A symbology reader which reduces the effects of specular reflection. A plurality of illumination sources emit light toward a target object. A first polarization filter receives the unpolarized light from the illumination sources and transmits only light polarized in a first direction. Light reflected from the target object travels back to the reader where it is received by a second polarizer which is oriented to block light polarized in the first direction and transmit only light polarized in a second direction orthogonal to the first polarization direction. Non-specularly reflected light reflected from the target object is largely transmitted by the second polarizer to a detector assembly within the symbology reader. In one embodiment the polarization filters are part of a window which covers an output aperture of the reader. The polarization filters are implemented as discrete pieces of laminar polarizing film attached to a transparent window base. In an alternative embodiment, a wavelength filter is
Stephan et al. (Stephan, K. et al. [2010]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, 7104-+.) first saw the glint of sunlight specularly reflected off of Titans lakes. We develop a quantitative model for analyzing the photometric lightcurve generated during a flyby in which the specularly reflected light flux depends on the fraction of the solar specular footprint that is covered by liquid. We allow for surface waves that spread out the geographic specular intensity distribution. Applying the model to the VIMS T58 observations shows that the waves on Jingpo Lacus must have slopes of no greater than 0.15??, two orders of magnitude flatter than waves on Earths oceans. Combining the model with theoretical estimates of the intensity of the specular reflection allows a tighter constraint on the waves: |0.05?? Residual specular signal while the specular point lies on land implies that either the land is wetted, the wave slope distribution is non-Gaussian,...
The IR Specular Reflection Set provides a complete solution for state-of-the-art measurement of the emissivity of coated glazing products according to international standards.
Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the most heterogeneous and largest pools of reactive carbon on earth, rivaling in mass the carbon in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nevertheless, the molecular-level composition of marine DOM has eluded detailed description, impeding inquiry into the specific mechanisms that add or remove compounds from the DOM pool. Here we describe the molecular-level composition of C18-extracted DOM along an east-west transect of the North Atlantic Ocean. We examine the changes in DOM composition along this transect with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics. We use indicator species analysis (ISA) to identify possible source markers for photochemical degradation and heterotrophic bacterial metabolism. The inclusion of ISA in statistical evaluation of DOM mass spectral data allows investigators to determine the m/z values associated with significant changes in DOM composition. With this technique, we observe indicator m/z values in ...
Light wedges that reflect light internally and produce diffuse light for uniformly illuminating a platen in a print scanner are presented. In one example, a light wedge has a first surface that receives light emitted from an illumination source and a second surface that limits specular reflections. The light wedge transmits light from the illumination source toward the platen, whereby uniform illumination is provided to the platen. In another example, a light wedge has an illumination surface that receives light emitted from the illumination source, a first surface that limits specular reflections, and a second surface that acts as a diffuser. The second surface reflects light out of the light wedge toward the platen, whereby uniform illumination is provided to the platen.
1] This paper presents an altimetric method for ocean monitoring by remote sensing. It uses carrier observations of reflected GNSS signals. The method is illustrated in a simulation study and applied to a long term experiment yielding an ocean tide spectrum. The altimetric concept is based on residual observations of Doppler frequency. A linear relation between Doppler residuals f0 and height departures ΔHfrom the surface level is derived. In contrast to existing phase-based methods which are constrained by smooth ocean conditions, the frequency-based retrieval here described holds good for rougher ocean conditions. Two retrievals of Doppler residuals are distinguished: Tracking Retrieval and Spectral Retrieval. A simulation study investigates the performance of Spectral Retrieval for a rough ocean surface with a noise-like sea level deviationξ(t). Simulation settings were adjusted to reflection events in coastal experiments with an elevation range of [5…15] deg. In this range Tracking ...
Cyanine dye bioconjugates useful for diagnostic imaging and therapy are disclosed. The conjugates include several cyanine dyes with a variety of bis- and tetrakis (carboxylic acid) homologs. The compo
Platinum germanides (PtGe) were investigated for infrared plasmonic applications. Layers of Pt and Ge were deposited and annealed. X-ray diffraction identified PtGe2 and Pt2Ge3 phases, and x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy determined vertical atomic composition profiles for the films. Complex permittivity spectra were measured by ellipsometry over the 2 to 15 μm wavelength range. Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) characteristics such as propagation length and field penetration depth were calculated. Photon-to-SPP couplers in the form of 1D lamellar gratings were fabricated and characterized in the range 9 - 10.5 μm via wavelength-dependent specular reflection spectra for multiple angles of incidence. The observed resonances compare well with calculated spectra for SPP excitation on PtGe2. Platinum germanides are CMOS compatible and may serve as SPP hosts for on-chip mid-IR plasmonic components with tighter field confinement than noble-metal hosts.. © 2015 Optical Society of America. Full ...
TracePro offers life sciences and medical device designers a powerful, complete simulation tool ideally suited to their needs. TracePro facilitates the design and development process by communicating across disciplines including optics, mechanics, materials, chemistry, and biology. This is extremely important for medical instrumentation and device designers who must communicate system level specifications and design elements to both scientists and engineers.. Medical system designers use TracePro to minimize the cost and time of iterative hardware prototyping and laboratory and clinical testing. Create models by directly creating the solid geometry in TracePro or by importing from a lens design program or a CAD program. Light rays propagate through the model with portions of the flux of each ray allocated for absorption, specular reflection and transmission, fluorescence, and scattering.. TracePro can simulate and analyze many aspects of optical systems including ...
TracePro offers life sciences and medical device designers a powerful, complete simulation tool ideally suited to their needs. TracePro facilitates the design and development process by communicating across disciplines including optics, mechanics, materials, chemistry, and biology. This is extremely important for medical instrumentation and device designers who must communicate system level specifications and design elements to both scientists and engineers.. Medical system designers use TracePro to minimize the cost and time of iterative hardware prototyping and laboratory and clinical testing. Create models by directly creating the solid geometry in TracePro or by importing from a lens design program or a CAD program. Light rays propagate through the model with portions of the flux of each ray allocated for absorption, specular reflection and transmission, fluorescence, and scattering.. TracePro can simulate and analyze many aspects of optical systems including ...
Programming assignment: Ray tracing project. Implement a simple recursive ray tracer that can render, at a minimum, several metallic and/or glass spheres above and/or in front of one or more textured background planes. You should implement at least specular reflection, and you should attempt to implement refractive transparency as well (i.e. glass spheres that display both reflective and lensing effects). You should be able to demonstrate interreflections of the spheres. An ambient lighting model is sufficient to demonstrate these effects; however if you are feeling ambitious, you could add light sources, diffuse illumination, and shadows. Parameters you will need to play with include the reflectivity of the spheres (typically from 10% to 90%), and their index of refraction if transparent (ordinary glass is around 1.3). Other parameters you might want to play with include ambient or diffuse colors of the spheres (the sphere may have some color in addition to specularly reflected or transmitted ...
Computational Vision Lab Image motion in cluttered scenes / Flow visualization / Specular reflections / Blur, depth, and occlusions / Light source modelling ...
Computational Vision Lab Image motion in cluttered scenes / Flow visualization / Specular reflections / Blur, depth, and occlusions / Light source modelling ...
Coherent optical excitations in two-dimensional (2D) materials, 2D polaritons, can generate a plethora of optical phenomena that arise from the extraordinary dispersion relations that do not exist in regular materials. Probing of the dynamical phenomena of 2D polaritons requires simultaneous spatial and temporal imaging capabilities and could reveal unknown coherent optical phenomena in 2D materials. Here, we present a spatiotemporal measurement of 2D wave packet dynamics, from its formation to its decay, using an ultrafast transmission electron microscope driven by femtosecond midinfrared pulses. The ability to coherently excite phonon-polariton wave packets and probe their evolution in a nondestructive manner reveals intriguing dispersion-dependent dynamics that includes splitting of multibranch wave packets and, unexpectedly, wave packet deceleration and acceleration. Having access to the full spatiotemporal dynamics of 2D wave packets can be used to illuminate puzzles in topological ...
A scientist might want to do cartwheels upon making a discovery, but this time the discovery itself relies on cartwheels. Researchers at Rice University...
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The Fermi-liquid theory, formulated by Landau in the late 1950s, is one of the most powerful tools in modern condensed-matter physics (1). It captures the behavior of interacting Fermi systems in the normal phase, such as electrons in metals and liquid 3He (2). Within this theory, the interaction is accounted by dressing the fermions as quasi-particles with an effective mass and an effective interaction. The ground state is the so-called Fermi sea, in which the quasi-particles fill one-by-one all the states up to the Fermi momentum, kF. The Fermi surface (FS), which separates occupied from empty states in k-space, is a sphere of radius kF for isotropically interacting fermions in uniform space. The FS is crucial for understanding system excitations and Cooper pairing in superconductors. When complex interactions act, the FS can get modified. For instance, strongly correlated electron systems violate the Fermi-liquid picture, giving rise to a deformed FS, which spontaneously breaks the rotational ...
R/V Sproul Core Retrieval Campaign(SPR0901), January 2009 and Project: Climate change in Southern California: An ultrahigh resolution multiproxy study of the last 2 millennia ...
S. E. Braslavsky. Max-Planck-Institut für Bioanorganische Chemie, Postfach 10 13 65, 45413 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany. Abstract: The second edition of the Glossary of Terms Used in Photochemistry [Pure Appl. Chem. 68, 2223-2286 (1996)] has been both corrected and updated. Terms have been added related to molecular anisotropy, the use of polarized radiation, nonlinear optical phenomena, and the emerging field of computation of excited species. Some changes have been introduced in this Glossary regarding the terms related to radiation energy to make this collection fully compatible with internationally agreed-upon terms. Many links are included to various Web pages listing quantities relevant to the work of photochemists and scientists using photochemical tools ...
OPOD, Optics Picture of the Day, OpticsPOD, Featured images of optical phenomena in the atmosphere, rainbows, halos, corona, glories, rays, shadows and more.
OPOD, Optics Picture of the Day, OpticsPOD, Featured images of optical phenomena in the atmosphere, rainbows, halos, corona, glories, rays, shadows and more.
A spectacular circumhorizontal arc and a perfect solar halo appeared in the sky of Asunción, the capital city of Paraguay on March 13, 2016 at the same time. Here some of the best pictures of this rare dual atmospheric phenomenon. A circumhorizontal arc is an optical phenomenon typically occurring in cirrus or cirrostratus clouds. It…
IMAGE: Schematic illustration of the single-particle spectra modified by spin-orbit coupling. The Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling can lead to a degenerate ring in momentum space for the lower branch of the single-particle… view more Credit: ©Science China Press Ultracold atomic ga... Studies on exotic superfluids in spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases were reviewed
In this article the ability of ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image small choroidal blood vessels below the highly reflective and absorbing retinal pigment epithelium is demonstrated for the first time. A new light source (λc=1050 nm, Δλ=165 nm, Pout=10 mW), based on a photonic crystal fiber pumped by a compact, self-starting Ti:Al2O3 laser has therefore been developed. Ex-vivo ultrahigh resolution OCT images of freshly excised pig retinas acquired with this light source demonstrate enhanced penetration into the choroid and better visualization of choroidal vessels as compared to tomograms acquired with a state-of-the art Ti:Al2O3 laser (Femtolasers Compact Pro, λc=780 nm, Δλ=160 nm, Pout=400 mW), normally used in clinical studies for in vivo ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT imaging. These results were also compared with retinal tomograms acquired with a novel, spectrally broadened fiber laser (MenloSystems, λc=1350 nm, Δλ=470 nm, Pout=4 mW) ...
Figs. 1A - 1C illustrate a series of images from an inspection system designed to read a barcode beneath a cellophane wrapper. The image in Fig. 1A was generated using a Coaxial Diffuse Light, which is clearly ineffective for reading the bar code because of the specular reflections. Fig. 1B illustrates the results of applying a Low Angle Dark Field Ring Light; the image is more consistently free of specular wrapper reflections, so the lighting solution could be considered adequate. However, because we have not completely removed the specular reflection, there is still potential for the next part to have an obscured code due to a particularly strong fold in the cellophane wrap. The image in Fig. 1C shows the same part free of specular reflection, and is thus not only adequate, but is in fact more robust. Fig. 1D shows the Broad Area Linear Array Light and its geometry applied to generate the image in Fig. 1C. ...
Beryllium coatings with varying thicknesses and columnar grain sizes were deposited by low temperature magnetron sputtering and wet chemically etched to enhance diffuse absorption of light. After etching these coatings exhibited a matte black surface finish and low specular reflectance (below 2%) in the IR up to a critical wavelength dependent upon the original grain size of the coating. Extremely thick coatings (350 µm) with original grain sizes of 10 to 12 µm were produced which exhibited specular reflectances below 0.5% up to 50 µm wavelength and a Lambertian BRDF at 10.6 µm averaging 4.3x10-3 ster-1. Scanning electron micrographs are presented for etched and unetched beryllium coatings which showed the etching process produces roughness and porosity over several size scales simultaneously with the maximum size scale limited by the initial coating grain size and thickness. This technique for producing diffuse absorbing baffle materials has great versatility in choice of coating material and
AIMS Slit lamp fundus biomicroscopy allows for high magnification, stereoscopic diagnosis, and treatment of macular diseases. Variable contrast, narrow field of view, and specular reflections arising from the cornea, sclera, and examining lens reduce image quality; these images are of limited clinical utility for diagnosis, treatment planning, and photodocumentation when compared with fundus camera images. Algorithms are being developed to segment fundus imagery from slit lamp biomicroscopic video image sequences in order to improve clinical utility.. METHODS Video fundus image sequences of human volunteers were acquired with a video equipped, Nikon NS-1V slit lamp biomicroscope. Custom developed software identified specular reflections based on brightness and colour content, and extracted the illuminated fundus image based on colour image analysis and size constraints.. RESULTS In five subjects with variable image quality, the approach allowed for automatic, robust, accurate extraction of that ...
Globally, several shortcomings of dental resin based composites (RBCs) remain. This may be related to problems associated with incomplete conversion (40-70%), polymerisation shrinkage (1-4% by volume) and the stress generated at the tooth/restoration interface. Additionally, the increased number of technique sensitive incremental steps required to fill relatively large cavities is due to inefficient light transmission at depths greater than 2mm. The current investigation demonstrates the applicability of the exposure reciprocity law in photoactive dental materials in order to try and improve these shortcomings. The development techniques that will allow dynamic monitoring of optical and physical change will aid material development with the goal of improving cure depths. The current investigation has demonstrated the use of several analytical techniques (FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and low coherence interferometry) and shown the complexity of optical phenomena within RBCs, which are ...
We report a versatile imaging system combining scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and T-scan based en face ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). The image carrier is generated using the optical path difference modulation introduced by the X-Y galvo-scanner mirrors specific to en face OCT (without optical modulators in the reference arm). The light source is a compact superluminescent diode based source with 150 nm FWHM spectrum, centered at 890 nm. We demonstrate en face B-scan and C-scan ultrahigh resolution OCT imaging of the human retina in vivo, with an axial resolution of 3.2 μm in tissue. The system is capable of acquiring large lateral size ultrahigh resolution OCT scans of a maximum field size of 20°. The acquisition speed is up to 2 frames/s for both OCT B-scans and C-scans. The measured system sensitivity is more than 98 dB, for a power level to the target of 1 mW and maximum lateral scan size. The C-scans are, to the best of our knowledge, the first and the ...
A nonlinear dielectric material is incorporated within a photonic crystal as a means of changing the refractive index of a defect. In this way, the resonant frequency can be easily adjusted, after fabrication, by external mechanisms (either optical or electronic). The ability to tune the frequency of a resonant mode is useful for constructing photonic integrated devices, thus the invention enables the use of a photonic-crystal microcavity for such purposes. In one embodiment there is provided a photonic crystal having a periodic dielectric structure, and a defect positioned within the structure to define a microcavity. The defect includes a nonlinear material and being adapted to have an induced variation in index of refraction so as to tune the resonant mode of the microcavity.
In a spectrograph / detector array system, stray light can be a more significant problem than it is with scanning monochromators. The array is a much larger target for stray radiation; there is no exit slit to limit the field of view for the detector. Some signal is reflected back off the array where it is scattered as stray light, and the array itself typically has less dynamic range than single element detectors.. It is difficult to characterize the stray light behavior of spectrographs. As with monochromators, variation in spectral content of your source, grating choice, and type of signal, contribute to stray light. The structure and choice of array, wavelength region, and internal specular reflections add to this changing picture for spectrographs.. All Oriel Spectrographs are designed for low stray light. The Oriel MS260i™, MS125 and MS257™ spectrographs conform to design rules that eliminate re-entrant spectra. Re-entrant spectra are due to diffracted radiation being reflected off the ...
Endoscopic artifacts are a core challenge in facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in hollow organs. Precise detection of specific artifacts like pixel saturations, motion blur, specular reflections, bubbles and debris is essential for high-quality frame restoration and is crucial for realizing reliable computer-assisted tools for improved patient care. At present most videos in endoscopy are currently not analyzed due to the abundant presence of multi-class artifacts in video frames. Through the endoscopic artifact detection (EAD 2019) challenge, we address this key bottleneck problem by solving the accurate identification and localization of endoscopic frame artifacts to enable further key quantitative analysis of unusable video frames such as mosaicking and 3D reconstruction which is crucial for delivering improved patient care. This paper summarizes the challenge tasks and describes the dataset and evaluation criteria established in the EAD 2019 challenge.
A free-base porphyrin dye, 4-(5-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tritolylporphyrin (TTPa) formed well-behaved monomolecular films at the air-water interface. The carboxylic acid was the hydrophilic portion, and became ionized at subphase pH | 7.3.;The presence of two or more two-dimensional crystalline phases in these films on the aqueous surface under certain conditions was inferred from the observation of visible, inhomogeneous specular reflection from the films.;A spectroscopic study of Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers indicated three different species existed in the films as a function of the pH to which the subphase was buffered. One species was assigned as the monomer; the others as aggregates. One of the aggregates exhibited an unusual absorption spectrum and was postulated to exist in an environment where motion was restricted.;Langmuir-Blodgett films transferred from buffer-free water underwent a rapid reorganization; after 24 hours the absorption spectrum resembled that of a thin sublimed film. These
We have used x-ray specular reflection to study the structure of the air-liquid-crystal interface of the lyotropic liquid crystal formed from binary mixtures of cesium perfluoro-octanoate (CsPFO) and water. In the isotropic phase the surface is coated with a monolayer of CsPFO separated by layers of water from one or more smectic bilayers of CsPFO. As for the case of thermotropic liquid crystals, the isotropic-to-nematic phase transition has no effect on the surface structure, and as the temperature is lowered towards the nematic-to-smectic-A transition temperature, the number of surface-induced smectic layers increases dramatically (e.g., approximately 100 layers were observed). Theoretical modeling of the reflectivity excludes the possibility that the surface bilayers are arrays of micelles. X-ray scattering from critical smectic short-range order in the bulk, studied by tuning the spectrometer away from the specular condition, indicates that the scattering is fundamentally different from ...
The term Fermi point has two applications but refers to the same phenomena (special relativity): Fermi point (Quantum Field Theory) Fermi point (Nanotechnology) For both applications count that the symmetry between particles and anti-particles in weak interactions is violated: At this point the particle energy E = cp is zero. In nanotechnology this concept can be applied to electron behavior. An electron when as single particle is a Fermion obeying the Pauli exclusion principle. Fermionic systems that have a Fermi surface (FS) belong to a universality class in quantum field theory. Any collection of fermions with weak repulsive interactions belongs to this class. At the fermi point, the break of symmetry can be explained by assuming a vortex or singularity will appear as a result of the spin of a fermi particle (quasiparticle, Fermion) in one dimension of the three-dimensional momentum space. The Fermi point is one particular electron state. The Fermi point refers to an event chirality of ...
Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis of daily visit totals reveals strong weekly and yearly periodicities. Power is shown on the Y axis with frequency (1/day) sho
A new ultrafast Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) has been developed for real time in vivo brain metabolism monitoring in songbird. The technique is based on space resolved time of flight measurements of the photons across the brain tissues. A three dimensional reconstruction of the brain activity is foreseeable by means of a double space and time sampling of the reflectance signal. The setup and the treatment procedure are described in depth and promising preliminary results showing the response of brain tissues to hypercapnia stimulations (increase of CO2) are presented ...
Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) An extension of fNIRS that give the Gowerlabs NTS Optical Imaging System its 3D imaging capability.
Fourier Analysis Shareware and Freeware Programs - Fourier Analysis Program (compadre.org), Fourier Transform Lab Student Edition (JCrystalSoft), Embeddable C C++ interpreter Ch Standard Edition (SoftIntegration, Inc) ...
www.MOLUNA.de Dihedral Fourier Analysis [4198785] - Dihedral Fourier Analysis introduces the theory and applications necessary to study experimental data indexed by, or associated with, the points in a dihedral symmetry orbit.nThis book looks at experimental data and analytical models indexed by certain dihedral rotations and reversals realized as vector fields. Its particular relevance as a research
which are AGNs that were found to dominate the gamma-ray sky by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the forerunner to Fermi. Since blazars are highly variable on very short time scales (days or shorter) at all accessible wavelengths, it is important that supporting observations be obtained for these AGNs across the electromagnetic spectrum throughout the Fermi mission. Such observations will place the observed gamma-ray behavior of these extreme objects in context with the variability of the continuum at lower energies. Only through this multi-wavelength approach can a comprehensive understanding of the source structure and nonthermal emission mechanisms in blazars emerge. To help realize this goal, Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona will continue to contribute optical data for the LAT-monitored blazars and Fermi Targets of Opportunity (ToOs) during years 8--10 of its mission as part of the Cycle 8 Guest Investigator Program. As it has since the launch of Fermi, the primary ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
The Lens serves almost all the patents and scholarly work in the world as a free, open and secure digital public good, with user privacy a paramount focus.
The Large Area Telescope (LAT) one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed an increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with 3C 454.3 (J2000, RA: 22:53:57.748, Dec: +16:08:53.56, Fey et al. 2004, AJ, 127, 3587). Preliminary analysis indicates that the source on September 15th, 2009, has brightened to a high state with an average gamma-ray flux over the day (E>100MeV) of 6.0 ± 0.6 (statistical only) à 10−6 ph cm−2 s−1 and peaking at 7.2 ± 1.2 (statistical only) à 10−6 ph cm−2 s−1 in the 6 hour period between 6 and 12 UT of September 15th. In recent weeks optical, IR and mm flares have been observed from this source (ATEL #2181; ATEL #2155; ATEL #2150). This is the second time that Fermi has reported activity for this blazar (ATEL #1628, 24 July 2008).. The LAT has also observed an increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with 3C 273 (J2000, R.A.: 12:29:06.700, Dec: +02:03:08.60 Johnston et al. ...
The vested gain is any positive index change for the term (but not exceeding the cap set for that term), multiplied by the applicable vesting factor for that day, and then multiplied by the remaining investment base for the current term. Please see the Product Overview for vesting factors ...
Anglesite optical properties like luster, clarity, refractive index etc. are used to determine the non-destructive methods during gemstone identification.
Intertek optical microscopy labs are staffed with microscopy scientists with years of experience in research and production problem-solving for problems, materials and clients.
22pRG-2 ボース・アインシュタイン凝縮体における粒子生成 : 曲がった時空上の場の量子論とのアナロジー(量子エレクトロニクス(Bose原子系・Fermi原子系の理論),領域1,原子・分子,量子エレクトロニクス,放射線物理 ...
Futsuhara, M.; Yoshioka, K.; Takai, O. (1998). Structural, electrical and optical properties of zinc nitride thin films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films (எல்செவியர்) 322 (1): 274-281. doi:10.1016/S0040-6090(97)00910-3. Bibcode: 1998TSF...322..274F. ...