Optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography is strongly correlated with invasive ICPmeasurements and may serve as a sensitive and noninvasive method for detecting elevated ICP in TBI patients after decompressive craniectomy 1).. Optic nerve sheath diameter measured by transorbital ultrasound imaging is an accurate method for detecting intracranial hypertension that can be applied in a broad range of settings. It has the advantages of being a non-invasive, bedside test, which can be repeated multiple times for re-evaluation 2).. Evolution of ultrasound technology and the development of high frequency (, 7.5 MHz) linear probes with improved spatial resolution have enabled excellent views of the optic nerve sheath.. The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), measured at a fixed distance behind the retina has been evaluated to diagnose and measure intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage 3) 4).. The optic nerve sheath is fairly easy to visualize by ultrasonography ...
Optic nerve sheath ultrasound is a noninvasive method for the assessment of the risk of raised ICP. The subarachnoid spaces surrounding the optic nerve communicate with the intracranial cavity and changes in cerebrospinal fluid pressure are transmitted along the optic nerve sheath.20 In the anterior part of the optic nerve and particularly in the retrobulbar segment, the nerve is only surrounded by orbital fat. The retrobulbar optic nerve sheath is therefore distensible and can inflate in case of raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Comparing ocular ultrasonography with gold standard measures of ICP (invasive devices), values of ONSD above 5.8 mm have been shown to be associated with a 95% risk of raised ICP (i.e. , more than 20 mmHg).13 Such values were obtained in 19% of our preeclamptic patients, suggesting a substantial incidence of raised ICP in this population. However, we were not able to show any relationship between preeclampsia severity and the magnitude of ONSD enlargement. This can ...
Bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. a. Coronal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a patient with bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. The optic nerves are the ti
Purpose: To investigate the functions of the glaucoma-associated protein, myocilin, in the optic nerve.. Methods: Optic nerve astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were isolated from postnatal day 6 (P6) or P7 mice. Optic nerves were examined by electron microscopy. Binding of myocilin to the Lingo-1/NgR1 complex was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation from the optic nerve and by binding assays using myocilin-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins. Conductivity of the optic nerve was evaluated by a visual evoked potential test. Changes in gene expression were measured by RNA sequencing.. Results: Myocilin was first detected in optic nerve astrocytes at P6 and its level increased with age. Myocilin was also detected in astrocytes but not oligodendrocytes that were isolated and cultured from the optic nerve. Addition of purified myocilin to immature oligodendrocytes stimulated their differentiation and increased mRNAs encoding myelin-associated proteins (MBP, MAG and MOG) when compared with untreated ...
Assessment of the Intra- and Inter-Observer Reliabilities of Ultrasonographically Measured Optic Nerve Sheath Diameters in Normal Adults, Li-juan Wang, Li-min Chen, Ying Chen, Yang
Optic nerve regeneration (ONR) following injury is a model for central nervous system regeneration. In zebrafish, ONR is rapid - neurites cross the lesion and enter the optic tectum within 7 days; in mammals regeneration does not take place unless astrocytic reactivity is suppressed. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is used as a marker for retinal and optic nerve astrocytes in both fish and mammals, even though it has long been known that astrocytes of optic nerves in many fish, including zebrafish, express cytokeratins and not GFAP. We used immunofluorescence to localize GFAP and cytokeratin in wild-type zebrafish and transgenic zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of a GFAP promoter to determine the pattern of expression of intermediate filaments in retina and optic nerve. GFAP labeling and GFAP gene expression as indicated by GFP fluorescence was found only in the Müller glial cells of the retina. Within Müller cells, GFP fluorescence filled the entire cell while
Studies on the rat optic nerve in the past 5 years have produced two surprises. First, they demonstrated that there are two biochemically, developmentally and functionally distinct types of astrocytes in the optic nerve, and probably in white matter tracts throughout the CNS: one seems to be responsible for inducing endothelial cells to form the blood-brain barrier while the other seems to service nodes of Ranvier. Second, they showed that oligodendrocytes and type-2 astrocytes develop from a common bipotential (O-2A) progenitor cell that seems to migrate into the developing optic nerve, and may well migrate all over the CNS to wherever myelination is required; this implies that the neuroepithelial cells of the optic stalk are restricted to forming type-1 astrocytes. Some of the findings in the optic nerve may be relevant to the problem of CNS regeneration after injury. These include the following. (1) Reactive gliosis in white matter tracts seems to be mainly a function of type-1 astrocytes. ...
purpose. To investigate changes in optic nerve head (ONH) circulation, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), and ONH cupping after stimulation of the optic nerve.. methods. Electrodes were fixed above the optic chiasma in rabbits under general anesthesia. Screw-type electrodes for VEP recording were fixed on the dura. ONH circulation, intraocular pressure (IOP), and blood pressure (BP) were measured after the passage of a current of 0.1 mA for 0.1 second (weak stimulation), 1 mA for 1 second (moderate), 5 mA for 10 seconds (strong), or 25 mA for 10 seconds (severe). Normalized blur (NB), indicative of tissue blood flow and velocity, was measured in the ONH after each stimulation, by using a laser speckle circulation analyzer. Changes in VEP and ocular fundus were also recorded. The ratio of cup area (CA) to disc area (DA) was measured before and 4 weeks after stimulation. After all experiments, the ONH was histologically examined.. results. Weak stimulation increased NB in ONH for 10 minutes, whereas ...
Body parts change considerably during the fetal period and early childhood. A number of studies have examined morphological changes in the orbit with increasing age,1-9 but only a few studies have measured changes in the opening angle of the optic nerve and orbit after birth in normal subjects.7-9 We measured the opening angle of the optic nerve and orbit using axial CT images in 147 normal Japanese children aged from 6 months to 18 years.. In an autopsy study, Zimmermann et al7 measured the angle formed by two lines running from the optic chiasm to the site where the optic nerves are attached to each eye. They reported that the opening angle of the optic nerve measured by this method decreased slightly during the fetal period, and that the angle was ∼71.5° at birth and ∼68° in adults. This early study involved measurements on autopsied heads, and the method used to measure the opening angle of the optic nerve differed from that used in our study, so a direct comparison may not be ...
Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative optic neuropathies caused by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and optic nerve deterioration. Without - and often despite - current therapeutic intervention, glaucoma ultimately results in progressive and irreversible vision loss. The initial insult in glaucoma pathogenesis is believed to occur at the lamina cribrosa, a collagenous structure where RGC axons exit the eye and coalesce to form the optic nerve1. Optic nerve crush (ONC) delivers an acute, mechanical injury to the nerve at this location. Rodent models of ONC have been widely utilized to examine glaucomatous disease pathophysiology as well as to advance the development of novel therapeutics.. ONC is performed on anesthetized mice by exposing the optic nerve through the bulbar conjunctiva and transiently pinching the nerve just behind the globe using self-closing forceps2. Genes within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway such as pJNK and pJUN are upregulated following ONC, ...
ONHA - Optic Nerve Head Analyzer. Looking for abbreviations of ONHA? It is Optic Nerve Head Analyzer. Optic Nerve Head Analyzer listed as ONHA
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characteristics of chronic MS lesions in the cerebrum, brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve on T1-weighted MRI. AU - Gass, A.. AU - Filippi, M.. AU - Rodegher, M. E.. AU - Schwartz, A.. AU - Comi, G.. AU - Hennerici, M. G.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - We analyzed the prevalence of severely hypointense lesions on T1- weighted MRI in the brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve from 65 patients with MS. About half of 1,274 supratentorial lesions were classified as severely hypointense. Severe hypointensity was not seen in the optic nerve and spinal cord, and in only one of 168 chronic brainstem lesions. Tissue destruction in the brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve of MS patients does not usually result in severely hypointense lesions.. AB - We analyzed the prevalence of severely hypointense lesions on T1- weighted MRI in the brainstem, spinal cord, and optic nerve from 65 patients with MS. About half of 1,274 supratentorial lesions were classified as severely hypointense. ...
In adult visual system, goldfish can regrow their axons and fully restore their visual function even after optic nerve transection. The optic nerve regeneration process in goldfish is very long and...
A variety of strategies can be used to both protect and repair damaged optic nerves; however, work currently advances slowly, in part because of the need to thoroughly test such strategies in at least two species of animals before trying them in humans and in part because of the considerable cost involved in animal research. Nevertheless, with funding from institutions such as the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health and the Hirschhorn Foundation as well as from individual donors, we have been able to develop reproducible models of optic nerve damage in rats, mice, and, most importantly, in monkeys. These models allow us to test various substances that have the potential to reduce the amount of optic nerve damage caused by various insults or to restore vision that is lost from optic nerve damage. With this knowledge, we can then begin testing on humans. ...
In addition, we will present and then include the MOONSTRIP unpublished prospective blinded study conducted at a level one tertiary care trauma centre. Investigators of this study were given visual materials and readings prior to attending didactic and hands-on supervised ultrasound training sessions. During these sessions, quality assurance data were collected to ensure all investigators met acceptable standards.. In this study, all patients referred to the trauma centre will undergo assessment in accordance with advanced trauma life support protocol. If assessment warrants investigation for increased ICP, a CT scan will be performed. An investigator blinded to the CT scan will assess the patient based on the following inclusion criteria: age ≥16 years, following trauma, and ONSD sonography required to be performed within 1 hour of the CT scan. All patients will be consented prior to enrolment. Exclusion criteria includes: penetrating trauma to the head or significant ocular trauma; patient ...
Optic nerve regeneration is a treatment thats used to restore damaged axons in the optic nerve so that vision returns. Although...
Optic neuropathy refers to damage to the optic nerve due to any cause. Damage and death of these nerve cells, or neurons, leads to characteristic features of optic neuropathy. The main symptom is loss of vision, with colors appearing subtly washed out in the affected eye. On medical examination, the optic nerve head can be visualised by an ophthalmoscope. A pale disc is characteristic of long-standing optic neuropathy. In many cases, only one eye is affected and patients may not be aware of the loss of color vision until the doctor asks them to cover the healthy eye. Optic neuropathy is often called optic atrophy, to describe the loss of some or most of the fibers of the optic nerve. In medicine, "atrophy" usually means "shrunken but capable of regrowth", so some argue that "optic atrophy" as a pathological term is somewhat misleading, and the term "optic neuropathy" should be used instead. In short, optic atrophy is the end result of any disease that damages nerve cells anywhere between the ...
Anoxic Injury of MammAan Central m t e Matter: Decreased Susceptibility in Myelin-deficient Optic Nerve Stephen G. Waxman, MD, PhD, Peter K. Davis, BS, Joel A. Black, PhD, and Bruce R. Ransom, &ID, PhD The rat optic nerve, a typical central nervous system white matter tract, rapidly loses excitability when it is exposed to anoxia and is irreversibly damaged by prolonged anoxia. Neonatal optic nerve is extremely resistant to anoxia-induced dysfunction and injury; the adult pattern of response to anoxia appears between 10 and 20 days postnatal, that is, during the period of oligodendroglial proliferation and myelination. To test the hypothesis that myelination, or associated events, confer anoxic susceptibility on developing white matter, we analyzed the effects of anoxia on the myelin-deficient (md) strain of rat. Acutely isolated optic nerves from 19- to 21-day-old md rats and control optic nerves from unaffected male littermates were maintained in vitro at 3 7 T , and exposed to a standard ...
There are some new procedures such as Non-Invasive Current Stimulation practiced by Dr. Anton Fedorov that have shown improvement in those with optic nerve damage. Learn more about this exciting new procedure here.
Glaucoma is a common ocular disorder that is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by the dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Although many studies have implicated various molecules in glaucoma, no mechanism has been shown to be responsible for the earliest detectable damage to RGCs and their axons in the optic nerve. Here, we show that the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway is activated in the optic nerve head at the earliest stages of disease in an inherited mouse model of glaucoma. This resulted in proinflammatory monocytes entering the optic nerve prior to detectable neuronal damage. A 1-time x-ray treatment prevented monocyte entry and subsequent glaucomatous damage. A single x-ray treatment of an individual eye in young mice provided that eye with long-term protection from glaucoma but had no effect on the contralateral eye. Localized radiation treatment prevented detectable neuronal damage and dysfunction in treated eyes, despite the continued
My current research interest is related with the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of normal tension glaucoma. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder of the optic nerve, characterized by accelerated retinal ganglion cell death, subsequent axonal loss, optic nerve damage and eventual blindness. The morphological changes in the optic nerve are often asymptomatic and undetectable with conventional diagnostic methods. New imaging technologies are now available to diagnose glaucoma, including Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT), time-domain and more recently the spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Our goal is by using these novel imaging technologies to find and describe morphological features of the optic nerve which are characteristic of glaucoma and can be used to distinguish glaucomatous optic nerve damage from non-glaucomatous changes. In the past, I was involved in many different research projects, including corneal endothelial cell transplantation, corneal wound healing, the ...
We performed pressure on the left optic nerves of 24 pigs and injected intravenous thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) to 12 of these pigs in order to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration in the optic nerves. The histopathologic, ultrastructural and biochemical examinations of the optic nerves were made at the 24th hour, 7th, 15th and 30th days. although the light-microscopic examinations were normal, ultrastructural changes of the uncompressed optic nerves were interesting. Histopathologic and ultrastructural investigation of the compressed optic nerves showed significant degenerative changes in the non-TRH-applied group. Ultrastructural comparison yielded lighter degenerative changes in the TRH-applied group but there was no clue showing the stimulation of regeneration. We observed increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the nontraumatized optic nerves due to the cellular stress. The SOD values were found to be low in highly damaged left compressed optic nerves indicating the ...
Although we have made other attempts to preserve vision in Optic Nerve Meningioma patients, these efforts failed to preserve vision in the affected eye. Among the challenges, is the reasonable certainty that the tumor will progress. If it begins at the apex of the orbit near the Optic Canal (the channel through which the Optic Nerve enters the skull, to travel backwards to the Occipital Lobe of the Brain), then early definitive surgery is required, even if it means sacrificing the Optic Nerve and thus the vision in that eye. Failure to do so may well lead to progression of the tumor to cause bilateral (both sides) blindness.. Radiosurgery has a place in the treatment, to attempt to control these tumors, particularly in patients who refuse to permit exenteration (removal of all the contents) of the Orbit. There are no easy decisions in the management of this difficult clinical problem. HEMANGIOMA. The most common tumor, in our large experience of Orbital Tumors, is a Hemangioma. Hemangiomas are ...
Optic nerve hypoplasia can be associated with central nervous system (CNS) malformations which put the patient at risk for other problems, including seizure disorder and developmental delay. Hormone deficiencies occur in most children, regardless of associated midline brain abnormalities or pituitary gland abnormalities on MRI. In fact, most children with growth hormone deficiency have a normal MRI.. ...
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Machanic on treatment for optic nerve damage in the eye: A thorough exam can help determine the extent of the damage in many cases along with visual field and oct testing. A neuroophthalmic exam may be required in addition to an MRI or ct scan in some cases. for topic: Treatment For Optic Nerve Damage In The Eye
Optic Nerve Definition The optic nerve is the second nerve out of the twelve cranial nerves. It is a sensory paired nerve transmitting visual or sight information from the retina of the eye to the brain. The optic nerve carries the impulses from retina to the brain in the form of images. During the embryonic
This review article explains major optic nerve disorders and cell replacement therapy. This article also signifies new innovative methods, biopharmaceuticals, implantable biomaterials, devices and diagnostic tools developed for restoration of vision. It asserts notable technological advancements made for regeneration of neurons and restoration of visual system network. However, for finding quick solutions of optical- neuronal disorders more advanced biomaterial cell scaffolds and concurrent efforts are needed to revitalize visual-neural receptor system. This article stresses upon novel bioengineered methods mainly required to activate endogenous stem and progenitor cells, which could reawaken cells in dormancy, instructing them to promote repair and regeneration in optic nerve cells and retina. For better management of optic nerve disorders, the important role of tissues, genes, growth factors and proteins, nanomedicine and nanotechnology, and all underlying mechanisms should fully be investigated. This
Risk factors for the development of glaucoma include intraocular (eye) pressure (although it is important to recognise that glaucoma frequently develops with so-called normal intraocular pressure [IOP]), increasing age, positive family history for glaucoma and ethnicity. POAG is most common in white Caucasians and black individuals of African origin. PACG is most common in South-East Asians and worldwide about 33% of individuals with primary glaucoma have PACG. PACG is associated with a greater risk of blindness in comparison with POAG. Although elevated IOP is the major risk factor for glaucoma the condition is not considered to be a direct consequence of the pressure, but to relate to IOP-associated risk factors such as stress susceptibility of the optic nerve supporting structures and optic nerve blood flow, that are affected by IOP. Certain individuals can sustain a degree of IOP elevation without the development of glaucoma and are referred to as having Ocular Hypertension (OH), although ...
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Optic Nerve Label music on CD, MP3 and Vinyl available at Juno Records. Listen to Optic Nerve now using our online music player. Optic Nerve
A variety of studies demonstrate that ocular blood flow is altered in diabetes and retinal perfusion abnormalities have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.. Various animal and human studies have demonstrated that retinal and optic nerve blood flow increase in response to diffuse luminance flicker. Based on studies with ERG, this effect has been attributed to augmented activity in the retinal ganglion cells and associated axons indicating a coupling mechanism between neuronal activity and retinal blood flow. Whereas a variety of studies describe the effects of flickering light on retinal and optic nerve head blood flow, the knowledge about this coupling in the diabetic retina is sparse.. In view of the fact that neural activity and blood flow are strongly coupled in the human retina, one could hypothesize that neurodegenerative changes in the retina could contribute to the vascular dysregulation and in turn lead to changes of ocular perfusion. The ...
The optic nerve is located in the back of the eye. It is also called the second cranial nerve or cranial nerve II. It is the second of several pairs of cranial nerves.
Definition of Drusen of the optic nerve head with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Today: Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE)-M-2 Sample Start: Flight Engineer (FE)-5 Wiseman configured the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and inserted the second sample for an ACE-M-2 investigation run.. In the ACE-M-2 investigation, a model colloidal system is used to observe the microscopic behavior of liquids and gases separating from each other, near the critical point, via a process called spinodal decomposition.. Ocular Health: Wiseman assisted Commander (CDR) Swanson and FE-6 Gerst in taking ultrasound images of their eyes. All three USOS crewmembers took cardiac echo measurements of each other as part of the Ocular Health data collection. The ultrasound images will be used to identify changes in globe morphology, including flattening of the posterior globe, and document optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve sheath tortuosity, globe axial measurements, and choroidal engorgement. The Ocular Health protocol calls for a systematic gathering of ...
Diapason Experiment: Flight Engineer (FE)-5 Mastracchio set up and powered on the Diapason instrument for the final test run. This experiment studies nano-particle migration and capture achieved by very small thermal gradients. The particle size range allows the monitoring of combustion-generated pollution and the identification of atmospheric contaminants on-board ISS.. Ocular Health (OH) Measurements: FE-6 Wakata completed a series of activities in support of the OH payload, to satisfy his flight day 10 session. With FE-5 Mastracchio performing as the Crew Medical Officer (CMO), ocular and cardiac ultrasound scans and blood pressure measurements of Wakata were collected. In-flight data collection was assisted by remote guidance from the ground to ensure proper positioning and data collection. Ocular ultrasound is used to identify changes in globe morphology, including flattening of the posterior globe, and document optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve sheath tortuosity, globe axial ...
... is a disease occurring where the optic nerve sustains damage. Glaucoma is found most frequently in older persons, persons of African-American heritage, people with a family history of Glaucoma and persons with underlying health problems such as diabetes or hypertension and sometimes in people taking certain medications such as steroids.. Glaucoma occurs where the small fibers making up the optic nerve are damaged or progressively dying-off. The loss of these fibers of the optic nerve cause small islands or pockets of visual loss. Damage to the fibers of the optic nerve is usually caused by pressure on the optic nerve. Many persons with Glaucoma do not initially recognize the symptoms; small areas or pockets of visual loss. As the disease progresses, these small areas enlarge or join together and larger areas of one?s field of vision are lost or missing. In most cases, the progression of the problem is slow and sometimes barely noticeable. However, in some instances the pressure can ...
The larger optic cups and smaller neuroretinal rims found in older subjects may be taken to mean that there is loss of the neuroretinal tissue with age, or that subjects born more recently are born with more neuroretinal tissue. In order to determine whether the differences related to age represent an aging change or a cohort effect, longitudinal studies are needed. Two such studies have been outlined.4042 It can be seen that, given the small changes predicted by this study (0.28% per year in rim area) and the variability arising from the measurement technique, a very long period between examinations is needed to detect change (18 years to detect a 5% change). Alternatively, multiple examinations over a shorter period would mitigate the effect of measurement error.. The morphological changes (loss of neuroretinal rim and increase in cupping) parallel the loss of optic nerve axons that is known to occur in glaucoma.46 A number of histological studies have found an age related decline in optic ...
Optical methods for recording electrical activity in the goldfish optic tectum were evaluated. Tectal slices, with a short section of the optic nerve attached, were stained with a fluorescent styryl dye. Potential- dependent fluorescence changes following optic nerve stimulation were monitored with a photodiode. We found that large optical signals could be obtained. Experimental manipulations of the slice bathing solution permitted us to identify several events that contributed to the optical response, including activity in afferent fibers, excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, and presumptive glial depolarizations. These results suggest that voltage-sensitive dyes can provide a useful alternative method for monitoring synaptic responses in the goldfish tectum, and may prove valuable in studying changes in the functional synaptic organization of the tectum following manipulations of the retinotectal pathway.. ...
Tumors on optic nerves may cause progressive vision loss and can be fatal if untreated. See Houston Methodist for more information about optic nerve tumors.
Below the photoreceptor level of the retina, there is an intermediate layer containing three types of cells: bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and horizontal cells. Ganglionic cells are located under the intermediate layer. Their axons form the optic nerve.  I: outer nuclear layer  II: outer plexiform layer  III: inner nuclear layer  IV: inner plexiform layer  V: ganglion cell layer Optic nerve Ganglion cell Amacrine cell Bipolar cells Horizontal cell ConeRod I II III IV V Light Info Neurons of the Retina
Optic neuritis refers to a disease that interferes with optic nerve function whether inflammation is present or not, though it usually is. - Wag! (formerly Vetary)
Second to cataracts, glaucoma is the leading cause of vision loss in the world today. Unlike cataracts, which can be treated with surgery, glaucoma has no cure. Increased pressure in the eye causes damage to the optic nerve, which results in gradual deterioration of the eyesight. The best that a glaucoma sufferer can hope for is an early diagnosis to prevent irreversible vision loss.. Glaucoma treatments have been limited to topical medications, shunts and other tiny implants that all have the same goal: to reduce eye pressure and prevent further damage to the optic nerve. Being able to restore lost vision has only been a distant hope-until now ...
This is a print of a painting I created of the second cranial nerve, the optic nerve, which transmits visual information to the retina and brain. The optic nerve pathway is rendered in watercolor using a soft cool blue color palette. This piece of art is sure to stand out, impressing both medical and non-medical person
Catheters for photoablating plaque build-up in blood vessels are described. In one form, the catheter includes a catheter body having a first group of optic fibers and a second group of optic fibers. The first group of optic fibers is adjacent the second group of optic fibers, and each group of optic fibers includes at least one optic fiber having a first end and a second end. The second ends of the respective optic fibers form a substantially rounded hemispherical catheter head. A control element is coupled to the catheter body and is configured to selectively transmit energy through either the first group of optic fibers, or the second group of optic fibers, or both the first and second groups of optic fibers.
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Silver, J and Robb, R M., "Studies on the development of the eye cup and optic nerve in normal mice and in mutants with congenital optic nerve aplasia." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 2190 ...
The motivations of the kidnapper are a mystery and the final fate of the woman… well youll have to watch and determine for yourself. The film, although short, does not play out like someones home movie. Rather, Optic Nerve has made a film that looks professionally made and manages to, in a very short time, both intrigue and disturb the viewer with the story that unfolds. If you have some time to kill on the internet, check out "Number 8" from Optic Nerve Productions and see for yourself, all it will cost you is the time you invest.. ...
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How to cite this article: Rao S, Shirodkar C, Mutkule D, Harde Y, Venkategowda P, Mahesh M. Optic nerve sheath diameter as a marker for evaluation and prognostication of intracranial pressure in Indian patients: An observational study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (11):728-734. ...
Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eyes optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness. This 3D medical animation depicts the anatomy and physiology of the eye and shows how glaucoma can develop. The optic nerve connects the retina to the brain. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. A healthy optic nerve is necessary for good vision. In the front of the eye is a space called the anterior chamber. A clear fluid flows continuously in and out of the chamber and nourishes nearby tissues. The fluid leaves the chamber at the open angle where the cornea and iris meet. When the fluid reaches the angle, it flows through a spongy meshwork, like a drain, and leaves the eye. Sometimes, when the fluid reaches the angle, it passes too slowly through the meshwork drain. As the fluid builds up, the pressure inside the eye rises to a level that may damage the optic nerve. When the optic nerve is damaged from increased pressure, open-angle glaucoma--and vision loss-