Humans have between 10 and 20 million olfactory receptor neurons.[3] In vertebrates, ORNs are bipolar neurons with dendrites facing the external surface of the cribriform plate with axons that pass through the cribriform foramina with terminal end at olfactory bulbs. The ORNs are located in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. The cell bodies of the ORNs are distributed among all three of the stratified layers of the olfactory epithelium.[4] Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cells dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells express ORs which bind the same set of odors. The axons of olfactory receptor cells which express the same OR converge to form glomeruli in the olfactory bulb.[5] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Re-classification of Drosophila melanogaster trichoid and intermediate sensilla using fluorescence-guided single sensillum recording. AU - Lin, Chun Chieh. AU - Potter, Christopher J.. PY - 2015/10/2. Y1 - 2015/10/2. N2 - Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons are found within specialized sensory hairs on antenna and maxillary palps. The linking of odorant-induced responses to olfactory neuron activities is often accomplished via Single Sensillum Recordings (SSR), in which an electrode inserted into a single sensory hair records the neuronal activities of all the neurons housed in that sensillum. The identification of the recorded sensillum requires matching the neuronal responses with known odor-response profiles. To record from specific sensilla, or to systematically screen all sensillar types, requires repetitive and semi-random SSR experiments. Here, we validate an approach in which the GAL4/UAS binary expression system is used for targeting specific sensilla for recordings. ...
Video articles in JoVE about olfactory receptor neurons include Perforated Patch-clamp Recording of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Intact Neuroepithelium: Functional Analysis of Neurons Expressing an Identified Odorant Receptor, Odorant-induced Responses Recorded from Olfactory Receptor Neurons using the Suction Pipette Technique, Whole Mount Immunolabeling of Olfactory Receptor Neurons in the Drosophila Antenna, High-throughput Analysis of Mammalian Olfactory Receptors: Measurement of Receptor Activation via Luciferase Activity, Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis, In-depth Physiological Analysis of Defined Cell Populations in Acute Tissue Slices of the Mouse Vomeronasal Organ, Localization of Odorant Receptor Genes in Locust Antennae by RNA In Situ Hybridization, Whole Mount Labeling of Cilia in the Main Olfactory System of Mice, The Olfactory System as a Model to Study Axonal Growth Patterns
The sensory neurons of the mammalian olfactory system are remarkable in their ability to undergo continuous replacement throughout the lifespan of the animal (Mackay-Sim and Kittel, 1991). This continual replenishment of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) recapitulates many aspects of embryonic neural development; neuroblast-like cells in the basal cell layer divide, differentiate into ORNs and migrate to an apical position in the neuroepithelium. Subsequently, mature ORN proteins including those essential for transducing odorant signals are induced as immature ORNs differentiate into functional neurons.. Analysis of the promoter regions of several ORN enriched genes revealed a conserved sequence, the Olf1 sites, that bound a factor present in olfactory nuclear extracts (Kudrycki et al., 1993; Wang et al., 1993). Studies in transgenic animals suggested that this site contributes to specific expression of an olfactory-specific gene in vivo (Kudrycki et al., 1998; Walters et al., 1996). A family of ...
cAMP-gated channels were studied in inside-out membrane patches excised from the apical cellular pole of isolated olfactory receptor cells of the rat. In the absence of divalent cations the dose-response curve of activation of patch current by cAMP had a KM of 4.0 microM at -50 mV and of 2.5 microM at +50 mV. However, addition of 0.2 or 0.5 mM Ca2+ shifted the KM of cAMP reversibly to the higher cAMP concentrations of 33 or 90 microM, respectively, at -50 mV. Among divalent cations, the relative potency for inducing cAMP affinity shifts was: Ca2+ , Sr2+ , Mn2+ , Ba2+ , Mg2+, of which Mg2+ (up to 3 mM) did not shift the KM at all. This potency sequence corresponds closely to that required for the activation of calmodulin. However, the Ca(2+)-sensitivity is lower than expected for a calmodulin-mediated action. Brief (60 s) transient exposure to 3 mM Mg2+, in the absence of other divalent cations, had a protective effect in that following washout of Mg2+, subsequent exposure to 0.2 mM Ca2+ no ...
Dr. Stuart Firestein is the Chair of Columbia Universitys Department of Biological Sciences. His colleagues and he study the vertebrate olfactory receptor neuron as a model for investigating general principles and mechanisms of "signal transduction" - the ways in which chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, hormones, and peptides with membrane receptors, exert their influence in the brain and nervous system. He hypothesizes that the olfactory neuron is uniquely suited for these studies since it is designed specifically for the detection and discrimination of a wide variety of small organic molecules, i.e. odors.. On Ignorance - "Knowledge is a big subject, says Stuart Firestein, but ignorance is a bigger one. And it is ignorance-not knowledge-that is the true engine of science. Most of us have a false impression of science as a surefire, deliberate, step-by-step method for finding things out and getting things done. In fact, says Firestein, more often than not, science is like looking for a ...
In the mouse, each class of olfactory receptor neurons expressing a given odorant receptor has convergent axonal projections to two specific glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, thereby creating an odour map. However, it is unclear how this map is represented in the olfactory cortex. Here we combine rab …
Our sense of smell monitors the molecules present in the immediate environment or the oral cavity. Carried by the air entering our nose during respiration, these molecules interact with specialized receptors localized within the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons. The signal generated by these peripheral neurons will eventually be interpreted by the brain as an odor or an aroma. Twenty-five years after the discovery of the vertebrate olfactory receptors, a consensus emerges about the encoding of odorants in the nose, involving a so-called combinatorial encoding: every olfactory receptor recognizes a range of molecules, and conversely, every odorant appears to activate a specific subset of the several hundreds of receptors expressed in most vertebrate noses. This has been named the molecular logic of smell. However, this model alone cannot account for the entire olfactory encoding and the corresponding perception. Especially, molecules with very different structures and functionalities ...
Thapsigargin is an inhibitor of the Ca2+-ATPase of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that depletes the intracellular Ca2+ stores (Thastrup et al., 1990; Rosay et al., 2001). Thapsigargin application for 15 min (Fig. 4) clearly decreased the total number of photons (Sp: 5813±1380.8, P,0.05; Ci: 3197±494.9, P,0.05; Oct: 4732±3013.7; P,0.05), as well as the duration of the response (Sp: 28±5.4 s, P,0.0001; Ci: 22±2.0 s, P,0.001; Oct: 25±3.0 s, P,0.001). The amplitude of the first component of the response was also affected, as compared with control flies, for spearmint (P,0.05) and octanol (P,0.05; Fig. 4A,G), whereas it was not affected for citronella (Fig. 4D). These results suggest that, although thapsigargin slightly affects the amplitude of the first component (for two of the three tested odors), more importantly, it affects the second component of the response (for the three tested odors). This lead us to suggest that the first component does not necessarily involve Ca2+ release from ...
A temporary loss of smell can be caused by a blocked nose or infection. In contrast, a permanent loss of smell may be caused by death of olfactory receptor neurons in the nose or by brain injury in which there is damage to the olfactory nerve or damage to brain areas that process smell (see olfactory system). The lack of the sense of smell at birth, usually due to genetic factors, is referred to as congenital anosmia. Family members of the patient suffering from congenital anosmia are often found with similar histories; this suggests that the anosmia may follow an autosomal dominant pattern.[7] Anosmia may very occasionally be an early sign of a degenerative brain disease such as Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease. Another specific cause of permanent loss could be from damage to olfactory receptor neurons because of use of certain types of nasal spray; i.e., those that cause vasoconstriction of the nasal microcirculation. To avoid such damage and the subsequent risk of loss of smell, ...
Insects sense odorants with specialized odorant receptors (ORs). Each antennal olfactory receptor neuron expresses one OR with an odorant binding site together with a conserved coreceptor called Orco
Receptors that couple to a heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein (G protein) are thought to stimulate a large number of G protein molecules. This model of signal amplification is based primarily on quantitative studies of phototransduction in vertebrate retinal cells. Bhandawat et al. have examined signal transduction by olfactory receptors in frog olfactory neurons. Quantal analysis of receptor responses to odorant ligands suggests that an activated odorant receptor, probably due to an extremely brief dwell time of odorant-receptor interaction, has a low probability of stimulating a single G protein molecule. High sensitivity to odorants might still be achieved with repetitive odorant binding and by signal convergence in the olfactory bulb.. V. Bhandawat, J. Reisert, K.-W. Yau, Elementary response of olfactory receptor neurons to odorants. Science 308, 1931-1934 (2005). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
Simulation of experiments on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Focussing on the negative feedback that calcium (through calmodulin) has on its own influx through CNG channels, this model is able to reproduce both calcium oscillations as well as adaptation behaviour as seen in experiments done with ORNs ...
11 Richard Axel and Linda Buck used molecular techniques to determine the number of different olfactory receptor types. The concept and strategy: 1. SPECIFICITY WOULD BE BASED ON STRUCTURE OF RECEPTOR-G PROTEIN COMPLEX; THEREFORE, IF YOU DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT RECEPTOR STRUCTURES, YOU KNOW THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL TYPES, AND THEREFORE THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT "PRIME ODORS" 2. STRUCTURALLY DIFFERENT RECEPTOR PROTEINS WOULD BE CODED BY DIFFERENT GENES; CLONE, SEQUENCE, CHARACTERIZE GENES EXPRESSED IN THE OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM, LOOK FOR SYSTEMATIC VARIATION ON G-PROTEIN TYPES 3. LOCALIZE THE EXPRESSED GENES BACK TO THE OLFACTORY RECEPTOR CELLS ...
Odorants are volatile molecules that efficiently carry chemical information, providing one of the main ways for communicating with the environment in all kingdoms of life. In the other hand, mammalian genomes codify for hundreds of olfactory receptors (ORs), e.g. about 400 in human and more than 1000 in mouse, underlying the crucial role of the sense of smell during evolution. Therefore, the olfactory system is capable to discriminate between ~10,000 different odors. The possibility of collecting and compiling information about odorants and their receptors is thus fundamental for a functional characterization of the signaling firing event. OlfactionDB, a manually curated database providing comprehensive information for nearly 400 odorant-receptor interactions at the current state, has been developed for managing information about odorants and their receptors. OlfactionDB is a free publicly database available online from: http://molsim.sci.univr.it/OlfactionDB.
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neurol response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory…
A variety of signals governing early extension, guidance, and connectivity of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) axons has been identified; however, little is known about axon-mesoderm and forebrain (FB)-mesoderm signals. Using Wnt-ßcatenin reporter mice, we identify a novel Wnt-responsive resident cell population, located in a Frizzled7 expression domain at the surface of the embryonic FB, along the trajectory of incoming ORN axons. Organotypic slice cultures that recapitulate olfactory-associated Wnt-ßcatenin activation show that the ßcatenin response depends on a placode-derived signal(s). Likewise, in Dlx5-/- embryos, in which the primary connections fail to form, Wnt-ßcatenin response on the surface of the FB is strongly reduced. The olfactory placode expresses a number of ßcatenin-activating Wnt genes, and the Frizzled7 receptor transduces the canonical Wnt signal; using Wnt expression plasmids we show that Wnt5a and Wnt7b are sufficient to rescue ßcatenin activation in the absence of ...
Neurons, Olfactory Receptor Neurons, Calcium, Kinase, Ability, Role, Cells, Sodium, Cell, Plays, Transient, Cilia, Epithelium, Olfactory Epithelium, G Protein, Phosphatidylinositol, Inhibition, Mediating, Rat, Invertebrates
ENCODES a protein that exhibits olfactory receptor activity (inferred); INVOLVED IN detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of smell (inferred); G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway (inferred); G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway (inferred); FOUND IN integral component of membrane (inferred); synapse (inferred); INTERACTS WITH bisphenol A; copper atom; copper(0)
Complex eukaryotic promoters normally contain multiple cis-regulatory sequences for different transcription factors (TFs). The binding patterns of the TFs to these sites, as well as the way the TFs interact with each other and with the RNA polymerase (RNAp), lead to combinatorial problems rarely understood in detail, especially under varying epigenetic conditions. The aim of this paper is to build a model describing how the main regulatory cluster of the olfactory receptor Or59b drives transcription of this gene in Drosophila. The cluster-driven expression of this gene is represented as the equilibrium probability of RNAp being bound to the promoter region, using a statistical thermodynamic approach. The RNAp equilibrium probability is computed in terms of the occupancy probabilities of the single TFs of the cluster to the corresponding binding sites, and of the interaction rules among TFs and RNAp, using experimental data of Or59b expression to tune the model parameters. The model reproduces ...
integral component of membrane, olfactory receptor activity, G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, sensory perception of smell
Compare olfactory receptor family 6 subfamily P member 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens olfactory receptor, family 52, subfamily W, member 1 (OR52W1) as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
J:84657 Vigers AJ, Bottger B, Baquet ZC, Finger TE, Jones KR, Neurotrophin-3 is expressed in a discrete subset of olfactory receptor neurons in the mouse. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Aug 18;463(2):221-35 ...
In the present study, we estimated temporal kinetics and activities for both AC and cytoplasmic cAMP. It was shown that [cAMP]i increased superlinearly with time for ,1 s during the odorant stimulation, which was because of a gradual increase of cAMP production rate. So far, there was very limited information about the molecular activities of olfactory transduction elements, whereas G-protein-mediated signal transduction has been quite well documented in works done on the rod photoreceptor cell (Pugh and Lamb, 1990; Lamb and Pugh, 1992). In the present study, we overcame difficulties accompanied with the properties (heterogeneous responsiveness) and structure (fine cilia) of the olfactory receptor cell. One may concern about the hydrolysis and diffusion of cAMP during the present work. As long as the activities of both are constant, data interpretation and values obtained here would provide reasonable conclusions. Also, note that our estimations were performed in the time window in which time ...
A model of efficient coding by olfactory neurons explains context-dependence observed in the effect of perturbations to the olfactory environment.
Olfaction system plays a critical role for survival and reproduction in many animal species. Odorant molecules in the environment are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) located in the nasal cavity.
Margolis, F. L., Kudrycki, K., Stein-Izsak, C., Grillo, M. and Akeson, R. (2007) From Genotype to Olfactory Neuron Phenotype: The Role of the Olf-1-Binding Site, in Ciba Foundation Symposium 179 - The Molecular Basis of Smell and Taste Transduction (eds D. Chadwick, J. Marsh and J. Goode), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470514511.ch2 ...
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
OR10Z1 antibody (olfactory receptor, family 10, subfamily Z, member 1) for ELISA, ICC/IF, WB. Anti-OR10Z1 pAb (GTX87465) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
OR8B4 antibody (olfactory receptor, family 8, subfamily B, member 4) for ELISA, ICC/IF, WB. Anti-OR8B4 pAb (GTX87163) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete information for OR11H2 gene (Protein Coding), Olfactory Receptor Family 11 Subfamily H Member 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for OR2A5 gene (Protein Coding), Olfactory Receptor Family 2 Subfamily A Member 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from OR5D18 olfactory receptor family 5 subfamily D member 18 available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Accumulation of stress-related proteins within the glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb following damage to olfactory receptor neurons. AU - Hirata, Kazuho. AU - Kanemaru, Takaaki. AU - Minohara, Motozumi. AU - Togo, Akinobu. AU - Kira, Jun Ichi. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - The expression of stress-responsive proteins, such as nestin and a 27-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP27), was immunohistochemically examined in order to demonstrate glial responses in the rat olfactory bulb following sensory deprivation. At 3 days to 1 week after sensory deprivation, numerous nestin-expressing cells appeared within the glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. These cells were regarded as reactive astrocytes since they were immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and showed hypertrophic features. The glomeruli, in which nestin-immunoreactive astrocytes were localized, were filled with degenerating terminals of olfactory receptor neurons and migrated microglia. A small population of ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
We have characterized the adenylyl cyclase activity in a newly developed preparation of isolated olfactory cilia from the bovine chemosensory neuroepithelium. Like its counterparts from frog and rat, the ciliary enzyme was stimulated by guanine nucleotides, by forskolin, and by a variety of odorants in the presence of GTP. The main difference between the bovine olfactory cilia preparation and the frog and rat olfactory cilia preparation is that odorant stimulation of the bovine olfactory adenylyl cyclase is strongly inhibited by submillimolar concentrations of dithiothreitol. This inhibition is a consequence of a concomitant increase in the GTP-stimulated level and the decrease of the odorant stimulation of the enzyme. Nasal respiratory cilia have a much lower level of adenylyl cyclase activity and show no odorant stimulation. Owing to the large quantities of material available, the bovine olfactory cilia preparation is advantageous for studies of the proteins involved in chemosensory
This study of the ventral olfactory bulb of larval Xenopus laevis shows for the first time the existence of a thermosensitive olfactory glomerulus. This thermosensitive olfactory glomerulus was found to be innervated by axons of olfactory sensory neurons emerging from the ipsilateral olfactory epithelium as well as from the contralateral olfactory epithelium. The perfusion of the ipsilateral or contralateral olfactory epithelium with cold, odor-free Ringer solution elicited a transient [Ca2+]i response within the axons of olfactory sensory neurons and in mitral cells. The activation of mitral cells demonstrated that the response to temperature stimulation is transmitted across the first olfactory synapse. The thermoreception was spatially restricted to this glomerulus, which did not respond to any of the tested odors. Adjacent olfactory glomeruli responded to olfactory and mechanical stimulation without showing any response to temperature changes. The spatially restricted, bilateral processing ...
Olfactory receptor 51B5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51B5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. Olfactory receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000242180 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: OR51B5 olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily B, member 5". Bulger M, van Doorninck JH, Saitoh N, et al. (1999). "Conservation of ...
An essential feature of the organization and function of the vertebrate and insect olfactory systems is the generation of a variety of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that have different specificities in regard to both odorant receptor expression and axonal targeting. Yet the underlying mechanisms …
Gene targeting. The mouse I7 andM71 targeting vectors were derived from genomic fragments isolated from a mouse (129/Sv) λ FixII library (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA). A fragment of the M71 OR gene (Ressler et al., 1993; Xie et al., 2000) was isolated by PCR and used as a probe. A 9.2 kb fragment containing M71 was subcloned in pBS-SK, and aPacI site was engineered three nucleotides downstream of the stop codon by recombinant PCR, creating the plasmid M71/Pac. A cassette containing IRES-tauGFP-LTNL (Rodriguez et al., 1999) was inserted into the PacI site of M71/Pac, yielding the M71-IRES-tauGFP-LTNL targeting vector.. For OR swaps, the M71 coding sequence was replaced exactly from the start codon to the stop codon with the rat and mouseI7 coding sequences without the insertion of linker sequences or extraneous nucleotides. The coding sequence of the ratI7 OR gene (Buck and Axel, 1991) was isolated by PCR from an adenovirus vector (Ad-I7) (Zhao et al., 1998), cloned, and sequenced. For the ...
At a molecular level, insects utilize members of several highly divergent and unrelated families of cell-surface chemosensory receptors for detection of volatile odorants. Most odors are detected via a family of odorant receptors (ORs), which form heteromeric complexes consisting of a well-conserved OR co-receptor (Orco) ion channel and a non-conserved tuning OR that provides coding specificity to each complex. Orco functions as a non-selective cation channel and is expressed in the majority of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). As the destructive behaviors of many insects are principally driven by olfaction, Orco represents a novel target for behavior-based control strategies. While many natural and synthetic odorants have been shown to agonize Orco/Or complexes, only a single direct Orco modulator, VUAA1, has been described. In an effort to identify additional Orco modulators, we have investigated the structure/activity relationships around VUAA1.. ...
We recently demonstrated that the growth promoting effects of ensheathing cells are not limited to olfactory receptor neurons but are also seen in other populations of neurons. Particularly exciting, our recent studies demonstrate that the ensheathing cells remain pluri-potential and that when implanted into demyelinated spinal cord can adopt a myelinating phenotype which remyelinates the axons and contributes to a restoration of normal conduction velocities.. In parallel studies we are examining the molecular and synaptic organization of the olfactory bulb glomeruli. Using RT-PCR we are mapping the distribution of subsets of olfactory receptor cell axons in glomeruli to gain insights into the topography of odor-ligand maps in the olfactory bulb. In addition, working with colleagues, we are using a GFP tag to test hypotheses regarding the specificity of synaptic organization within glomeruli. Second, using antibodies synaptic vesicle related proteins and confocal microscopy we have begun to ...
The Drosophila olfactory system exhibits very precise and stereotyped wiring that is specified predominantly by genetic programming. Dendrites of olfactory projection neurons (PNs) pattern the developing antennal lobe before olfactory receptor neuron axon arrival, indicating an intrinsic wiring mechanism for PN dendrites. These wiring decisions are likely determined through a transcriptional program. This study found that loss of Brahma associated protein 55 kD (Bap55) results in a highly specific PN mistargeting phenotype. In Bap55 mutants, PNs that normally target to the DL1 glomerulus mistarget to the DA4l glomerulus with 100% penetrance. Loss of Bap55 also causes derepression of a GAL4 whose expression is normally restricted to a small subset of PNs. Bap55 is a member of both the Brahma (BRM) and the Tat interactive protein 60 kD (TIP60) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. The Bap55 mutant phenotype is partially recapitulated by Domino and Enhancer of Polycomb mutants, members of ...
Gene Information Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...