We have investigated the influence of cortisol on the beta-adrenoreceptor population of rainbow trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)] erythrocytes and determined what impact it has on the adrenergic responsiveness of erythrocytes in vitro to exogenous catecholamines. To do so, the erythrocyte beta-adrenoreceptors were characterized in fish with chronically elevated plasma cortisol levels (118 +/− 5.9 ng ml-1, greater than 10 days) and compared with shams, using radioreceptor assay techniques. The number of internalized, low-affinity receptors was increased when cortisol levels were raised, but the number of high-affinity, surface receptors was not altered. The physiological significance of this response was ascertained by assessing the in vitro sensitivity (or responsiveness) of erythrocytes to adrenaline and noradrenaline (10-1000 nmol l-1) under normoxic (PO2 = 16.13 +/− 0.55 kPa, PCO2 = 0.41 +/− 0.01 kPa) or hypoxic (PO2 = 4.13 +/− 0.15 kPa, PCO2 = 0.43 +/− 0.01 kPa) conditions. ...
If chronic anaemia has the potential to create a chronic hypoxic condition for the spongy myocardium, chasing fish may have exacerbated this problem by periodically reducing venous oxygen tension (Farrell and Clutterham, 2003) even further. However, we did not observe disproportionate cardiac remodelling in warm-acclimated rainbow trout, but then anaemic fish were more lethargic than normocythemic fish. Similarly, a hypoxic signal in anaemic fish might trigger disproportionate growth of the compact myocardium because the arterial blood supply to the compact myocardium has a higher oxygen partial pressure. Conversely, the lower myocardial oxygen demands of spongy myocardium, combined with its higher activities of oxidative enzymes than compact myocardium (Tota et al., 1983; Gamperl et al., 1994), could compensate for the different levels of hypoxia experienced by the compact and spongy myocardia. Interestingly, cold-acclimated rainbow trout differed from warm acclimated fish by disproportionately ...
The sea-run phenotype of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), like other anadromous salmonids, present a juvenile stage fully adapted to life in freshwater known as parr. Development in freshwater is followed by the smolt stage, where preadaptations needed for seawater life are developed making fish ready to migrate to the ocean, after which event they become post-smolts. While these three life stages have been studied using a variety of approaches, proteomics has never been used for such purpose. The present study characterised the blood plasma proteome of parr, smolt and post-smolt rainbow trout using a gel electrophoresis liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry approach alone or in combination with low-abundant protein enrichment technology (combinatorial peptide ligand library). In total, 1,822 proteins were quantified, 17.95% of them being detected only in plasma post enrichment. Across all life stages, the most abundant proteins were ankyrin-2, DNA primase large subunit, actin, ...
... Fredricks, K. T., Gingerich, W. H., and Fater, D. C., 1993, Comparative cardiovascular effects of four fishery anesthetics in spinally transected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C, v. 104C, no. 3, p. 477-483.. Abstract. We compared the effects of four anesthetics on heart rate, dorsal and ventral aortic blood pressure, and electrocardiograms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ). Exposure to the local anesthetics tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) and benzocaine hydrochloride (BZH) produced minimal cardiovascular alterations. Mean dorsal aortic pressure (DAP) decreased during exposure to MS-222, and mean DAP and mean ventral aortic pressure (VAP) increased 15% during recovery from BZH. Exposure to the general anesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol (2-PE) or the hypnotic agent etomidate (ET) dramatically decreased heart rate and blood ...
Escaped hatchery rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), at post-smolt (120-340 g) and adult stages (800-3400 g) adapted differently to natural marine prey after escaping from two fish farms in northern Norway. About 1 month after escape (July), more than 57% of the post-smolt fed actively on fish larvae, which contributed 63-75% of the diet by weight. Surface insects were consumed by more than half the post-smolts and represented 24-48% of the diet during the 3-month period of sampling (June-August). One month after escaping, forage ratios (weight stomach/weight fish × 100) exceeded 1, similar to ratios recorded for other wild anadromous salmonid species in the area. Post-smolt weight increased during the sampling period and the condition factor was stable. In contrast, the condition factor of escaped adult fish reduced significantly and the forage ratios were consistently low (0.05-0.77) during the 15 months of sampling (March-August) following their escapement. These fish fed primarily ...
Carotenoid utilization in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) has been investigated with respect to tissue distribution of carotenoids and the role of the liver on the bioavailability of the lipid soluble carotenoids, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Species-specific and tissue-specific accumulations were noted for astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in the rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, possibly indicating fundamental differences in their utilization in these species. The liver and the kidney were revealed to be the major tissues involved in carotenoid metabolism in both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Apparent digestibilities (-96% and -30% for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, respectively) and flesh carotenoid retentions (-12% and -5.4% for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, respectively) differed significantly between species, suggesting that rainbow trout are more efficient depositors of carotenoids within the flesh. Isolated rainbow trout liver ...
The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a critical protein in the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. It acts as a transcription factor that is involved in initiating the apoptotic pathway; disruption of this pathway can lead to various forms of cancer. Due to its importance in cancer prevention, p53 has been extensively studied, though only a small fraction of these studies have been in non-mammalian models. Some previous studies of p53 expression and regulation in lower vertebrate species have shown potential differences in its control, in comparison to the better characterized mammalian pathways. These differences emphasize the need to further investigate its mechanism of action in lower vertebrate models. To evaluate its biomarker potential for aquatic toxicology studies, two rainbow trout cell lines (RTbrain-W1 and RTgill-W1) were used in dose response experiments using DNA damage checkpoint inducing agents: bleomycin, hydroxyurea, and methyl methanesulfonate. For our studies, a rainbow trout ...
In this study, the immune reactions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined, after exposure to 10, 30 and 70% of tertiary-treated municipal sewage effluent for 27 days. Exposures were conducted concurrently with and without an immune challenge using intraperitoneal injections of inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida salmonicida. Due to the time required to prepare and analyse samples, fish sampling was conducted over two consecutive days. There was no trout mortality for any of the Show moreIn this study, the immune reactions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined, after exposure to 10, 30 and 70% of tertiary-treated municipal sewage effluent for 27 days. Exposures were conducted concurrently with and without an immune challenge using intraperitoneal injections of inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida salmonicida. Due to the time required to prepare and analyse samples, fish sampling was conducted over two consecutive days. There was no trout mortality for any of the ...
Immunological memory has been shown to occur unequivocally in mammals. However, controversy exists regarding the capability of fish to elicite a memory response. This study demonstrates that memory does occur rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus rnykiss. Trout injected with a T-dependent antigen, trinitrophenylated keyhole-limpet hemocyanin, (TNP-KLH) (100 μg/fish) were able to produce a primary serum antibody response to TNP. This was demonstrated by a quantitative ELISA specifically developed for this purpose. After a second injection of antigen (20 μg/fish), an increase in antibody titer developed to TNP along with a shorter lag period, as is characteristic of a mammalian secondary response. The antibodies produced to TNP were further analyzed by two different ELISAs, avidity and inhibition ELISAs. Avidity measurements, which reflects both the effects of affinity and valency on the strength of antibody binding, demonstrated no change in avidity during the primary or secondary serum antibody ...
Fillet yield, the proportion of edible fillet relative to body weight, is a major trait to improve in fish sold processed, as it has a direct impact on profitability and can simultaneously decrease the environmental impact of producing a given amount of fillet. However, it is difficult to improve by selective breeding, because it cannot be measured on live breeding candidates, its phenotypic variation is low, and, as a ratio, it is not normally distributed and a same change in fillet yield can be the result of different changes in fillet weight and body weight. Residual headless gutted carcass weight (rHGCW) is heritable and highly genetically correlated to Fillet% in rainbow trout, and can be predicted by the ratio of abdominal wall thickness to depth of the peritoneal cavity (E8/E23), measured on live fish by ultrasound tomography. We selected broodstock based on rHGCW, measured on sibs of the selection candidates, on ultrasound measurements (E8/E23) measured on the selection candidates, or a
The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of gene transcripts involved in toxic stress in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to oil sand water (OSW), lixiviate (OSLW), and processed water
Water quality - Determination of the prolonged toxicity of substances to freshwater fish - Method for evaluating the effects of substances on the growth rate of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum (Teleostei, Salmonidae))
Oncorhynchus mykiss ladderlectin: a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) lectin with multimeric structure; N-terminal amino acid sequence given in first source
The ontogeny and disease responses of Langerhans-like cells within lymphoid tissues of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were investigated. These cells were studied in situ with the use of two markers: the ultrastructural presence of Birbeck-like granules and immunohistochemistry with an antibody against human langerin/CD207 that cross-reacts with salmonid tissues. The appearance of Birbeck-like granules was observed in rainbow trout at 2 weeks post-hatch (PH) Show moreThe ontogeny and disease responses of Langerhans-like cells within lymphoid tissues of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were investigated. These cells were studied in situ with the use of two markers: the ultrastructural presence of Birbeck-like granules and immunohistochemistry with an antibody against human langerin/CD207 that cross-reacts with salmonid tissues. The appearance of Birbeck-like granules was observed in rainbow trout at 2 weeks post-hatch (PH) ...
Steelhead trout is the commercial market name often used for rainbow trout. According to the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch, steelhead trout farmed in the United States is one of the healthiest ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rainbow trout suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-1, 2 and 3. T2 - molecular identification, expression and modulation. AU - Wang, Tiehui. AU - Secombes, Christopher J. PY - 2008/3. Y1 - 2008/3. N2 - Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are inhibitors of cytokine signalling pathways. Three SOCS genes, SOCS-1, 2 and 3, have been identified and their sequences analyzed in an economically important fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). In general, these three SOCS molecules are well conserved especially in the SRC homology 2 and the SOCS domains, with sequence identities between trout and mammals ranging from 41 to 42, 50 to 51, and 58 to 61% for SOCS-1, 2 and 3, respectively. The identities within fish species are slightly higher, with sequence identities between trout and the other fish species at 44-46, 64-70, and 71-76% for SOCS-1, 2 and 3, respectively. All the SOCS-1, as well as all the SOCS-2 or 3 molecules from different species are grouped ...
Out of 19 Vibrio harveyi isolates obtained from a diversity of hosts and geographical locations, 14 were pathogenic to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., with mortalities of up to 100% following intraperitoneal injections of 106 cells fish−1. The extracellular products (ECPs) of only five pathogenic isolates were harmful to fish. Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic cultures produced ECPs containing caseinase, gelatinase, phospholipase, lipase and haemolysins. Vibrio harveyi VIB 645, which was the most pathogenic isolate, produced ECPs with a maximal effect on salmonids from preparations obtained by using cellophane overlays on tryptone soya agar supplemented with 1% (w/v) sodium chloride with incubation at 28 °C for 24 h. This preparation contained the highest titre of haemolytic activity to Atlantic salmon (1:256) and rainbow trout (1:32) ...
Streptococcus iniae is one of the most important agents that causes high mortality and losses in rainbow trout farms in Iran and the world. These bacteria can affects the consumers and people who deal with aquaculture via affected fish. So, viability of this bacterium in frozen fish and fish product can be useful for health care of consumers. A total of 90 rainbow trout, with average weight of 50 ± 3 g, were supplied from a fish farm and were transferred to six 200- liter tanks (15 fish per tank). The tanks were divided in two groups as control and treatment. The treatment group fish were experimentally challenged to Streptococcus iniae at dose of 3.6 × 105 cell/fish via intraperitoneal injection. Control group fish just received 0.1 ml of normal saline (0.9 % NaCl). In treatment group after 120 hours 91% of the fish were died and then mortality remained constant up to 14 days post challenge. Moribund and dead fish of treatment group and fish of control group were frozen and then kidney, liver and
Fish meal is one of the predominant sources of crude protein used in practical feeds for most cultured species. However, with overfishing and increasing demand for protein feedstuffs, new competitively priced sources of dietary protein are needed. A coextruded soybean meal-red blood cell (SBMRBC) ingredient was evaluated as a source of crude protein for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The SBM-RBC ingredient was incorporated at either 0, 2 I , 42 or 63% of the dietary protein, replacing an isonitrogenous amount of fish meal. All diets were fed for 8 wk to triplicate groups of juvenile rainbow trout (average initial weight 49.5 g) stocked into a recirculating system consisting of 48, 114-L aquaria. There were no significant differences in weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent crude protein digestibility, apparent gross energy digestibility, dressout percentage, or fillet protein and fat concentrations in fish fed any of the experimental diets. Based on these data,
Comparison of the Growth Performance and Mortality in Abant Trout (Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) under Farming Conditions ...
Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrain fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772 bp containing a 2115 bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80 kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologues OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 ...
Salmon and steelhead are in hot water - a problem scientists warn is going to get worse because of climate change.. Steelhead returning this year to the Columbia and Snake rivers migrated out of the river during horrendous conditions in 2015, which included record low flows and high water temperatures.. Those steelhead also were at sea during the so-called "blob" - a mass of warm water that began forming off the West Coast in 2013 and wreaked havoc in the ocean, including depressed food supplies for marine animals of all sorts.. Now those steelhead are migrating back through reservoirs where water temperatures at some Columbia and Lower Snake River dams, thanks to a record Northwest heat wave, have been stuck this summer above 70 degrees for days on end - potentially lethal for salmon and steelhead.. "They are just getting creamed everywhere they turn; conditions in the Columbia and Snake are the worst I have ever seen them," said Steve Petit, a steelhead biologist with Idaho Fish and Game for ...
The aquatic environment is severely impacted by xenobiotics that are released due to anthropogenic activities, threatening ecosystem health. Some of these contaminants accumulate in lipophilic fish tissues and are maternally transferred to developing offspring, affecting their growth and performance. However, knowledge about the long-term and generational impacts associated with maternal transfer of contaminants is limited in fish. In this thesis, the hypothesis tested was that maternal transfer of bisphenol A (BPA) leads to disruption in the developmental programing of growth and stress axes functioning in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and that these changes are passed on to the next generation. This was tested by exposing oocytes to either control (vehicle; ,0.01% ethanol) 0.3, 3.0, and 30.0 mg l-1 BPA in ovarian fluid for 3 h, prior to fertilization, to mimic maternal transfer. This led to the accumulation of 0, 0.8, 4.4 and 41.3 ng BPA embryo-1. Oocytes were fertilized with milt from ...
Heritabilities of growth, precocious maturation and smolting were measured in 75 families of juvenile steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, progeny of within and between line matings (crosses) of wild, anadromous steelhead and wild, resident (lake) rainbow trout originally derived from the same anadromous stock 70 years earlier. The tagged yearling progeny were combined by line in common freshwater rearing containers and graded into three categories: mature, smolt or rearing (undifferentiated) at age 2 years. Heritabilities of precocious male maturity, smolting and growth were moderate to high, and the genetic correlation between growth and smolting was low. Smolting and precocious male maturity were highly variable among families within lines and significantly different between lines. Each of the four lines produced significant numbers of smolts at age two. Smolting and maturation were negatively genetically correlated, which may explain the persistence of smolting in the lake ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two-substrate kinetic analysis. T2 - a novel approach linking ion and acid-base transport at the gills of freshwater trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. AU - Goss, Greg G.. AU - Wood, Chris M.. PY - 1991/12/1. Y1 - 1991/12/1. N2 - The novel application of a two-substrate model (Florini and Vestling 1957) from enzymology to transport kinetics at the gills of freshwater trout indicated that Na+/acidic equivalent and Cl-/basic equivalent flux rates are normally limited by the availability of the internal acidic and basic counterions, as well as by external Na+ and Cl- levels. Adult rainbow trout fitted with dorsal aortic and bladder catheters were chronically infused (10-16 h) with isosmotic HCl to induce a persistent metabolic acidosis. Acid-base neutral infusions of isosmotic NaCl and non-infused controls were also performed. Results were compared to previous data on metabolic alkalosis in trout induced by either isosmotic NaHCO3 infusion or recovery from environmental hyperoxia (Goss and ...
A method has been developed for the continuous automated monitoring of cardiac output in adult rainbow trout. Average cardiac output measured under control conditions and varied environmental conditions of hypoxia and post-hypoxia was significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) in male than female trout. The cardiac output of trout in spawning condition was significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) than that of trout not in spawning condition. Measurements of pulsatile cardiac output were made simultaneously with trout ventilation, and revealed ventilatory interactions with blood flow that varied depending on environmental oxygen condition. The method for monitoring gill blood flow was used with methods for automated measurement of gill water flow, oxygen uptake, and chemical flux in vivo. An experimental protocol was developed in which environmental oxygen was varied to obtain maximum increases in water flow over the gills without blood flow changes, and subsequent attainment of maximum increases in blood flow ...
Protec™ is a commercial aquafeed (Skretting Italia) containing a combination of glucans, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc (immune support pack). No research information concerning its capability to improve fish immune response is available, so in this study the potential immunomodulatory effects of Protec™ were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Head kidney (HK) leukocytes from adult fish (100 g, n = 6) were in vitro incubated with Protec™ immune support pack resulting in significantly higher respiratory burst activity and proliferation. Specifically, sonicated Protec™ immune support pack (160 µg/ml) induced a respiratory burst response similar to that promoted by zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while non-sonicated Protec™ immune support pack induced a response comparable to that of cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Moreover, the proliferation of leukocytes exposed to sonicated Protec™ immune support pack (20 µg/ml) was significantly higher ...
Induction of the cytochrome P450(CYP)1A protein and the connected increase in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity are common biomarkers in fish. Enhanced activity of this protein signals exposure to Ah-receptor agonists such as chlorinated dioxins, co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The EROD biomarker is commonly analyzed in liver microsomes. However, the gill is directly exposed to waterborne pollutants, and in this thesis the gill filament EROD assay was therefore evaluated as a monitoring tool for waterborne CYP1A inducers in fish. Originally developed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the assay was here applied in various limnic and marine species. Following exposure to low waterborne concentrations of the readily metabolized CYP1A inducers benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and indigo, a strong EROD induction was observed in the gill but not in the liver. This likely reflected metabolic clearance of the inducers in gill and ...
A 2×3 factorial study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, feed utilization and mitochondrial enzyme activities in juvenile all-female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Practical diets with a fixed crude protein content of 42%, formulated to contain 10% (42/10), 20% (42/20) and 30% (42/30) dietary lipid, were fed to apparent satiety to triplicate groups of ...
The effect of long-term (30 days) exposure to PCZ (0.2, 50, and 500 microg l(-1)) on intestine-related biochemical markers in rainbow trout was investigated. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including digestive enzymes (proteolytic enzymes and amylase), antioxidant responses (TBARS, CP, SOD, CAT, GR and GPx) and energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase). Exposure to 500 microg l(-1) PCZ led to significantly inhibited (p,0.01) proteolytic enzyme and amylase activity. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GPx gradually increased at lower PCZ concentrations (0.2 and 50 microg l(-1)). At the highest concentration (500 microg l(-1)), oxidative stress was apparent as significant higher (p,0.05) lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls, associated with an inhibition of antioxidant enzymes activity. Moreover, energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) were significantly inhibited (p,0.01) in the intestines of fish exposed to 500 microg l(-1) PCZ, ...
2 Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Rize, Turkey DOI : 10.4194/1303-2712-v14_3_06 Viewed : 2911 - Downloaded : 3126 Present study was conducted to determine the effects of long term carbosulfan exposure on erythrocyte and liver acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and to assess sensitive tissue to carbosulfan in terms of AChE activity. For these purpose, fish were allowed to recover in toxicant-free water for 24 days after 60 days of exposure. AChE activity was determined spectrophotometrically using acetylthiocholine iodide as substrate in the erythrocyte and liver. Erythrocyte and liver AChE of carbosulfan-exposed fish showed considerable inhibition rate. A higher degree of enzyme inhibition was observed in the erythrocyte when compared with liver. The degree of enzyme inhibition had a positive correlation with the time of exposure. Erythrocyte and liver AChE activities were recovered after 18 d and 21 d, ...
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Australian research reviewed the influence of various starch and non-starch polysaccharides on the digestibility of diets fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Barriers in streams are major obstacles to the recovery of endangered steelhead trout in the northern Santa Monica Bay watershed. Fish rely on streams as pathways to move between feeding, nursery, and spawning grounds. Obstacles such as dams block access to fish spawning and rearing habitats, and can severely impact natural stream functions and hydrology. It has been estimated that more than 80% of the spawning habitat and 60% of the rearing habitat has been made inaccessible to steelhead trout in Malibu Creek as a result of passage barriers such as dams, culverts, and Arizona crossings. Restoration of steelhead trout to its historic range could serve as a key indicator of ecosystem health for streams in the Bay Watershed. Steelhead populations in major creeks in the Santa Monica Mountains should be restored, via removal of barriers to fish migration barriers and restoration of spawning and riparian habitat and associated buffer habitat. Through partnerships with land owners and agencies, TBF ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential ligand binding and agonist-induced regulation characteristics of the two rainbow trout GH receptors, Ghr1 and Ghr2, in transfected cells. AU - Reindl, Katie M.. AU - Kittilson, Jeffrey D.. AU - Sheridan, Mark A.. PY - 2009/9/1. Y1 - 2009/9/1. N2 - Previously, we isolated and characterized two distinct GH receptor (GHR)-encoding mRNAs, ghr1 and ghr2, from rainbow trout. In this study, Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells were individually transfected with plasmids that contained cDNAs encoding rainbow trout ghr1 or ghr2. High affinity binding of 125I-salmonid GH (sGH) by the expressed receptors was saturable, displaceable, and ligand selective. Whole-cell binding analysis revealed a single class of binding site; for Ghr1 Kd=8 nM, for Ghr2 K d=17 nM. While salmonid prolactin (sPrl) displaced 125I-sGH from both Ghr1 and Ghr2, the affinity of either receptor subtype for sPrl was substantially less than for sGH; salmonid somatolactin, another member of the GH-PRL family, did ...
Potent proinflammatory cytokine. Initially discovered as the major endogenous pyrogen, induces prostaglandin synthesis, neutrophil influx and activation, T-cell activation and cytokine production, B-cell activation and antibody production, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen production.
July 25, 2014. By Marie Zhuikov. Researchers already know that dioxin (a byproduct of burned plastics and industrial processes) is toxic and can contribute to cancer and heart problems in humans, but now they know it can impact a fishs nose tissue. Why should we care? Because fish use their noses to navigate through water and to find streams for spawning.. Wisconsin Sea Grant-funded researcher, Michael Carvan, Shaw associate scientist at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Freshwater Sciences, has been studying the impacts of dioxin on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Although zebrafish are not a Great Lakes species like the trout, researchers use them because they are a hardy lab fish about which much is known.. Carvan and his research team fed both young rainbow trout and zebrafish food containing different levels of TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) over a six-week period. They chose to work on juvenile fish because few studies for dioxin exposure ...
DescriptionOur Woolly Bugger Jigs are the most versatile jig we make. The combination of hackle and marabou feathers make it irresistible to salmon, steelhead, trout, and bass. No matter your prey, you will catch more fish more often with Woolly Bugger JigsFeaturesCustomized Gamakatsu Hooks with 1/0 Wire Premium Feathe
Wild rainbow trout are returning to the mountain rivers of Colorado for the first time in more than 20 years after an invasive parasite eradicated them in the region 20 years ago.
The inclusion of plant proteins in rainbow trout diets significantly impacts growth and feed intake. This effect has been ascribed to the presence of antinutritional factors (ANF) present in plant ingredients, although the magnitude of the effects of ANF has not been determined. A series of six 56-day growth trials were performed to determine the effect of feeding 0, 75, 150, 225 or 300g/kg of pea ...
Ritola, O; Livingstone, DR; Peters, LD; Lindstrom-Seppa, P. 2002 Antioxidant processes are affected in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to ozone and oxygen-supersaturated water. Aquaculture, 210 (01-Apr). Jan-19. 10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00823-7 Item not available from this repository ...
The work reported here follows on from an earlier DoE-funded study which had shown that treated sewage effluent discharges were oestrogenic to fish. The report describes research conducted in 1992-95 to assess whether oestrogenic effects could be detected in male fish held in cages at selected sites in rivers below sewage treatment works, and at downstream points either where raw water is abstracted for treatment before public supply, or in raw water storage reservoirs1. The basic survey technique involved holding caged male rainbow trout in the river or raw water storage reservoir for 3-6 weeks and measuring production of a protein (vitellogenin or VTG) which is a specific marker for the presence of oestrogens. Production of vitellogenin is confined to egg-laying vertebrates and is described as an oestrogenic effect because in female egg-laying vertebrates it is usually controlled by hormones known as oestrogens. The research also set out to determine possible causes of the observed oestrogenic ...
Legends of rainbows have existed since ancient times, whether the rainbow was the Norse Bifrost that served as a way to enter the realm of the gods, or was just a way to get to a pot of gold. In our selection of Rainbow Games, youll not only get to see colors in the sky, but create your own! And theres a lot more magic to a rainbow than many people realize.. For example, Did you know that when you see a rainbow, youre seeing something that no one else is? The colors that a rainbow displays are very dependent on the angle of light being reflected. When you and a friend look at a rainbow together, youre looking at it from two different angles, so seeing a rainbow is an entirely unique experience. Luckily, our Rainbow Games wont constantly switch things up on you!. ...
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North America: Upper Kern River basin, Tulare and Kern counties in California, USA. Previously, two subspecies were recognized: Oncorhynchus aguabonita gilberti in Main and Little Kern rivers; Oncorhynchus aguabonita aguabonita in South Fork Kern River ...
If rainbows did not exist and someone said wouldnt it be cool to paint enormous stripes of color across the sky, youd say yes, that would be very cool--impossible, but very cool. Children are totally tuned in to the miracle of rainbows--thats why they are forever drawing them. Theres even something divine about spotting a tiny rainbow in a puddle of water or a splotch of gasoline. Oh, look! A rainbow! It would be nice to have some universal ritual connected with rainbows, along the lines of stray penny equals good luck, and car with one headlight equals, say, piddiddle/make a wish. Maybe: See a rainbow, eat a sugar cube. Or see a rainbow, put a dollar in a jar; then when you leave home at eighteen, your mother sends you off with your rainbow money. A friend once told me a story about how he was going through his five-year-old sons backpack and he found a picture of a little boy standing under a rainbow crying. His first thought was, Oh God, my son is having some serious problems. When he ...
When I think of rainbow trout, the first image that comes to mind is usually something like this: In the wild, they look more like this: ...not as appetizing, but a lot more fascinating. When salmonid fish like rainbow trout are in environments with limited food or space, they form social hierarchies. In one study…
The most important benefit of this project is the experimental evaluation of all essential steps in the development and testing of adverse outcome pathways (AOP) for a diverse set of reproductive and non-reproductive toxicants. In contrast to human testing and the toxicity pathway concept, testing of the ecological counterpart is much further behind. However, in vitro testing using rainbow trout cells has a long history and coupled with the superior mechanistic understanding of physiological processes controlling dosimetry, provides an excellent model system for studying implementation of the AOP process. Thus, our results will be of benefit to future studies with other ecologically important models by providing guidance on important questions such as: When considering the pituitary- gonadliver (PGL) axis, to what extent can immortalized cell lines be used and must you control for gender and maturational stage specificity? Are multi- tissue differences in toxicant sensitivity significant enough ...
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The changes in gene transcription at all assayed genes in response to the challenges in our study indicate that the genes we studied are responding to stress. Many of these genes have previously been demonstrated to respond to stress or immune challenge in other studies (e.g., Wiseman et al. 2007; Raida and Buchmann 2009). The different patterns of response and resting transcription we observed among populations suggest that diverging evolutionary processes (i.e., not stabilizing selection) are contributing to the variation among Babine Lake rainbow trout tributary populations. Population structure is present among Babine Lake rainbow trout tributary populations and neutral divergence in this system follows a pattern of isolation by distance (Koehler 2010); however, the lack of consistent clinal variation in gene transcription observed across a geographic gradient suggests, but does not preclude, that the differences are not a result of genetic drift. Local adaptation can occur when gene flow is ...