Data from a toxicity trial with male Wistar rats: Relative liver weights in a negative control group and in 4 dose groups with an increasing dose of an active treatment. After treatment the relative liver weights of the rats were computed.
Rat study Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Female CD (SD) female rats were dosed once daily from GD6-GD15 with 87.4, 393 or 568 mg/kg diethylhydroxylamine by gavage (Stump, 1997a). Animals were sacrificed on GD20. During gestation days 6 -9, a reduced mean body weight gain occurred in the 393 mg/kg/day group and a mean body weight loss occurred in the 568 mg/kg/day group; the differences from the control group were statistically significant. Food consumption, evaluated as g/animal/day and g/kg/day, was reduced in the 393 and 568 mg/kg/day groups throughout the entire treatment period (gestation days 6-9, 9-12 and 12-16); the differences from the control group were statistically significant. All maternal animals survived to the scheduled necropsy on gestation day 20. Intrauterine growth and survival were unaffected by test article administration at any dose level. Parameters evaluated included postimplantation loss, live litter size, mean fetal body weights, fetal sex ratios and the mean ...
A simple analysis of differences in brain weight among numerous strains of mice has been carried out in part as a prelude to this program project. For the great majority of animals, we now have information on sex, body weight, age, and type and quality of fixation. Both sexes and a wide range of ages have been studied and incorporated into the MBL. Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the data is that they reveal large differences in brain weight between several substrains of mice that carry only modest genetic differences. For instance, brain weights of BALB/cByJ and BALB/cJ mice differ by 76 mg. C57L/J and C57BL/6J differ by 88 mg. C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeSnJ also differ by 88 mg. The closely matched differences in these three pairs are tantalizing. Presumably, the differences are generated by a very small number of polymorphic genesprobably one or two genes. Since some of the parental strains were already fully inbred prior to being split into substrains, it is unlikely that the variation is due ...
Which is part of the problem is being able to try on different packs. The shop I went to measured me, and put some weight in the pack (maybe 20-25lbs), but to me it felt like the pack was rocking on my hips some. I may go look at it again and see if I can fine tune it some more to get a good fit out of it ...
This project is aimed at understanding the genetic pathways that tissue growth and organ size in vivo. Previous studies in our laboratory have utilized a screen...
For men who have tried almost every product medical science has thrown their way to enlarge their Male organ, but still havent been able to see any positive
The dossier contains a subacute repeated oral dose toxicity study in rats performed according to OECD TG 407 with AAS doses of up to and including the limit dose of 1000 mg/kg bw and day. No effects on the reproductive organs or tissues were observed at any dose. The NOAEL for adverse effects on reproductive organs or tissues can therefore be determined with 1000 mg/kg bw. Although studies on fertility, respectively multigeneration studies are not available for AAS further testing is considered to be of low priority. In accordance to REACH Annex XI, section 1.2. there is sufficient weight of evidence to conclude that AAS is not a reproductive toxicant and therefore further testing on vertebrate animals for that property shall be omitted (for details see waiver for fertility/multigeneration study). In line with REACH Annex XI, section 1.1.2 the available information on the reproductive toxicity potential of AAS is adequate for the purpose of classification and labeling and/or risk assessment. ...
By the way, the heaviest pack I carried was about 100 pounds for 8 miles - carrying out elk meat. I weigh 115 pounds. In the 1970s on NOLS 2-wk winter courses all our packs started at about 70 pounds. Our summer packs, as instructors, with 15 days rations, were always about 60 pounds. We all survived, but did not travel very fast. Our gear was bombproof but heavy. The lightest I have gone lately is 26 pounds for 8 days (had to take an ice axe). My 10-day trip packs (Sierra high country) usually start at 35 (summer) - 40 (shoulder season) pounds. Also, as a rule of thumb, if your food is over 2 pounds per day, you are probably taking too much or the wrong kind ...
hen kidney diminishes in size, it will become less unable to perform their functions. When kidney size decreases to 6.7 cm, can it be reversed?
Ladies arent the main individuals with self-perception concerns. Among the top on mens rundown is frequently male organ measure. Misguided judgments about what their size ought to be, to a great extent in light of porno stars male organs and conceivably the lies of more than a couple of companions, can prompt critical certainty issues that meddle with a mans mental and erotic prosperity. Since successive utilization of the masculinity is an imperative piece of male organ mind, his part wellbeing might be influenced also. Its an ideal opportunity to get the realities straight on male organ size, and men can do as such with the assistance of science. ...
Plant organs grow to characteristic sizes that are genetically controlled. In animals, signaling by mobile growth factors is thought to be an effective mechanism for measuring primordium size, yet how plants gauge organ size is unclear. Here, we identify the Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 KLUH (KLU)/CY …
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It has been proposed - but remains controversial - that estrogens effects on various tissues may be mediated by different cell signaling pathways. Researchers have identified a synthetic ligand that activates only a subset of these pathways, suggesting that bypass of the traditional estrogen pathway can prevent bone loss without associated side effects on reproductive organs.. ...
In the M83-taken care of animals FAP activity for every tissue weight was about decreased when when compared with values from tumors in untreated anim
Absolute weight is not the only important criterion by which to evaluate the horse. Appearance and condition have always been used as indicators of fitness and health. This condition score system was developed in an attempt to standardize these descriptions and to allow for easier comparison and communication: 1. POOR Animal is extremely emaciated; spinal column…
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Pterygoids> TMJ and sinus ache. These muscles are The trick of achievement in alligator wrestling. These jaw-opening muscles are extremely weak compared to the effective jaw-closing masseter and temporalis. They may be strained by this sort of basic points as taking in sticky, chewy foods. The lateral pterygoids (at proper) aid to open up the jaw and force it forward. They generally develop result in points that induce laterial deviation on opening the jaw, subsequently leading to pain and/or clicking from the TMJ joint. They will block drainage from your maxillary sinus triggering continue to more agony. They are also connected to tinnitis and can entrap the buccal nerve (a branch in the trigeminal nerve) causing numbness / tingling in the cheek (see buccinator, below ...
The kidney mass is significantly increased in hypertensive ISIAH rats with Inherited Stress Induced Arterial Hypertension as compared with normotensive WAG rats. The QTL/microarray approach was carried out to determine the positional candidate genes in the QTL for absolute and relative kidney weight. Several known and predicted genes differentially expressed in ISIAH and WAG kidney were mapped to genetic loci associated with the absolute and relative kidney weight in 6-month old F2 hybrid (ISIAHxWAG) males. The knowledge-driven filtering of the list of candidates helped to suggest several positional candidate genes, which may be related to the structural and mass changes in hypertensive ISIAH kidney. In the current study, we showed that all loci found for absolute and relative kidney weight didnt overlap with significant or suggestive loci for arterial blood pressure level. So, the genes differentially expressed in ISIAH and WAG kidneys and located in these QTL regions associated with absolute and
Comparative studies of the relative testes size in animals show that promiscuous species have relatively larger testes than monogamous species. Sperm competition favours the evolution of larger ejaculates in many animals - they give bigger testes. In the view, we presented data on relative testis mass for 17 Chinese species including 3 polyandrous species. We analyzed relative testis mass within the Chinese data set and combining those data with published data sets on Japanese and African frogs. We found that polyandrous foam nesting species have relatively large testes, suggesting that sperm competition was an important factor affecting the evolution of relative testes size. For 4 polyandrous species testes mass is positively correlated with intensity (males/mating) but not with risk (frequency of polyandrous matings) of sperm competition.
Webb and Hansen (1963) administered methyl salicylate in the diet to groups of 24-25 male and 25-26 female Osborne-Mendel rats at dietary concentrations of 0, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0%, providing doses of approximately 0, 50, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight/day for two years. All rats in the 1000 mg/kg group died by the 49th week. Body weight of both sexes were significantly decreased in both the 500 and 1000 mg/kg group body weight/day groups. Gross pituitary gland lesions were found in 10 rats at 250 mg/kg bw/day compared to 4 rats in the control groups. Incidence in the 500 mg/kg/day group was similar to controls, while all animals of the 1000 mg/kg/day group died before the usual age at which many spontaneous lesions develop. Similar kinds and numbers of tumors occurred in rats of all diets except the 1000 mg/kg/day group (premature decedents), with mammary tumors of the females being the most common. Benign pituitary tumors occurred in similar numbers of surviving rats on all diets, ...
The mechanisms controlling mammalian organ size have long been a source of fascination for biologists. These controls are needed to both ensure the integrity of the body plan and to restrict inappropriate proliferation that could lead to cancer. Regulation of liver size is of particular interest inasmuch as this organ maintains the capacity for regeneration throughout life, and is able to regain precisely its original mass after partial surgical resection. Recent studies using genetically engineered mouse strains have shed new light on this problem; the Hippo signalling pathway, first elucidated as a regulator of organ size in \(Drosophila\), has been identified as dominant determinant of liver growth. Defects in this pathway in mouse liver lead to sustained liver overgrowth and the eventual development of both major types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. In this review, we discuss the role of Hippo signalling in liver biology and the contribution of this pathway ...
Brain size relative to body size has been used by generations of scientists to predict an animals intelligence. For example, although the human brain is not the largest in the animal kingdom in terms of volume or mass, it is exceptionally large considering our moderate body mass.. Now, a study by a team of scientists at UCL, the University of Konstanz, and the Max Planck Institute of Ornithology has found that the relationship between the two traits is driven by different evolutionary mechanisms in different animals.. Crucially, researchers have found that the most significant factor in determining relative brain size is often evolutionary pressure on body size, and not brain size. For example, the evolutionary history of bats reveals they decreased body size much faster than brain size, leading to an increase in relative brain size. As a result, small bats were able to evolve improved flying manoeuvrability while maintaining the brainpower to handle foraging in cluttered environments.. This ...
Brain weight is often said to be decreased in schizophrenia, but a reduction has only been found in a minority of studies. We have therefore carried out a meta-analysis to answer this basic neuropathological question. Data were identified from literature searches and from contacting researchers in the field who were invited to submit unpublished data. Inclusion criteria were: an operational diagnosis of schizophrenia, or comparison subjects with no neurological or psychiatric history, aged 18 or over, for whom brain weight, age and sex were known. Exclusion criteria were: a history of head injury, epilepsy, substance dependence or leucotomy; neuropathological evidence of neurodegenerative disorder or focal brain lesion. Results were analysed by multilevel modelling. Brain weight was, as expected, related to age and sex (both p|0.0001). After control for these factors, there was an effect of diagnosis, with brains from the 540 schizophrenia subjects being 2% lighter than from the 794 controls (weighted
Introduction: Dysregulated expression of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor type II (BMPR2) is a pathogenetic hallmark in the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We recently demonstrated that microRNA 20a (miR-20a) represses the expression of BMPR2. Here we investigated the therapeutic potential of antagonizing miR-20a in an in vivo model of PH.. Methods: For in vivo inhibition of miR-20a, antagomiR-20a (A-20a) was injected intraperitoneally into mice with hypoxia-induced PH. After three weeks of hypoxia, morphometry and blood gas analysis were performed. RNA levels of miR-20a, BMPR2, Smad5, and Id2 were assessed by real-time PCR in hearts and lungs.. Results: Intraperitoneal injection of A-20a resulted in significant down regulation of miR-20a in lungs. When exposed to hypoxia, animals treated with A-20a developed less right ventricular hypertrophy as evidenced by relative heart weight. Treatment with A-20a reduced the hemoglobin levels and, moreover, the acid-base status ...
Loss in placentome number paralleled the observed drop in fetal and organ weights. The study found increased placentomal weight representing better placental efficiency, but similar to what we found in more extreme space restriction (Meyer et al. 2010; Meyer‐Gesch et al. 2013), after GD120, the ability to compensate in higher‐order multifetal gestation was limited. Thus, in this situation, placental efficiency does not accurately reflect functional indices including placental clearance or delivery of nutrients and metabolites. As anticipated, brain weights (g) did not fall, but rose when expressed as ratio of brain weight (g) per body weight, (kg) as fetal number per ewe rose, defining head‐sparing asymmetric growth restriction, with other organ weights proportionate to body weight. As anticipated, males weighed more than females. Brain weight fell slightly (86% of singletons) when fetal number reached four. Many of the fetal body weights fell below our flocks 10th percentile for ...
Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to accurately model the evolution of normal pediatric regional relative brain metabolism as a function of age and sex. Our models showed excellent agreement with our validation data. We have shown that, when normalized either to whole-brain activity or to a specific region (i.e., pons), regional relative brain metabolism in all cortical and subcortical regions evolves with age. Furthermore, we have shown that sex differences, although present, have a very limited effect on the evolution of regional relative brain metabolism. Qualitatively, our results were comparable to those seen in other studies, showing a posterior-to-anterior shift in regional relative brain metabolism with age, with the degree of activity in the frontal lobes being relatively attenuated during the initial years of life, gradually increasing, and peaking in late prepubescence (4,9,10).. A few studies have examined the evolution of regional relative brain metabolism in childhood. ...
Abstract: An Assessment of Serum Metabolites, Liver Enzymes Activities and Relative Organ Characteristics in Rabbits Fed Varying Levels of Chromolaena Odorata
For some time there have been suspicions that brain weight is reduced consistent with the structural change suggested by the ventricular enlargement documented in radiological studies, but the findings have been variable between postmortem samples. Harrison et al have now clearly established that the effect is real (2% of brain weight, p = 0.04) and that it applies approximately equally to males and females.. What is the meaning of the finding? As Harrison et al argue the result encourages a continuing search for the histological and molecular correlates of schizophrenia, but it also sets limits on what can be expected from such a search. There has been recent interest in the question of what component of the disease deteriorates. Some patients get worse with time and some of these never experience a restitutio ad integrum (complete recovery). If a structural correlate were identified this finding would have clinical and potential therapeutic significance. But if the implication is that ...
No adverse effects on reproductive organs were identified in the 90 day study in rats on C12-14-diamine. This study was performed according to OECD 408 and does not include detailed reproductive parameters as indicated in OECD 416. Nevertheless, the 90 day study did not indicate any effects on weight of testes, prostate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, and uterus. Histological examination of these tissues also confirmed no treatment-related effects. There was a very slight increase in relative weight of the epididymis in the high dose animals but there were no corresponding histological changes. There was also no indication of a dose-response relationship. Accordingly, the effect on epididymis is not believed to be treatment related ...
While we did not detect any regions of larger GM volume in men than in women, there were a number of regions indicating larger GM volumes in women than in men. We will comment on significance clusters detected when comparing matched women and matched men in particular. This constitutes the special case of this study, where possible effects of brain size can be excluded with certainty. As detailed below, there is a strong resemblance between current findings and outcomes from previous studies (i.e., where men always exhibited larger brains than women). Of note, brain size matching is not proposed to substitute traditional analyses that include men and women with different brain sizes. Such analyses will continue to provide important clues about differences between male and female brains, especially if appropriate strategies are used to account for individual differences in brain size. However, brain size matching, as applied in the present study, clarifies whether observed sex differences are ...
Naphthalene ingestion can cause severe toxicity in humans, especially in infants and individuals with a deficiency in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Since NAP readily crosses the placenta, it has the potential to be developmentally toxic. Accordingly, NAP (0, 50, 150, or 450 mg/kg/day) was administered by gavage to pregnant rats during the major period of organogenesis (gd 6-15). Dams and fetuses were examined for signs of toxicity and teratogenicity. Each group contained 25 to 26 pregnant dams.. NAP administration produced clinical signs of toxicity. All doses of NAP caused lethargy, slow breathing, prone body posture, and rooting, but the effects subsided in the 50 and 150 mg/kg/day groups before the end of the treatment period. Clinical toxicity persisted throughout dosing in rats treated with 450 mg/kg/day NAP.. Maternal mortality was low and limited to two animals in the 50 mg/kg/day group. Based upon the absence of maternal deaths at the higher doses, the association between ...
I have a kidney mass and three kidney cysts. The cysts are not a concern to the urologist. The liver lesions are a concern. There are two of them. I have micro-blood in the urine for 3 months, pain...
Keywords: Yap, zoom lens, organogenesis, body organ size control, polarity Launch One of the interesting queries in organogenesis is normally how cells constituting an body organ understand when to either separate or end proliferating in purchase for them to attain a particular body organ size and maintain a steady-state quantity of cells within the cell human population. The Hippo-Yap (Yes-associated proteins) signaling path offers been demonstrated to regulate cell expansion and apoptosis during advancement (Edgar, 2006; Tapon and Harvey, 2007). Primary parts of the signaling path composed of two serine/threonine kinases, Mst1/2 (Hippo) and Lats1/2 (Warts), adversely regulate transcriptional cofactor Yap (Yorkie) by phosphorylating and sequestering it in the cytoplasm (Zhao et al., 2007). In the lack of Hippo upstream signaling, hypophosphorylated Yap translocates to the nucleus where it binds to DNA with sequence-specific transcription element TEAD (Scalloped) and activates the transcription ...
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity ...
Upon gross examination, we observed significant enlargement and darkening of the liver after 150 days of DDC feeding in both KO check details and WT livers (Fig. 2A). However, we noted the formation of hepatic nodules in 7 out of 7 KOs after 150 days of DDC diet feeding; however, no nodules were observed in the WT (Fig. 2A). We previously reported that our β-catenin KO mice have smaller livers than WT.9 However, after 80 days of DDC feeding the liver weight / body weight ratio equalized, with. a modest increase in the KO liver at 150 days of DDC feeding (Fig. 2B). It has been previously reported that DDC feeding induces activation of stellate cells, which results in fibrosis in the mouse liver as a function of atypical ductular proliferation.2 We performed trichrome staining to analyze the amount of fibrosis in our study. KO livers showed greater fibrosis after 80 and 150 days of DDC feeding than the WT controls at the same stages of DDC exposure. (Fig. 2C). Overall, the percentage of area of ...
The Hippo signaling pathway has emerged as a critical regulator for organ size control. The serine/threonine protein kinases Mst1 and Mst2, mammalian homologs of the Hippo kinase from Drosophila, play the cent... Authors: Funiu Qin, Jing Tian, Dawang Zhou and Lanfen Chen. ...
Here the article can help you learn more about Lupus Nephritis and some feasible treatments to delay the progression of renal lesions, hoping this can help you take better care of yourself and choose a more suitable therapy.
Brain mass lesions are a broad collection of pathological processes that result in changes on brain imaging (usually CT or MRI). They are a very disparate group of conditions ranging from infection (abscess) to brain tumours (benign and slow-grow...
TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors bind to the co-activator YAP/TAZ, and regulate the transcriptional output of Hippo pathway, playing critical roles in organ size control and tumorigenesis. Protein S-palmitoylation ...
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A 52-year-old man presents with symptoms of hematuria. A mass in the right kidney is found on imaging studies. What is your diagnosis?
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Biochemistry, Metabolism:, Growth:, Hereditary Factors:, Life-History Effects:, Organs:, Strains: A(CAL-A) (A/J), AKR, BALB/C, BDP, CBA, C3HEB, C57BL/6, C57BR/CD, DBA/1 (12), DBA/2 (212), MA (MARSH), P, SIMPSON, RF (W), SJL, SM, ST/B (STB), SWR, 129. ...
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A simple, straight- forward measurement could be better at determining the body mass index. The BMI measures weight relative to height. But it doesnt accurately calculate body fat. Doctors say it often deems athletes or muscular people to be obese, and underestimates body fat in older people. A study in the journal pediatrics suggests neck […]. ...
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Early lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration causes transient body and brain weight loss and decreases the cerebellar area. (A) Body and brain of CD1 wild-type
Is athleticism linked to brain size? exercise-loving mice have larger midbrains. Is athleticism linked to brain size? To find out, researchers at the University ...
The effect of doses of estradiol ranging from 0-0125 to 1-6 mug on the uterine weight of the spayed rat was studied 24 h after a… Expand ...