First Nerve readers should know that Don Wilson and Richard Stevenson wrote the excellent Learning to Smell: Olfactory Perception from Neurobiology to Behavior (Johns Hopkins U. Press, 2006). Its hard core science and has been influential in promoting the new "object recognition" approach to odor perception. I like the concept and include it in my popular lectures. ...
Many previous studies have reported robust sex differences in olfactory perception. However, both men and women can be expected to vary in the degree to which they exhibit olfactory performance considered typical of their own or the opposite sex. Sex-atypicality is often described in terms of childhood gender nonconformity, which, however, is not a perfect correlate of non-heterosexual orientation. Here we explored intrasexual variability in psychophysical olfactory performance in a sample of 156 individuals (83 non-heterosexual) and found the lowest odor identification scores in heterosexual men. However, when childhood gender nonconformity was entered in the model along with sexual orientation, better odor identification scores were exhibited by gender-nonconforming men, and greater olfactory sensitivity by gender-conforming women, irrespective of their sexual orientation. Thus, sex-atypicality, but not sexual orientation predicts olfactory performance, and we propose that this might not be limited to
Color has a profound effect on the perception of odors. For example, strawberry-flavored drinks smell more pleasant when colored red than green and descriptions of the nose of a wine are dramatically influenced by its color. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate a neurophysiological correlate of these cross-modal visual influences on olfactory perception. Subjects were scanned while exposed either to odors or colors in isolation or to color-odor combinations that were rated on the basis of how well they were perceived to match. Activity in caudal regions of the orbitofrontal cortex and in the insular cortex increased progressively with the perceived congruency of the odor-color pairs. These findings demonstrate the neuronal correlates of olfactory response modulation by color cues in brain areas previously identified as encoding the hedonic value of smells.
The effect of early experiences on the brain during a sensitive period exerts a long-lasting influence on the mature individual. Despite behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early experiences having been reported in the honeybee Apis mellifera, the presence of a sensitive period in which associative experiences lead to pronounced modifications in the adult nervous system is still unclear. Laboratory-reared bees were fed with scented food within specific temporal windows and were assessed for memory retention, in the regulation of gene expression related to the synaptic formation and in the olfactory perception of their antennae at 17 days of age. Bees were able to retain a food-odor association acquired 5-8 days after emergence, but not before, and showed better retention than those exposed to an odor at 9-12 days. In the brain, the odor-rewarded experiences that occurred at 5-8 days of age boosted the expression levels of the cell adhesion proteins Nrx1 and Nlg2 involved in synaptic strength. At
What is an Odor Object? On a visit to the Western Ghats, we observed hundreds of species of phytophagous insects with equally diverse host choices; some specialized on a single plant species, some feeding on a variety of plants. How do these insects locate their hosts in the incredible floral diversity of the rainforest? How…
Chen said this "binaral rivalry" between the nostrils resembles the rivalry that occurs between other pairs of sensory organs. When the eyes simultaneously view two different images -- one for each eye -- the two images are perceived in alternation, one at a time. And when alternating tones an octave apart are played out of phase to each ear, most people experience a single tone that goes back and forth from ear to ear ...
The UPSIT involves 40 microencapsulated odors in a scratch-and-sniff format, with 4 response alternatives accompanying each odor. The patient takes the test alone, with instructions to guess if not ab... more
Here we have demonstrated deficits of flavour identification in two major clinical syndromes of FTLD, bvFTD and svPPA, relative to healthy control subjects. The profile of odour identification performance essentially paralleled flavour identification across subgroups, and there was a significant correlation between flavour and odour identification scores in the patient population. Chemosensory identification deficits here were not simply attributable to general executive or semantic impairment, since the deficits were demonstrated after adjusting for these other potentially relevant cognitive variables. An error analysis showed that identification of general flavour categories was better preserved overall than identification of particular flavours. This pattern would be difficult to explain were impaired flavour identification simply the result of impaired cross-modal labelling. Taken together, the behavioural data suggest that FTLD is often accompanied by a semantic deficit of flavour ...
Methods: In 274 members of the PREVENT-AD cohort of healthy aging persons with a parental or multiple-sibling history of AD dementia, we assessed the cross-sectional association of OI with potential indicators of presymptomatic AD. Some 101 participants donated CSF, thus enabling assessment of AD pathology with the biomarkers total tau (t-tau), phospho-tau (P181-tau), and their ratios with β-amyloid (Aβ1-42). Adjusted analyses considered age, cognition, APOE ε4 status, education, and sex as covariates. We measured OI using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and cognitive performance using the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Standard kits provided assays of the AD biomarkers. Analyses used robust-fit linear regression models. ...
However, two 2016 studies support the use of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), and suggest it may offer a practical, low-cost alternative to other tests.. In one study, UPSIT was administered to 397 older adults (average age 80) without dementia, who were also given an MRI scan to measure the thickness of the entorhinal cortex (the first brain region to be affected by Alzheimers disease). After four years, 50 participants (12.6%) had developed dementia, and nearly 20% had signs of cognitive decline.. Low UPSIT scores, but not entorhinal cortical thickness, were significantly associated with dementia and Alzheimers disease, and with cognitive impairment. Entorhinal cortical thickness was significantly associated with UPSIT score in those who transitioned from MCI to dementia.. In other words, it looks like impairment in odor identification precedes thinning in the entorhinal cortex.. In another study, UPSITwas administered to 84 older adults, of whom 58 had MCI, ...
However, two 2016 studies support the use of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), and suggest it may offer a practical, low-cost alternative to other tests.. In one study, UPSIT was administered to 397 older adults (average age 80) without dementia, who were also given an MRI scan to measure the thickness of the entorhinal cortex (the first brain region to be affected by Alzheimers disease). After four years, 50 participants (12.6%) had developed dementia, and nearly 20% had signs of cognitive decline.. Low UPSIT scores, but not entorhinal cortical thickness, were significantly associated with dementia and Alzheimers disease, and with cognitive impairment. Entorhinal cortical thickness was significantly associated with UPSIT score in those who transitioned from MCI to dementia.. In other words, it looks like impairment in odor identification precedes thinning in the entorhinal cortex.. In another study, UPSITwas administered to 84 older adults, of whom 58 had MCI, ...
A Specialized Odor Memory Buffer in Primary Olfactory Cortex. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[13] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals may be processed to form a synthesized olfactory perception. A large degree of convergence occurs, with 25,000 axons synapsing on 25 or so mitral cells, and with each of these mitral cells projecting to multiple glomeruli. Mitral cells also project to periglomerular cells and granular cells ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[23] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals may be processed to form a synthesized olfactory perception. A large degree of convergence occurs, with 25,000 axons synapsing on 25 or so mitral cells, and with each of these mitral cells projecting to multiple glomeruli. Mitral cells also project to periglomerular cells and granular cells ...
Olfactory sensory neurons project axons to the brain within the olfactory nerve, (cranial nerve I). These nerve fibers, lacking myelin sheaths, pass to the olfactory bulb of the brain through perforations in the cribriform plate, which in turn projects olfactory information to the olfactory cortex and other areas.[7] The axons from the olfactory receptors converge in the outer layer of the olfactory bulb within small (≈50 micrometers in diameter) structures called glomeruli. Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within glomeruli and send the information about the odor to other parts of the olfactory system, where multiple signals may be processed to form a synthesized olfactory perception. A large degree of convergence occurs, with 25,000 axons synapsing on 25 or so mitral cells, and with each of these mitral cells projecting to multiple glomeruli. Mitral cells also project to periglomerular cells and granular cells ...
Mammals possess an olfactory system of inordinate discriminatory power. We are studying how the diversity and specificity of olfactory perception is accomplished. Analysis of the patterns of expression of the odorant receptor genes, coupled with earlier electrophysiologic experiments, have provided a logic for olfactory discrimination. Individual olfactory sensory neurons express only one of a thousand receptor genes. Neurons expressing a given receptor, although randomly distributed in domains in the epithelium, project their axons to a small number of topographically fixed loci or glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. These data support a model of olfactory coding in whichdiscrimination of odor quality would result from the detection of specific spatial patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb.. HHMI. ...
I am going to discuss a couple interesting facts that affect dog urine odor removal. First what I call Odor Memory. This is when we (humans) smell a particular odor and our brain remembers it. For example urine. If we smell urine and it gets into our nose and brain then certain things like seeing the urine stain again will trigger that smell in out brain and we will smell the urine again even if the smell is not still there. This is a psychological odor that is not a real odor but our brains cant tell the difference. Sometimes we can just think of the smell and we will smell it. It happens with all types of smells. Most of us have had this happen. This affects removing dog urine odor because we can psychologically smell the odor even after we have removed it. Sometime we wnat someone else to test smell the area we have cleaned to see if the odor is gone.. The other interesting point is that on average women can identify 10,000 distinct odors and the average man can identify 5,000 distinct ...
Design workshops with ASA and design consultants were used to flush out key decision-making issues. An aggressive fenceline impact Dilutions-to-Threshold (D/T) goal of 2 D/T (1 hour average) at the property line was agreed upon by all parties as the foundation for the odor control design. Odor sampling and analysis was conducted to identify major odor sources. Industrial Source Complex Dispersion Short Term (ISCST3) Dispersion Modeling was performed with the existing and future site plans and odor sources in order to assess odorous impacts by unit process/facility. Isopleths, showing D/T contours by source, were used by ASA and CH2M HILL to prioritize odor sources that required containment and treatment to meet odor control goals ...
Chinese, Africans and Indians may differ in what odors they find yummy, but they all perceive pleasantness of odor perception, as such, in the same way, according to the findings of neurobiologists from the University of California, Berkeley, and the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. Not only are pleasant odors universal, the UC…
In our last scientific episode, we had cake and pork chops. Oh, and we also talked about the effects of transitioning on a persons scent. But really, that post gave only half of the story. To explain what I mean, I refer the reader to the comments that were posted by Liberty Wolf, who wrote:…
If the primary purpose of an enzymatic cleaner is to eliminate odor, the same application and agitation procedure is followed. Oftentimes, this process will need to be undertaken twice if a particularly troublesome and pervasive odor is in need of remediation. Dog and cat urine odor are the most commonplace types of odors for which enzymatic cleaner is utilized. An enzymatic cleaner is effective with these types of odors because they are protein-based. Enzymes digest the organic material that is contained in dog and cat urine, a process that eliminates any associated foul odor. If the odor is particularly profound, a liquid derivation of an enzymatic product is preferred. With that said, the sprayer should be abandoned. Rather, the sprayer top should be removed and the contaminated area should be saturated with the enzymatic product. The enzymatic cleaner should be allowed to soak for at least 30 minutes. In an arid climate, covering the treated item or area with a damp cotton towel is ...
This response submitted by Glen Conley on 9/21/04 at 8:10 PM. ( [email protected] ) 67.200.29.224 The wet dog, wet hound, tom cat pee smells usually go along with what is called oxidation degradation of fats and proteins. Dave could have told you that, he just didnt want to do all the typing.. Theres actually a number of factors that can cause it, but what I would suspicion is an ongoing reaction between your hidepaste and an acid contained in the capes that is producing gas as a result of the reaction. These odors are mimics of other organic decompositions, primarily because the same gases are being produced.. If these capes seemed to have these big pockets of air trapped in the brisket areas, and going up the neck when they were first mounted, that would be what I would suspicion.. Mold and mildew will usually have either a sharper odor, or a more musty smell.. The STOP-ROT might work for you if it is indeed an chemical reaction situation. This is what I would suggest, and ...
... - Silsoe Odours Ltd odour laboratory is UKAS accredited (ISO17025) for odour analyses to BSEN13725:2003. Odour study days are held in the Spring and the Autumn. Other services include odour surveys, dispersion modelling and unbia... edie.net
What diseases are specific odors of a person talking about: a table of signs. Causes of occurrence. Modern technologies for the diagnosis of diseases by smell.
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Odors are generally something we avoid in polite conversation. Youre not likely to walk into your neighbors house and ask, Wow, what is that smell? Hom
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I have been taking 350mg for quite some time and for the last few months, I have had the worse odor (under arms). I know when I was taking savella the odor was awful. Has anyone noticed this in tramadol ...
Birmingham, MI (PRWEB) September 21, 2013 -- Pet Odor Eliminators are now available on SmellsBeGone.com, the official website for the original odor eliminating
A frequently asked question from patients inquiring about miraDry is, I do not have excessive sweating, will miraDry still help to stop underarm odor? In a survey, most doctors told AHB that MiraDry - AHB
20.11.2008 Vaginal odor is very common for women and very embarrassing also. However, you should not despair as there are treatments to cure it. You can pick up some ...
Over the past few months weve started experiencing toilet odor after 4 days or so accumulation in the black tanks (we have two separate black tanks). Both tanks have the same problem. We empty tanks
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Hello All, Basically, the study is looking at if forefoot striking (FFS) and rear foot striking (RFS) runners experience similar changes when switching...
The perceptual space of odors is highly multidimensional, and consequently it is difficult to reach a consensus about how to develop two-dimensional (2D) sensory odor maps. The problem is simplified if we focus on a subset of smells (e.g., odors of wine, beer, cheese, etc.), and many sensory maps have been proposed for such perceptual subspaces. Perfumes cover a wide spectrum of odor qualities, but they are obviously biased towards pleasant non-food scents. Various sensory maps have been proposed in the literature for those odor descriptors most frequently applied in perfumery, but no standard exists yet.. The multivariate statistical analysis of odor profile databases provides valuable information to better understand the underlying dimensions of olfactory perception space. The analysis of two odor databases, compiled in the context of perfumery, is presented. The first one contains numeric odor profiles of 309 compounds based on 30 descriptors. The loading plot corresponding to the first and ...
In mammals, each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor. Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key-lock system: If the airborne molecules of a certain chemical can fit into the lock, the nerve cell will respond. There are, at present, a number of competing theories regarding the mechanism of odor coding and perception. According to the shape theory, each receptor detects a feature of the odor molecule. Weak-shape theory, known as odotope theory, suggests that different receptors detect only small pieces of molecules, and these minimal inputs are combined to form a larger olfactory perception (similar to the way visual perception is built up of smaller, information-poor sensations, combined and refined to create a detailed overall perception).[citation needed] An alternative theory, the vibration theory proposed by Luca Turin, posits that odor receptors detect the frequencies of vibrations of odor molecules in the infrared range by electron tunnelling. However, ...
Dysosmia in PD (Parkinsons Disease) may result from changes in the olfactory apparatus or in structures involved in olfactory perception. Previous work1,2 has suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) pa-tients have improved odor discrimination in stimulation-on/medication-off state in comparison to their own scores in a stimulation-off/medication-off state. What remains unclear is whether it is the ON state itself or an effect of stimulation that leads to improved olfaction. In this study we evaluate dysosmia in two PD cohorts in the ON state, those treated with medication alone and those treated with medication and DBS. A prospective study geared at improving predictive value of olfactory testing with a battery of psychological tests enrolled 45 PD patients and 44 controls. Of the PD patients, 9 had bilateral STN (subthalamic nucleus) DBS and 36 were medically treated. Subset analysis of PD patients with and without DBS placement revealed no difference in apathy or depression. DBS patients had
Odor perception is a complex process involving the central nervous system and can evoke psychological and physiological responses. Because the olfactory signal terminates in or near the amygdala, odors are strongly linked to memories and can evoke emotions. The amygdala participates in the hedonic or emotional processing of olfactory stimuli.[45] Odors can disturb our concentration, diminish productivity, evoke symptoms, and in general increase a dislike for an environment. Odors can impact the liking for a person, place, food, or product as a form of conditioning.[46] Memories recalled by odors are significantly more emotional and evocative than those recalled by the same cue presented visually or auditorily.[47] Odors can become conditioned to experiential states and when later encountered have directional influences on behavior. Doing a frustrating task in a scented room decreases performance of other cognitive tasks in the presence of the same odor.[48] Nonhuman animals communicate their ...
The purpose of this agreement is to provide funding for a collaborative effort with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to pilot test the chemosenses component in persons age 40 and older, and implement in the survey pending a successful pilot. The chemosenses component will consist of 1) household interview questions to define the prevalence of self-reported taste and smell disorders, and to identify risk factors and confounders for the analysis of the taste and smell exam data; 2) smell testing using two modified Pocket Smell Identification Tests, a "scratch and sniff test with 8 odorants; and 3) taste testing performed using small amounts of liquids that can be spit out afterwards. For Taste testing, the respondent will be asked both to identify and to rate the intensity of the stimulus. (ADC12002001-1-0-0) ...
Functional studies suggest that the neural representations of odorants vary systematically as a function of molecular structural features such as carbon chain length or functional group. Psychophysical studies in both humans and animal models have reported some correlations between perceived odor quality and these molecular properties but the generality of such correlations is unknown. Using an operant conditioning paradigm we therefore tested the ability of CD-1 mice to discriminate between 25 odorants comprising members of five homologous series of aliphatic odorants (C4-C8) presented at a gas phase concentration of 1 ppm. We found a) that all mice significantly discriminated between all 50 stimulus pairs that involved odorants sharing the same functional group, but differing in carbon chain length, as well as between all 50 stimulus pairs that involved odorants sharing the same carbon chain length but differing in functional group, b) a significant negative cor- relation between ...
El Archivo Digital UPM alberga en formato digital la documentacion academica y cientifica (tesis, pfc, articulos, etc..) generada en la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.Los documentos del Archivo Digital UPM son recuperables desde buscadores: Google, Google Academics, Yahoo, Scirus, etc y desde recolectores OAI: E-ciencia, DRRD, Recolecta (REBIUN-FECYT), Driver, Oaister, etc.
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