human Genetics, and Chairman of the Department of Human Genetics at the University of Utah.. ...
Dr. Gene Yeos lab at University of California, San Diego focuses on how gene expression is controlled at the level of RNA, the intermediary step in the DNA to RNA to protein pathway by which genes produce proteins. His lab is specifically interested in RNA processing, RNA binding proteins, and how defects in RNA binding proteins cause neurological and neuromuscular diseases like DM.. In a recent publication in Cell and a more detailed commentary on technology development in Bioessays, Yeo and colleagues show that incorporating a fluorescent tag into the CRISPR-Cas9 system allows them to target and track the movements of RNA within individual living cells. Importantly, the binding of the CRISPR-Cas9 tracker did not appear to influence the level of RNA or its function, letting it function as an inert tracking tool. We know that proper RNA localization and movement within the cell is essential to faithfully transmit the genetic code into protein synthesis. This latest publication offers an ...
Subjects will be selected using a non-probability sampling method. For each center of excellence, the local network of referring physicians will be assigned, according to a random code in a 1:1 ratio, to use one of the two referral strategies for eligible patients ...
Gene switch. Conceptual computer artwork representing a gene switch, showing a switch (red) on one of the arms of a chromosome. Chromosomes, found in cell nuclei, contain the genetic material DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Genes are sections of the genetic code (contained in DNA) which perform a specific function and contain the instructions to produce proteins for a specific purpose. This function can be switched on or off (activated or repressed) by proteins that bind to DNA. Some gene therapies take advantage of this by switching certain genes on or off in order to treat a genetic disorder. Gene switching is also part of the normal cell biochemistry. - Stock Image G200/0125
Apparent bareness had to evolve before sweating could evolve, and it could only evolve while early hominids did not need protection from sever heat stress: while the tropical forest cover was their chosen habitat.. Sweating had to evolve before humans could venture far into the savannah environment in order to deal with the sever heat stress of living in that environment without the protection of {fur\hair}: while the forest was being replaced with savannah but still provided refuge during times of peak heat stress.. Apparent bareness and other features show signs of run-away sexual selection; the genetic code shows sign of active selection at a rate higher than normal natural selection, thus reinforcing the (circumstantial) evidence for sexual selection having been an active mechanism in human evolution.. While such an evolutionary process may include specific {feature\direction} aspects, it certainly was not random evolution, but it also certainly was not free of random circumstances (change ...
WALNUT CREEK, CA-After a genome is sequenced and automatically annotated, researchers often manually review the predicted genes and their functions in order to improve accuracy and coverage across the vast genetic code of the particular target organism or community of organisms. These annotations drive the publication of high-profile science relevant to advancing bioenergy research and our understanding of biogeochemistry-the biological, chemical, physical, and geological processes that regulate our environment.. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and the Biological Data Management and Technology Center (BDMTC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have launched the Expert Review (ER) version of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system. IMG ER supports and enhances the review and revision of annotations for both publicly available genome datasets and those newly released from private institutions.. "IMG ER provides scientists with curation ...
Many animals, ranging from the rat to the puffer fish, have had their genome sequenced, and now humankinds closest living relative, the chimpanzee, has joined the group. The publication of a draft sequence of this primates genome today in the journal Nature provides the most detailed look yet at the similarities, and differences, between humans and chimps. Previous studies comparing DNA between the two analyzed randomly selected regions of the genetic codes that comprised around 500 base pairs each. The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, made up of 67 scientists from around the world, set out to catalogue the chimps entire genome, which contains some three billion base pairs. The researchers studied the DNA of Clint, a male chimp that lived at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Ga., until he passed away at the age of 24. Using the shotgun sequencing approach, they mapped 94 percent of the genome with a high degree of certainty, covering some parts of the ...
Receptors have been identified on the surface of cells, which function as locks to be opened by various circulating substances (i.e., hormones) initiating a series of downstream events. Mutations in this cascade of on/off switches can promote tumor growth.. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, new sequencing technologies have also opened up the prospect of personal genome sequencing as an important diagnostic tool. A major step toward that goal was the completion of the sequencing of the full genome, first on James D. Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. In fact, Steve Jobs had personal genome sequencing. The price is down to $1,000 and Mayo Clinic Proceedings recently had an article raising the concern of direct to consumer advertising for genomic sequencing. We are now able to sequence gene by gene, pathway by pathway, the genetic code of some cancers. New "smart" drugs have been developed that target various mutations in these pathways. And currently there ...