Introduction The prevalence of prescription opioid use disorders in the US has increased markedly in parallel with increases in opioid prescribing. Whilst an increase in opioid prescribing has also...
Prior research has identified several risk factors for prescription opioid use disorder (POUD). The authors attempted to develop a conceptual model for POUD based on an existing model for major depression-check out the article for details.
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Buprenorphine-naloxone (Suboxone, Reckitt-Benckiser) helps curb prescription opioid dependence, but additional counseling does little to boost success rates, according to results of a randomized controlled trial published online November 7 in Archives of General Psychiatry. (Source: […]
Prescription Opioid Misuse, Heroin, and Fentanyl. The United States is in the midst of an opioid overdose epidemic to include overdoses involving prescription opioid medications, heroin, and illicit fentanyl (a powerful synthetic opioid medication that is increasingly being produced illicitly). In 2015, more than 33,000 people died from overdoses involving opioids, which is up from more than 28,000 deaths in 2014. As in 2014, overdose deaths in 2015 involving prescription opioids (excluding the category of synthetic opioids that includes fentanyl) rose only slightly, suggesting that efforts in recent years to reduce the misuse of these drugs may be having an impact. Despite this, in 2015, 17,536 deaths involved an opioid medication and approximately 3.8 million people reported misusing such medications in the month prior to their interview. In 2015, the overall increase in overdose deaths was driven in large part by continued sharp increases in deaths involving heroin and synthetic opioids such ...
This self-paced online course covers important topics in prescription opioid misuse. The three sections will introduce you to prescription opioids, the link between multiple doctors and opportunities for misuse, and the prevalence of high-risk use among adolescents (including mixing pills with other drugs).. Opioids are here to stay. Knowing and addressing risky behaviors associated with nonmedical use can help prevent potentially grave consequences such as overdose and addiction.. Continuing Education Credits available: ...
The suggestion that broader access to marijuana might reduce prescription opioid misuse and overdose comes largely from two recent reports, Mark Olfson, M.D., M.P.H., of the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University Medical Center and colleagues wrote in the AJP paper. These studies found aggregate annual death rates from opioid overdoses were lower in states with medical cannabis laws compared with states without such laws. "Such ecologic analyses, however, provide no information on whether individual patients who use cannabis have a lower or higher risk of developing opioid use disorders," they noted. ...
Objective: A recent study has suggested that overweight and obese people are more likely to consult a range of physicians (doctor shopping). The consistency of this finding with multiple measures of doctor shopping and controls for socioeconomic circumstances was interrogated. Design and Methods: Ninety-nine thousand four hundred seven Australians aged 45 and over who had sought primary healthcare at least five times within 6 months of a survey (2006-2008). (i) The count of different physicians consulted; a binary indicator of (ii) |= three different physicians; (iii) |= five different physicians; and iv) a measure that took into account multiple consultations with the same physician were investigated. Weight status was measured using Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight. Controls included socioeconomic circumstances, demographics, health, and neighborhood factors. Results: In comparison to people with normal BMI, the likelihood of doctor shopping was lower among overweight
Use of an Adaptive Treatment Research Design in a CTN Study of Prescription Opioid Dependence Treatment.. Poster presented at the College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) annual meeting, Reno/Sparks, Nevada, June 20-25, 2009. Roger D. Weiss, MD (McLean Hospital, NNE Node), Jennifer Sharpe Potter, PhD, MPH (McLean Hospital, NNE Node), Mimmie Byrne, ACSW, CAC, LICSW (West Virginia University, AT Node), Carl Rollynn Sullivan, MD (Chestnut Ridge Hospital, AT Node), Walter Ling, MD (Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, PA Node). This poster describes the use of an adaptive treatment research design (ATRD) in protocol CTN-0030 (Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS)). The 10-site POATS trial aims to examine different lengths and intensities of buprenorphine and drug counseling for subjects with opioid analgesic dependence. The primary study aim is to determine whether adding counseling to buprenorphine plus medical management improves outcome in this ...
Abuse of Prescription Opioids Is a Serious and Growing ProblemWe need only read the news to be reminded that prescription opioid abuse is a serious problem across our society.
The profile of opioid dependence is changing in the United States. According to the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 3.7 million Americans had used heroin at least once in their lifetime and over half a million individuals had used heroin within the past year. Approximately 323,000 individuals met criteria for past-year heroin abuse or dependence. While these figures are concerning, the increasing prevalence of prescription opioid abuse and dependence is also worrisome. In 2006 12.6 million reported non-medical use of prescription opioids. Of these, 1.6 million met criteria for prescription opioid abuse or dependence. Sex-related HIV risk behaviors are prevalent amongst opioid dependent individuals with one study reporting unprotected intercourse within the prior 30 days in 75% of patients. Given that 79-85% of U.S. HIV/AIDS cases are secondary to sexual transmission, as non-injecting drug use increases, the relative contribution of sex-related HIV risk behaviors will ...
The profile of opioid dependence is changing in the United States. According to the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 3.7 million Americans had used heroin at least once in their lifetime and over half a million individuals had used heroin within the past year. Approximately 323,000 individuals met criteria for past-year heroin abuse or dependence. While these figures are concerning, the increasing prevalence of prescription opioid abuse and dependence is also worrisome. In 2006 12.6 million reported non-medical use of prescription opioids. Of these, 1.6 million met criteria for prescription opioid abuse or dependence. Sex-related HIV risk behaviors are prevalent amongst opioid dependent individuals with one study reporting unprotected intercourse within the prior 30 days in 75% of patients. Given that 79-85% of U.S. HIV/AIDS cases are secondary to sexual transmission, as non-injecting drug use increases, the relative contribution of sex-related HIV risk behaviors will ...
A substantial number of Medicaid enrollees were able to fill prescriptions for opioid analgesics, benzodiazepines, or both in the year following diagnosis for an opioid use disorder.
RICHMOND, Va., Nov. 11, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Indivior PLC (LON: INDV) announces the launch of a new direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising campaign, Keep Moving Towards Recovery, which aims to heighten awareness of treatment with SUBLOCADE® (buprenorphine extended-release) injection, for subcutaneous use (CIII), as well as motivate those with moderate to severe opioid use disorder (OUD) and those who care about them to seek help from health care professionals to keep moving towards recovery. SUBLOCADE is a prescription medicine used to treat adults with moderate to severe addiction (dependence) to opioid drugs (prescription or illegal) who have received an oral transmucosal (used under the tongue or inside the cheek) buprenorphine-containing medicine at a dose that controls withdrawal symptoms for at least 7 days. SUBLOCADE is part of a complete treatment plan that should include counseling.1. The Keep Moving Towards Recovery campaign is intended to help reframe the perceptions of those ...
Various OUD treatment options are available; most involve a team of professionals including social workers, doctors, nurse practitioners, psychologists, and other behavioral health clinicians. Treatment begins with a clinical assessment to determine which treatment method is best for the individual. During treatment, medication can assist in preventing relapse while the brain is healing and regular emotional and decision-making capacities are being restored. For individuals with opioid-use disorder, medication assisted treatment (MAT) with agonists or partial agonists such as methadone or buprenorphine can be essential in helping to control symptoms of withdrawal and cravings. Findings associated with brain physiology and its relation to dependency has established the foundation for understanding addiction as a treatable disease and has influenced more precise and effective treatment interventions for the future.. The treatment system for opioid use disorder and other substance use disorders is ...
Pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD) are more likely to receive evidence-based treatment with an opioid agonist -- usually methadone -- in states where those medications are covered by Medicaid, reports a study in the December issue of Medical Care, published by Wolters Kluwer.
The Fight Opioid Addiction and Overdose with Medical Cannabis Project hopes to open a clinic in Gardner, Colorado, that will give free medical marijuana cards to opioid addicts or other users of dangerous narcotic pain meds. Marijuana manages pain; thousands have used it to wean themselves off more dangerous painkillers like oxy and morphine. Medical marijuana is cheaper than
This study assesses the prevalence and costs associated with comorbid chronic medical conditions among individuals with diagnosed opioid use disorder (OUD) and opioid super-users without diagnosed OUD.
National Trends in Hepatitis C Infection by Opioid Use Disorder Status Among Pregnant Women at Delivery Hospitalization - United States, 2000-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Oct 04;68(39):833-838 Authors: Ko JY, Haight SC, Schillie SF, Bohm MK, Dietz PM Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted primarily through parenteral exposures to infectious blood or body flu...
In an effort to reduce adverse maternal and neonatal health consequences of substance use, the National Partnership for Maternal Safety has created a consensus bundle on obstetric care for women with opioid use disorder.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Opioid Use Disorder in Pregnancy (R01) RFA-HD-18-036. NICHD
This investment, combined with other efforts underway to reduce barriers to treatment for substance use disorders, will help ensure that every American who wants treatment can access it and get the help they need.. Second, the Presidents Budget includes approximately $500 million - an increase of more than $90 million - to continue and build on current efforts across the Departments of Justice (DOJ) and Health and Human Services (HHS) to expand state-level prescription drug overdose prevention strategies, increase the availability of medication-assisted treatment programs, improve access to the overdose-reversal drug naloxone, and support targeted enforcement activities. A portion of this funding is directed specifically to rural areas, where rates of overdose and opioid use are particularly high. To help further expand access to treatment, the Budget includes an HHS pilot project for nurse practitioners and physician assistants to prescribe buprenorphine for opioid use disorder treatment, ...
Opioid analgesics: Commonly referred to as prescription opioids, medications that have been used to treat moderate to severe pain in some patients. The include morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, methadone, a synthetic opioid, tramadol and fentanyl.. Opioid use disorder: A problematic pattern of opioid use that causes significant impairment or distress. A diagnosis is based on specific criteria such as unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control use, or use resulting in social problems and a failure to fulfill obligations at work, school or home. Opioid use disorder has also been referred to as opioid abuse or dependence or opioid addiction.. Overdose: Injury to the body (poisoning) that happens when a drug is taken in excessive amounts. An overdose can be fatal or nonfatal.. Physical dependence: Adaptation to a drug that produces symptoms of withdrawal when the drug is stopped.. Prescription drug monitoring programs: State-run electronic databases that track ...
Agonist and antagonist drugs can be found for that treatment method of opioid addiction, but curiosity of their use is proscribed by their actual in addition to their perceived limits. Opioid vaccines stand for a gorgeous alternate or more treatment method alternative simply because their distinctive mechanism of motion circumvents many of such limitations. Opioid addiction is a particularly challenging focus on for vaccines for the reason that a range of the two illegal and prescription opioids is usually abused, most have one or more active metabolites, and opioid abusers normally swap amongst opioids. Moreover, The one and every day doses of abused opioids are normally high when compared to the drug-binding potential of antibodies which might be generated by vaccination. Nonetheless, several forms of heroin vaccines have demonstrated considerable efficacy in animals for binding heroin or its Lively metabolites in serum, decreasing or slowing their distribution on the Mind, and attenuating ...
This brief summarizes a new systematic review of economic evaluations of treatments for substance use disorders. The review reveals strong evidence that methadone maintenance therapy is an economically advantageous form of treatment; the economic evidence for buprenorphine and naltrexone treatments is more limited.
The statistics regarding the opioid crisis in the United States are staggering, have been the focus of the media for more than a decade, and show no signs of improving. In 2016, 2.4 million Americans were estimated to have an opioid use disorder, ranging from the misuse of prescription opioids to the abuse of heroin and other illicit opioids.1 This includes 0.6% of adolescents 12 to 17 years of age and 1.1% of young adults 18 to 25 years of age. In 2015, 50 000 Americans died of overdose, of which 33 000 (63%) were from opioids.2 Despite policies to regulate drug supplies and increase access to treatment, overdose death rates have doubled in the past 10 years and have continued to rise for adults.3. Although the death rate from overdose has plateaued recently for those younger than 18 years and the rate of prescription opioid misuse has dropped significantly among 12th graders over the past 5 years,4 hospitalizations for opioid poisonings are increasing, especially among preschool children and ...
1. Johnston/Monitoring the future.org Stimmel B. Pain and its Relief without Addiction. Binghampton : The Haworth Medical Press, 1997.. 2. Machikanti L. Prescription Drug Abuse: What is Being Done to Address This New Drug Epidemic? Testimony Before The SubCommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources. Pain Physician 2006; 9: 287-321. 3. Lowinson JH, Ruiz P, Millman RB, Langrod JG. Substance Abuse A Comprehensive Textbook. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. 3. Stimmel B. Pain and its Relief without Addiction. Binghampton : The Haworth Medical Press, 1997.. 4. Lowinson JH, Ruiz P, Millman RB, Langrod JG. Substance Abuse A Comprehensive Textbook. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.. 5. Schuckit MA. Drug and Alcohol Abuse: A Clinical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment. San Diego: Springer, 2006.. 6. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Medication Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction Treatment in Opioid Treatment Programs: Treatment Improvement ...
So she and her family made a big change. With her husband and two young children, Stockton packed up and moved hundreds of miles north to rural Shasta County. Today, Stockton, 42, practices family medicine at the Shingletown Medical Center in a tiny town in the shadow of Mt. Lassen, 30 miles east of Redding.. The majority of Stocktons patients live in poverty. "The economy is terrible," she said, adding that the lack of educational opportunities for kids creates a cycle of despair that can afflict families for generations. With that despair has come alcoholism and a dramatic increase in addiction to opioids. But what really moved Stockton was the pregnant women she saw who were struggling with opioid addiction, threatening their own health and that of their developing babies.. Judgment-Free Zone. Stockton saw the chance to make a big difference: Treating pregnant women with opioid addiction would help both mother and baby, two generations at once. When she starts caring for these patients, she ...
Background:. Comprehensive systems for surveilling prescription opioid-related harms provide clear evidence that deaths from prescription opioids have increased dramatically in the United States. However, these harms are not systematically monitored in Canada. In light of a growing public health crisis, accessible, nationwide data sources to examine prescription opioid-related harms in Canada are needed. We sought to examine the performance of 5 algorithms to identify prescription opioid-related deaths from vital statistics data against data abstracted from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario as a gold standard.. Methods:. We identified all prescription opioid-related deaths from Ontario coroners data that occurred between Jan. 31, 2003, and Dec. 31, 2010. We then used 5 different algorithms to identify prescription opioid-related deaths from vital statistics death data in 2010. We selected the algorithm with the highest sensitivity and a positive predictive value of more than 80% as the ...
Opioid misuse is a U.S. public health crisis that does not discriminate based on gender. National Womens Health Week (May 8-14) is a good time to spotlight just how women are being affected by the inappropriate use of prescription drugs-and what can be done to stop it.
Objective - To determine if people receiving opioid agonist treatment (OAT), a long-term treatment approach, are also receiving high-quality primary care.. Design - Retrospective cohort study.. Setting - Ontario.. Participants - Recipients of public drug benefits who had at least 6 months of continuous use of methadone or buprenorphine between October 1, 2012, and September 30, 2013.. Main Outcome Measures - Rates of cancer screening and diabetes monitoring among those who had at least 6 months of continuous OAT were compared with matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess differences after adjusting for confounders. In secondary analyses, outcomes by type of OAT and factors related to health care delivery were compared.. Results - A cohort of 20 406 OAT patients was identified; they had a mean (SD) of 31 (15) physician clinic visits during the 6-month study period. Compared with the control group, OAT patients were less likely to receive screening for cervical ...
Opioids are most frequently prescribed for chronic non-cancer pain, primarily spinal pain. Prescribing a chemical does not adequately address that problem.
Across the country, cities have struggled to provide access to addiction treatment services for their thousands of opioid addicts. What services are available, are usually paid for by local government coffers and nonprofits. Emergency departments are treating patients for opioid overdoses in ever increasing numbers. And equipping first responders with naloxone is not cheap, and the price per overdose antidote continues to climb. This is why the City of Delray Beach became the first in Florida to go after the pharmaceutical industry, Palm Beach Post reports. The suit, interestingly, is to help offset the costs related to heroin abuse, which the city claims is a byproduct of the pharmaceutical industries nefarious ways, that is using bogus research to disseminate the idea that opioid addiction is rare, and painkillers like OxyContin are safe.. Anyone living in Florida likely remembers the "pill mill" and "doctor shopping" fiasco affecting the state. Tourists were not just coming for our sunshine; ...
Traitements de désintoxication pour les adolescents présentant une dépendance aux opiacés. Labus de substances est un problème sérieux et croissant chez les adolescents (de 13 à 18 ans). Il est important didentifier les traitements efficaces pour ceux qui présentent une dépendance aux opiacés. Pour les adultes, la pharmacothérapie est un élément nécessaire et acceptable du traitement efficace. Les agents de désintoxication sont utilisés pour réduire les symptômes de sevrage pendant le sevrage encadré, mais le taux dachèvement de la désintoxication tend à être faible, et les taux de rechute sont élevés. Les symptômes de sevrage, en particulier les envies impérieuses de consommer de la drogue, peuvent perdurer pendant des semaines et même des mois après la désintoxication. Le délai de guérison de la dépendance est typiquement influencé par une gamme de facteurs psychologiques, sociaux et liés au traitement. Les traitements de désintoxication comprennent la ...
WASHINGTON (MedPage Today) - The FDA has approved a new sublingual film formulation of the opioid dependence treatment combination buprenorphrine/naloxone (Suboxone). (Source: MedPage Today Public Health)
Number of Opioid-Addicted Women Giving Birth Quadruples By Dennis Thompson HealthDay Reporter The number of pregnant women addicted to opioids as they give birth has more than quadrupled since 1999, a disturbing new report shows. In 2014, for every 1,000 hospital deliveries, 6.5 were mothers who arrived at the hospital with opioid use disorder, up…
Schedule: 2nd Tuesday of the month, 12:00- 1:00 PM. Target Audience: Prenatal care providers and care team. Overview: The Maternal Opioid Misuse (MOM) ECHO aims to connect with participants across MaineHealth system to identify and improve the perinatal care needs of patients with Opioid Use Disorder and their families. MOM is a forum for the dissemination of best practices focused on readiness, recognition and prevention, response, and reporting/systems learning. Multidisciplinary teams lead brief didactic presentations based on the bundle components. Each session also includes a case presentation provided by network participants addressing patient care or systems adaptation scenarios that provide opportunities for all network participants to engage in discussion-based learning and mentoring. The overall goal is to assure pregnant and postpartum women with opioid use disorder (OUD) are screened, and can access coordinated prenatal care and integrated medication assisted treatment (iMAT), as ...
For years, medical doctors prescribed tramadol for ache management, assuming it was a painkiller with a low danger for addiction. Tramadol 50mg/ml Solution for Injection is not an appropriate substitute in opioid dependent patients. Nonetheless, the only factor we do find out about tramadol is that NSAIDs present superior analgesia to veterinary patients. Nevertheless, tramadols opioid and serotonergic results are vital as a result of they permit tramadol to deal with each pain and the psychological parts of ache, he said. Different critical unintended effects of snorting tramadol include coma and respiratory problems.. Tramadol is efficient on two fronts: About 20 percent of its painkilling effects come from opioids, and eighty p.c from ingredients that inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, two chemicals in the mind associated with mood and responsiveness to ache, said Dr. Lewis Nelson, a professor of emergency drugs at New York Universitys Langone Medical Middle.. Since ...
For years, medical doctors prescribed tramadol for ache management, assuming it was a painkiller with a low danger for addiction. Tramadol 50mg/ml Solution for Injection is not an appropriate substitute in opioid dependent patients. Nonetheless, the only factor we do find out about tramadol is that NSAIDs present superior analgesia to veterinary patients. Nevertheless, tramadols opioid and serotonergic results are vital as a result of they permit tramadol to deal with each pain and the psychological parts of ache, he said. Different critical unintended effects of snorting tramadol include coma and respiratory problems.. Tramadol is efficient on two fronts: About 20 percent of its painkilling effects come from opioids, and eighty p.c from ingredients that inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, two chemicals in the mind associated with mood and responsiveness to ache, said Dr. Lewis Nelson, a professor of emergency drugs at New York Universitys Langone Medical Middle.. Since ...
There have been many recent clinical studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of rapid, anesthesia-assisted techniques in helping individuals to successfully reverse their opiate dependence and return to healthy, productive lives. By ...
After coming to UK two years ago, Dr. Agatha Critchfield, an OB-GYN at UK HealthCare Womens Health, was overwhelmed by the cases of pregnant women with opioid addiction she saw in her practice. So she decided to do something about it. Dr. Critchfield created PATHways, an opioid treatment clinic for pregnant women recovering from addiction. It combines treatment with prenatal care, counseling and a support group. The program is based on the Centering Pregnancy model, which reduces negative outcomes and prepares women to have a child through group counseling and peer support.
BACKGROUND: Injectable opioids are an interesting option for people who inject drugs (PWID) that do not respond to oral Opioid Maintenance Treatment (OMT). To date, intravenous (IV) buprenorphine - a safer drug than full-opioid agonists in terms of overdose risk - has never been tested in a clinical trial on opioid dependence. We designed a survey to better understand the profile of PWID eligible for IV buprenorphine, and their willingness to receive it. METHODS: This cross-sectional community-based national survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews (in low-threshold and addiction care services) and online questionnaires (on https://psychoactif ...
Tramadol should be used with special caution in head injury, respiratory distress, intracranial hypertension, biliary tract disorders, epileptic seizures, or with drugs that lower the seizure threshold, an enlarged prostate, narrowing of the urethra asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypothyroidism, severe inflammatory bowel disease, individuals with suicidal tendencies, depression or affective disorders, opioid dependent patients or patients with liver ,heart or kidney disease ...
BACKGROUND:Nonmedical use of prescription opioid and illicit opioid has been increasing at an alarming rate in North America over the past decade.OBJECTIVE:We sought to examine the temporal trends and correlates of the availability of illicit and prescription opioids among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Vancouver, Canada.
Led by researchers at Boston Medical Centers Grayken Center for Addiction, new study proved that those who receive treatment within time are less likely to overdose or be readmitted to the hospital within a year.
As part of the NIH HEAL Initiative, researchers are using tissue chips to study mechanisms and effects of nociception (including pain-relevant signaling), addiction and opioid use disorder.
This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the strength and consistency of findings in the medical literature regarding the association of prenatal expos
The purpose of Project 2 is to execute phase I functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies to assess the effects of lorcaserin on brain target
Chronic opioid treatment leads to neuroinflammation, hyperalgesia, and anhedonia. Recent studies in both humans and rodents show that disruption of the gut microbiota is also a consequence of opioid use. Now, a new study led by Anna Taylor, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, shows a causal link between morphine-induced alterations in the gut microbiota and the symptoms of opioid dependence, and suggests that targeting those changes may help alleviate the adverse side effects of opioids.
GREENSBURG, Pa., Aug. 4, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Insurance Department Releases Brochure Outlining Coverage of Opioid Addiction and other Substance...
Background Opioid medications affect not only the central nervous system but also immune function. Pro-inflammatory markers have been shown, although inconsistently, to increase with administration of opioids. However, few studies have been done in humans, and these have targeted non-generalizable populations (people addicted to opioids). Thus, we set out to measure the association between opioid use and inflammation, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP), in a cross-sectional analysis of a large, nationally-representative population. Methods Using data from 13,058 participants in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2010, we used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association of elevated plasma CRP (, 0.18 mg/dl) with prescription opioid use, while controlling for a number of demographic and clinical factors. Results 924 participants (6%) reported a using a prescription opioid. CRP levels were higher in opioid users than non-users with a ...