Our results provide the first population-based data on optic nerve measurements obtained with the latest analysis software (Cirrus HD-OCT, version 5.0) in non-glaucomatous subjects selected by random sampling. In the multiple regression analysis, we showed disc area was independently associated with all the optic nerve measurements. A smaller disc area was related to a thinner neuroretinal rim, a smaller cup-to-disc ratio, a thinner RNFL thickness, a smaller cup volume, and a smaller average cup-to-disc ratio. An older age was independently associated with a thinner neuroretinal rim area, a larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio, a thinner average RNFL thickness, and a larger average cup-to-disc ratio. A longer eyeball was independently associated with a thinner neurioretinal rim area, a larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio, a thinner average RNFL thickness, and a larger average cup-to-disc ratio. Elevated IOP was related to a thinner neuroretinal rim area, larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio, larger cup ...
Glaucomatous optic disc lesions, resulting in optic nerve atrophy, may be associated with disturbances of ocular microcirculation.5,11. HRF should measure blood flow in retinal tissue. Usually, the peripapillary retina is focused in an image frame with the optic disc at its centre. Many studies image the ONH and peripapillary retina simultaneously. Some groups focus only on peripapillary retina, excluding other posterior located structures as they are not in the plane.12,13. We aimed to evaluate intraindividual circadian reproducibility of HRF blood flow measurements and investigate if the most common technique using the default settings of the commercially available software is suitable for clinical use.. Measurements were performed on three separate layers, the superficial, intermediate, and deep layers, changing the focal plane. Deeper layers were investigated because the neuroretinal rim, and cup are tissues where blood flow alterations can occur, possibly including ciliary source ONH ...
The juxtapapillary diameters of the superior temporal and inferior temporal retinal artery and vein have been shown to be significantly smaller in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes. They had been measured in 473 eyes of 281 patients with chronic primary open-angle glaucoma and in 275 eyes of 173 normal subjects. In the current study the vessel diameters were correlated with intra- and parapapillary morphometric data and visual field indices. Only one eye per patient and subject was taken for statistical analysis. The retinal vessel calibers were significantly (P less than 0.001) correlated with: (1) the area of the neuroretinal rim as a whole and in four different optic disc sectors; (2) the rim width determined every 30 degrees; (3) the optic cup area and diameters; (4) the horizontal and vertical cup/disc ratios and (5) the quotient of them; (6) the retinal nerve fiber layer score; (7) the area of the parapapillary chorioretinal atrophy; and (8) the visual field indices. In the same eye ...
Methods In a retrospective trial, we assessed the widefield images (RetCam system) of 111 optic discs of 61 premature infants. We evaluated the form of the optic disc, defined by the ratio of the vertical to the horizontal diameter, the presence or absence of visible disc cupping, the cup to disc ratio and the presence or absence of a double ring (a concentric paler zone around the optic disc).. ...
Traditional colour-film camera images are the reference standard in imaging, requiring an expert ophthalmic photographer, ophthalmic technician, optometrist or an ophthalmologist for taking standardised pictures of the optic disc. Stereoscopic images offer an excellent investigative tool for serial follow-up of suspected changes in the hands of an expert optometrist or ophthalmologist. Automated techniques have also been developed to allow for more efficient and less expensive imaging. Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT), scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography are computerised techniques for imaging various structures of the eyes, including the optic disc. They quantify the nerve fiber layer of disc and surrounding retina and statistically correlate the findings with a database of previously screened population of normals. They are useful for baseline and serial follow-up to monitor minute changes in optic disc morphology. Imaging will not provide conclusive evidence for ...
PURPOSE To introduce high-resolution, digital three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the connective tissues of the optic nerve head (ONH). METHODS Trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of three monkeys with early glaucoma (EG; one eye normal, one eye given laser-induced EG) were embedded in paraffin and serial sectioned at 3-mum thickness from the vitreous surface through the orbital optic nerve, with the embedded tissue block face stained and imaged after each cut. Each image was aligned, and then the scleral canal wall, sclera, border tissue of Elschnig, Bruchs membrane, lamina cribrosa, optic nerve septa, pial sheath, and vasculature were delineated as unique objects. Delineated images were stacked, color mapped, and volume rendered and then serial sagittal and transverse digital sections of the resultant voxel geometries were viewed and measured. RESULTS Substantial differences in the 3-D architecture of the peripapillary sclera, scleral canal wall, and lamina cribrosa were
Purpose To determine whether optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes, a key cellular component of glaucomatous neuropathy, exhibit differential gene expression in primary cultures of astrocytes from normal African American (AA) donors compared to astrocytes from normal Caucasian American (CA) donors. Methods We used oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarray (HG U133A & HG U133A 2.0 chips) to compare gene expression levels in cultured ONH astrocytes from twelve CA and twelve AA normal age matched donor eyes. Chips were normalized with Robust Microarray Analysis (RMA) in R using Bioconductor. Significant differential gene expression levels were detected using mixed effects modeling and Statistical Analysis of Microarray (SAM). Functional analysis and Gene Ontology were used to classify differentially expressed genes. Differential gene expression was validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Protein levels were detected by Western blots and ELISA. Cell adhesion and migration assays tested physiological responses.
MD- mean deviation, CPSD- corrected pattern standard deviation, CSM- cup shape measure, RNFLT- retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, CDAR- cup disc area ratio, PSD- pattern standard devation. (± 3.99) dB. Only three eyes (2.5%) had MD worse than - 12dB. In previous studies mean MD ranged from - 6 to - 10 Db [18, 19, 22] with a higher percentage of glaucoma patients with MD worse than - 20 dB (11.5%, [18] 7.5% [22].. In our study we had 65 eyes with mild glaucomatous damage (MD > -6 dB), which means maximum patients had early glaucomatous changes and we found statistically significant correlations between HRT II and visual fields (strongest correlation between PSD and rim area). This suggests that this parameter (rim area) may be studied in detail to diagnose preperimetric glaucoma.. From the scatter plots, we noticed that advanced glaucoma patients had a large influence on the relation between topographic parameters and visual field indices. Since our study had only three advanced glaucoma ...
Methods: The study included 133 eyes of patients with normal-pressure glaucoma who were prospectively examined as part of the Erlanger Glaucoma Registry. Mean age was 55.50 ± 9.99 years, mean refractive error was -0.57 ± 2.61 diopters. The glaucoma group was compared with an age adapted normal control group consisting of 159 eyes of normal persons with a mean age of 54.75 ± 7.58 years and a mean refractive error of -0.13 ± 1.28 diopters. For all patients and subjects, 15 degree color stereo optic disc photographs were taken and morphometrically examined. Additionally, the mean capillary blood flow within the neuroretinal rim was measured by confocal laser scanning flowmetry (Heidelberg Retinal Flow Meter ...
In order for treatment to be effective, the cause of inflammation must first be identified.. Treatment for papilledema will involve monitoring your pet closely, along with the administration of medication to treat any underlying cause of inflammation associated with the optic nerves.. Optic neuritis, or swelling of the optic disk, is considered a very serious condition that could be life threatening, and as such, great care must be taken to help your dog to maintain proper health.. ...
Question - MRI showing posterior disc bulge with moderate bilateral neural canal stenosis, annular tear, dural sac indentation. Is this motor-neuron disease?. Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask a Neurologist
Higashide T, Wada T, Sakurai M, Yokoyama H, Sugiyama K. Macular abnormalities and optic disk anomaly associated with a new PAX2 missense mutation. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Jan;139(1):203-5.. ...
Optic disk (OD) boundary localization is a substantial problem in ophthalmic image processing research area. In order to segment the region of OD, we developed an automatic system which ...
Definition of optic disc in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of optic disc. What does optic disc mean? Information and translations of optic disc in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Schematic cross-section through a human eye. Light enters the eye through the cornea, passes through the pupil, lens and vitreous humour and strikes the retina, where it is absorbed. Retinal nerve fibers transmit visual information to the brain. These fibers converge at the optic nerve head region, exit the eye through the scleral canal, and form the optic nerve. The lamina cribrosa is a porous structure spanning the scleral canal. The vitreous chamber is filled with the vitreous humor, which exerts a pressure, the intraocular pressure, on the surface of the retina. [Sigal et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 8(2):85-98, Apr 2009] (adapted from an illustration from NIH ...
If you are a passionate gamer, Daemon Tools Lite will offer you virtual disc usage statistic on-line service, so you can keep track of the disc image usage statistic, search for similar or missing disc images, find out top 100 most popular images and browse for the most relevant gameplay videos. ...
While the human eye can be remarkably accurate, it isn't perfect and all of us have a blind spot. Learn why you have a blind spot and how to detect it.
Optic cups of E12 (A-C) and E14 (D-H) C57BL/6 embryos were cultured for 48 hours, untreated (A,E) or treated with recombinant Shh-N (B,D,F,H) or the anti-Shh antibody 5E1 (C,G), and sectioned for in situ hybridization for Pax2 (A-G) and Gli (H) expression ...
a. is the thickest part of the retina b. has the same diameter as the optic disc c. is temporal and slightly inferior to the optic disc d. has no rods e. contains cones with a peak density of about ...
The posterior pole is a site at the back of the eye that includes both the macula and the optic disc. Problems with the posterior...
Accelerating change is inevitable. The stress it puts on systems - human, social, economic, environmenatl - will lead to the eventual collpase of those systems.
To compare the diagnostic performance of automated imaging for glaucoma.Prospective, direct comparison study.Adults with suspected glaucoma or ocular hypertension referred to hospital eye services in the United Kingdom.We evaluated 4 automated imaging test algorithms: the Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) glaucoma probability score (GPS), the HRT Moorfields regression analysis (MRA), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx enhanced corneal compensation; Glaucoma Diagnostics (GDx), Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) nerve fiber indicator (NFI), and Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT; Heidelberg Engineering) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) classification. We defined abnormal tests as an automated classification of outside normal limits for HRT and OCT or NFI ≥ 56 (GDx). We conducted a sensitivity analysis, using borderline abnormal image classifications. The reference standard was clinical diagnosis by a masked glaucoma expert including standardized
Optic disc swelling can be caused by a number of conditions; papilloedema is a specific optic disc swelling. More about Optic Disc Swelling (including Papilloedema)
Purpose To evaluate effects of prematurity on early optic nerve (ON) development and the usefulness of {ON} parameters as indicators of central nervous system (CNS) development and pathology. Design Prospective, cross-sectional, longitudinal study. Participants Forty-four preterm infants undergoing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and 52 term infants. Methods We analyzed {ON} from portable handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images (Bioptigen, Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC) of 44 preterm and 52 term infants. The highest-quality {ON} scan from either eye was selected for quantitative analysis. Longitudinal analysis was performed at 31-36 weeks and 37-42 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Preterm {ON} parameters also were assessed for correlation with indicators of cognitive, language, and motor development and {CNS} pathology. Main Outcome Measures Vertical cup diameter (vCD), vertical disc diameter (vDD), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (vCDR), cup depth, and indicators of
ONHA - Optic Nerve Head Analyzer. Looking for abbreviations of ONHA? It is Optic Nerve Head Analyzer. Optic Nerve Head Analyzer listed as ONHA
The average age of subjects was 30.2 ± 9.3 years for G0 and 29.9 ± 7.1 years for G1 (p = 0.903). Mean sphere was -0.5 ± 0.3 D (-1.25 to 0 D) G0 and -3.9 ± 0.3 D (-6.00 to -3 D) G1 (p,0.001). The RNFL thickness comparison between G0 and G1 showed a significantly lower thickness in G1 (p = 0.018). The BMO-MRW measurements were similar in both groups (p = 0.331). With the BMO-MRW examination, the number of sectors classified as pathologic per subject in G1 were significantly lower compared to RNFL analysis (p = 0.023).. ...
The cup-to-disc ratio (often notated CDR) is a measurement used in ophthalmology and optometry to assess the progression of glaucoma. The optic disc is the anatomical location of the eyes "blind spot", the area where the optic nerve and blood vessels enter the retina. The optic disc can be flat or it can have a certain amount of normal cupping. But glaucoma, which is in most cases associated with an increase in intraocular pressure, often produces additional pathological cupping of the optic disc. The pink rim of disc contains nerve fibers. The white cup is a pit with no nerve fibers. As glaucoma advances, the cup enlarges until it occupies most of the disc area.[1] The cup-to-disc ratio compares the diameter of the "cup" portion of the optic disc with the total diameter of the optic disc. A good analogy to better understand the cup-to-disc ratio is the ratio of a donut hole to a donut. The hole represents the cup and the surrounding area the disc. If the cup fills 1/10 of the disc, the ratio ...
A Common Glaucoma-risk Variant of SIX6 Alters Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Optic Disc Measures in a European Population: The EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.
Pediatric emergency department (PED) physicians frequently encounter children with symptoms that warrant evaluation of the optic disc for suspected increased intracranial pressure (ICP) such as headache, blurred vision, recurrent vomiting etc. Fundoscopic examination, by the PED physician, is considered an essential modality for assessment of the optic disc and the diagnosis of papilledema. Obtaining good visualization of the optic disc requires patient compliance, the ability to open the eyelids, the absence of opacities in the ocular media and a sufficiently large pupillary aperture. Hence, different levels of PED physician training, lack of cooperation, significant ocular or periorbital trauma, contraindications to mydriasis and severe photophobia may hinder direct fundoscopic evaluation.. In the investigators PED, children requiring fundoscopy are sent to a formal ophthalmologic examination. The investigators aim to evaluate the yield of optic disc height as measured with ocular point of ...
article{f8b9e269-18db-4a46-8cd7-c506ebb1ac88, abstract = {,b,Abstract in Undetermined,/b,,br/,,br, Background: The performance of glaucoma diagnostic systems could be conceivably improved by the integration of functional and structural test measurements that provide relevant and complementary information for reaching a diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of data fusion methods and techniques for simple combination of Standard Automated Perimetry (SAP) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) data for the diagnosis of glaucoma using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). ,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, Methods: Humphrey 24-2 SITA standard SAP and StratusOCT tests were prospectively collected from a randomly selected population of 125 healthy persons and 135 patients with glaucomatous optic nerve heads and used as input for the ANNs. We tested commercially available standard parameters as well as novel ones (fused OCT and SAP data) that exploit the spatial relationship between ...
Definition of Drusen of the optic nerve head with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Glaucoma is a common ocular disorder that is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by the dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Although many studies have implicated various molecules in glaucoma, no mechanism has been shown to be responsible for the earliest detectable damage to RGCs and their axons in the optic nerve. Here, we show that the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway is activated in the optic nerve head at the earliest stages of disease in an inherited mouse model of glaucoma. This resulted in proinflammatory monocytes entering the optic nerve prior to detectable neuronal damage. A 1-time x-ray treatment prevented monocyte entry and subsequent glaucomatous damage. A single x-ray treatment of an individual eye in young mice provided that eye with long-term protection from glaucoma but had no effect on the contralateral eye. Localized radiation treatment prevented detectable neuronal damage and dysfunction in treated eyes, despite the continued
The optic disc is the round spot on the retina formed by the passage of the axons of the retinal ganglion cells. The ganglion cells receive the final impulse created by the reception of light by the retinal photoreceptors. Their axons form the nerve fiber layer of the retina. The nerve fibers flow together at this spot to form the beginning of the optic nerve.
Glaucoma Diagnostic Accuracy of Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness: Comparison with Nerve Fiber Layer and Optic Nerve Head
8. You are having Glaucoma to monitor the efficacy of treatment.. HOW IS GLAUCOMA DIAGNOSED?. Detailed initial consultation is very important to elicit complete medical and surgical history and ascertain relevant risk factors like use of Steroid, Trauma, and Diabetes etc.. Comprehensive clinical examination including Visual Acuity, Slit Lamp Examination, Non Contact Tonometry and Applanation Tonometry (To check eye pressure) Fundus and Optic Nerve Head Examination, Gonioscopy (Checking drainage channels of eye) and Central Corneal Thickness.. Special investigations to document the extent of structural damage to the optic nerve head and the retinal nerve fibre layer like Humphreys Visual Field Analysis, GDX (Nerve Fibre Analysis), OCT(RNFL) and /or OCT ONH.. Comprehensive discussion and information session to inform patient regarding type of Glaucoma, disease prognosis and implications, treatment options, importance of treatment compliance and to answer patient questions.. WHAT ARE THE TREATMENT ...
Various age-related changes in the biomechanics and topography of different ocular components have been reported in the literature. Albon et al. (2000) observed a decrease in both the mechanical compliance and resilience of the human lamina cribrosa with age, and similar observations were made by Krag et al. (1997) in the lens capsule. Strong association was found between the age-related alterations in the optic nerve head and its increased susceptibility to glaucomatous damage (Burgoyne & Downs 2008). The asphericity of both the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces was reported to undergo significant changes with age, leading to a more spherical topography (Lam & Douthwaite 2002) and peripheral thinning (Dubbelman et al. 2006). Stiffening and increased tensile strength of the sclera were also found to be strongly associated with age (Avetisov et al. 1983; Schultz et al. 2008). Where an explanation was provided for these changes, it was the age-related increase in the intermolecular and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The anatomy and pathophysiology of the optic nerve head in glaucoma. AU - Burgoyne, C. F.. AU - Morrison, John. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035168502&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035168502&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 11890263. AN - SCOPUS:0035168502. VL - 10. JO - Journal of Glaucoma. JF - Journal of Glaucoma. SN - 1057-0829. IS - 5 SUPPL. 1. ER - ...
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Glaucoma is a chronic optic nerve head (ONH) disease. Gradual retinal ganglion cell and nerve fiber loss lead to morphological ONH change and visual field defects. Initial loss is often focal. Rate of progression and life expectancy guide treatment. Currently, confocal scanning laser tomoghraphy (HRT) and optic coherence tomography (OCT) are available for ONH imaging. However, there is no consensus for which morphometric measurement of ONH nerve fiber content to use for glaucoma follow-up.. Purpose: To measure ONH nerve fiber content as neuroretinal rim area (NRA) with HRT, estimate NRA measurement variation and its impact on designing a follow-up strategy. To develop a custom algorithm, Pigment epithelium central limit-Inner limit of the retina Minimal Distance (PIMD), for measuring ONH nerve fiber content in OCT data cubes. To measure PIMD in glaucomatous eyes, estimate the variance sources for PIMD and their impact on designing strategies for glaucoma follow-up.. Methods: NRA was measured ...
Comparison of Ethnic-specific Databases in Heidelberg Retina Tomography-3 to Discriminate Between Early Glaucoma and Normal Chinese Eyes
While the term papilledema is often used broadly to denote a swollen optic nerve head, the term papilledema should be reserved for optic disc swelling that is due to raised intracranial pressure.This topic will provide an overview and differential di
The data collected by the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRTII) and the Optical Coherence Tomograph (Stratus OCT) was analysed and compared to each other using statistical methods. To calculate the precision of the techniques, stereo photographs of optic nerve heads were used and graded by an ophthalmologist so that they could be compared to the diagnoses made by the two systems. The sensitivity and specificity were worked out for each technique.. The conclusions reached at the end of the project ...
Diagnosis Code M99.23 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
-In this work, we have presented a novel method for detection of retinal image features, the optic disc and the fovea, from colour fundus photographs of dilated…
Distribution of Optic Disc Parameters Measured by OCT: Findings from a Population-Based Study of 6-Year-Old Australian Children., Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (IOVS), vol.47,(8),2006,pp 3276-3285 ...
The OCT scan shows a neurosensorial detachment and a bilaminar structure "schisis-like" between external and internal retinal layers associated to an optic disc pit, in a 10-year-old male patient. He reported loss of vision starting 3 weeks ago ...
The purpose of this project is to methodically find the restrictions and fitting solutions that would allow further usage of already existing cohort fundus images from long term studies. Old cohorts that have been followed up for more than 20 years, in a time of constant technical development often include images from multiple camera systems and imaging standards. This entails e.g. color or red-free imaging modes, different angle of view or macula or optic disk centered view points for the same patient. By statistically analyzing not just the changed vessel parameters analyzed under those circumstances but by also quantifying the image changes (e.g. resolution, transformation, quality) this project contributes new view points on new and finished studies using old images. ...
13 Jan 12. More comments on rifle optics, from respected Trainers:. "You have essentially reiterated the law of optics: (1) magnification, (2) field of view, and (3) eye relief are all inter-connected. Increasing one always reduces the other two. No way to get away from it!. I have yet to see any magnifying rifle optic, above 2.5x, that is useable with more than 10cm (4″) of eye-relief. There is no getting around the above-mentioned trade-offs. Maybe in the future, we will see an optic with a video-regurgitated image that features unlimited eye relief, combined with significant magnification. Until then, here is my opinion:. Red-dots (Aimpoint and EOTech) can use a rear-mounted magnifier that can be flipped in and out of the way, as you indicated. But, as you also indicate, the system is bulky, and one does have to take the time to move the magnifier into, and out of, place, as the situation warrants, doing his best to guess, ahead of time, which mode shall be most appropriate! In addition, ...
Front and rear specific rims optimized to address the specific performance requirements and loads of mountain bike riding. Wider inner rim width supports wider tire profile in front, increased volume and contact patch, and rounds tire profile to enhance turning. Narrower inner rim width supports narrower tire profile i
Fig. 46-3. Schematic horizontal section of right eye showing axes, fovea centralis (receiving the visual axis), optic disc, central vein of retina, lamina cribrosa sclerae (interrupted lines) and fascial sheath (in blue). Click for high resolution image.. ...