Stem cell-based therapies critically rely on selective cell migration toward pathological or injured areas. We previously demonstrated that human olfactory ectomesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs), derived from an adult olfactory lamina propria, migrate specifically toward an injured mouse hippocampus after transplantation in the cerebrospinal fluid and promote functional recoveries. However, the mechanisms controlling their recruitment and homing remain elusive. Using an in vitro model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and secretome analysis, we observed that OE-MSCs produce numerous proteins allowing them to cross the endothelial wall. Then, pan-genomic DNA microarrays identified signaling molecules that lesioned mouse hippocampus overexpressed. Among the most upregulated cytokines, both recombinant SPP1/ osteopontin and CCL2/MCP-1 stimulate OE-MSC migration whereas only CCL2 exerts a chemotactic effect. Additionally, OE-MSCs express SPP1 receptors but not the CCL2 cognate receptor, suggesting a ...
Se describe aquí un método para la biopsia de mucosa olfatoria de ratas y humanos cavidades nasales. Estas biopsias se pueden utilizar...
The objective of this study was to determine whether mechanical force generated by airflow can stimulate the MOE using EOG recordings and to directly assess the role of cAMP signaling using AC3−/− mice. Since the CNG responds to both cAMP and cGMP, the fact that CNG−/− mice lack fluid-generated airflow responses cannot be taken as direct evidence for a role of cAMP signaling. The drug MDL 12330A cannot be used to implicate adenylyl cyclase activity in the airflow response because it is not specific to adenylyl cyclases (Rampe et al., 1987; Gadea et al., 1999) and it did not inhibit EOG responses caused by airflow or odorants in our study.. We discovered that airflow stimulates the MOE with progressively higher EOG responses as airflow increased. This sensitivity to airflow was desensitized by prior increases in cAMP caused by odorants or by a combination of forskolin and IBMX suggesting that odorant and airflow sensitivity may both depend on cAMP signaling. Indeed, the MOE from ...
We have identified a replication-independent histone variant, Hist2h2be (referred to herein as H2be), which is expressed exclusively by olfactory chemosensory neurons. Levels of H2BE are heterogeneous among olfactory neurons, but stereotyped according to the identity of the co-expressed olfactory receptor (OR). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that changes in H2be expression affect olfactory function and OR representation in the adult olfactory epithelium. We show that H2BE expression is reduced by sensory activity and that it promotes neuronal cell death, such that inactive olfactory neurons display higher levels of the variant and shorter life spans. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of H2BE differ from those of the canonical H2B, consistent with a role for H2BE in altering transcription. We propose a physiological function for H2be in modulating olfactory neuron population dynamics to adapt the OR repertoire to the environment. The objective of generating this dataset was to
Synonyms for olfactory cell in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for olfactory cell. 24 synonyms for cell: room, chamber, lock-up, compartment, cavity, cubicle, dungeon, stall, unit, group, section, core, nucleus, caucus, coterie, electric cell. What are synonyms for olfactory cell?
The developmental expression of immunocytochemical reactivity to 3 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs Neu 4, Neu 5, and Neu 9) that were generated against adult rat olfactory epithelium was examined in olfactory tissues of embryonic rats. Tissues examined included the nasal olfactory epithelium, nerve, and olfactory bulb, as well as vomeronasal epithelium and nerve. Reactivity patterns of these Mabs in adult rats have been described previously (Hempstead and Morgan, 1985a). All 3 Mabs show reactivity on the cell surfaces of neurons, axons, and dendrites of the olfactory epithelium proper. Neu 5 alone shows reactivity on the dendritic knobs, site of transduction of the olfactory stimuli. These reactivities appear early, suggesting developmentally significant roles for the antigens to these Mabs. For Neu 5 and Neu 9 initial reactivity occurs on outgrowing olfactory axons at E13. Dendritic and perikaryal reactivities begin appearing at E14. For Neu 4 initial reactivity occurs simultaneously on olfactory ...
Summary: Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are mediated by programs of adult stem cell renewal and differentiation. However, the mechanisms that regulate stem cell fates under such widely varying conditions are not fully understood. Using single-cell techniques, we assessed the transcriptional changes associated with stem cell self-renewal and differentiation and followed
Single-cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-Seq), which combines high-throughput single-cell extraction and sequencing capabilities, enables the transcriptomes of large numbers of individual cells to be assayed efficiently.
Whole-body autoradiography of 3H-labeled aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in adult C57BL mice pretreated with the glutathione (GSH)-depleting agent phorone showed accumulation of tissue-bound radioactivity in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa, the mucosa of the nasopharyngeal duct, and the tracheal and esophageal mucosa, which was not seen in unpretreated adult mice. The altered distribution pictures induced by the phorone are probably related to decreased tissue levels of GSH. The AFB1 is likely to be bioactivated locally in the extrahepatic tissues; in nonpretreated mice the reactive AFB1 metabolite formed is probably scavenged by GSH via the action of glutathione-S-transferase, whereas in the mice with depleted GSH levels a binding to tissue macromolecules will instead take place. The mechanism indicated above is supported by results of in vitro experiments in which the nasal olfactory mucosa and the esophageal mucosa were shown to have a capacity to form tissue-bound 3H-AFB1 metabolites. This ...
Stem cell-based therapy has been proposed as a potential means of treatment for a variety of brain disorders. Because ethical and technical issues have so far limited the clinical translation of research using embryonic/fetal cells and neural tissue, respectively, the search for alternative sources of therapeutic stem cells remains ongoing. Here, we report that upon transplantation into mice with chemically induced hippocampal lesions, human olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) - adult stem cells from human nasal olfactory lamina propria - migrated toward the sites of neural damage, where they differentiated into neurons. Additionally, transplanted OE-MSCs stimulated endogenous neurogenesis, restored synaptic transmission, and enhanced long-term potentiation. Mice that received transplanted OE-MSCs exhibited restoration of learning and memory on behavioral tests compared with lesioned, nontransplanted control mice. Similar results were obtained when OE-MSCs were injected into the ...
S-phase appears constant across the OE (Fig. 2E,F), suggesting longer cell cycles in ventral and lateral OE precursors reflect longer G1-S transitions. Therefore, we asked whether lateral OE cells are more likely to retain BrdU for long periods, a signal that is characteristic of slowly dividing, multipotent neural stem cells (Morshead et al., 1994). Following chronic BrdU exposure (E9-E11.5) and additional 5-day survival (E16.5), a significant proportion of Meis1-labeled (Fig. 2G,I-K) as well as Sox2-labeled (Fig. 2H,L-N) basal cells in the lateral OE are also heavily labeled with BrdU (29% Meis1 cells/87 total cells counted; 22% Sox2 cells/18 total cells counted; n=4 animals). We found no medial Sox2 or Ascl1 cells heavily BrdU-labeled (Fig. 2O,P); however, a small number were faintly labeled (Fig. 2O, inset; 4% Sox2 cells/104 total cells counted; 2% of Ascl1 cells/83 total cells counted; n=4 animals). By contrast, a significant proportion of OMP-labeled ORNs in the medial OE are heavily BrdU ...
s olfactory tissue through unique procedures that maximize the harvesting of that tissue and minimize the collection of closely associated nasal respiratory tissue. Although Lima s experience indicates that small amounts of contaminating respiratory tissue are innocuous, it nevertheless lacks olfactory tissue s regenerative components. Because olfactory tissue can diminish over time, patient age is important. In contrast to other researchers who have started to implant isolated OECs into patients with SCI, Lima uses whole olfactory tissue for transplantation without attempting to separate cellular components. He believes that more than one cell type is needed to maximize regeneration in the injured cord, including, in addition to OECs, neurons in different developmental stages, and precursor stem cells. Because the graft is taken from the patient, immunosuppressive drugs are not needed to avert tissue rejection. In addition, patients regain smelling ability within several weeks.. The ...
The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. Olfactory detection thresholds for two
Olfactory Stem Cells and Neural Regeneration. In the vertebrate olfactory system, primary sensory neurons are continuously regenerated throughout adult life via the proliferation and differentiation of multipotent neural progenitor cells. This feature makes the olfactory system particularly amenable for studies on adult neurogenesis and the properties of neuronal stem cells. Olfactory sensory neurons normally turn over every 30-60 days and are replaced through the proliferation and differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells. Following injury that results in the destruction of mature cells in the olfactory epithelium, these adult tissue stem cells proliferate and differentiate to reconstitute all cellular constituents of this sensory epithelium. The regenerative capacity of the olfactory epithelium represents a powerful and experimentally accessible paradigm for understanding the regulation of neural stem cell function under normal conditions and during injury-induced regeneration. While ...
Our present data show, for the first time, that V-ATPase is expressed in the mouse OE. V-ATPase was detected in olfactory cells, nerve fiber cells, Bowmans glands, and the vomeronasal organ. The V-ATPase B1 subunit isoform, a marker of specialized proton-secreting cells (3, 28, 32, 36), was found to localize to the microvilli of the apical plasma membrane of sustentacular cells and to the lateral membrane in a subpopulation of olfactory sensory cells. On the other hand, V-ATPase holoenzymes containing the B2 subunit isoform were found to generally assume a more subapical localization in olfactory sustentacular cells. This is reminiscent of other proton-secreting epithelia, such as renal collecting duct A-type intercalated cells (ICs), in which the B1 isoform localizes to the apical membrane and subapical domain, whereas the B2 isoform localization is less polarized, covering the region between the apical membrane and the nucleus and, more generally, the cytosolic domain (32, 34). This is ...
The sense of smell allows chemicals to be perceived as diverse scents. We used single neuron RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to explore developmental mechanisms that shape this ability as nasal olfactory neurons mature in mice. Most mature neurons expressed only one of the roughly 1000 odorant receptor genes (Olfrs) available, and that at high levels. However, many immature neurons expressed low levels of multiple Olfrs. Coexpressed Olfrs localized to overlapping zones of the nasal epithelium, suggesting regional biases, but not to single genomic loci. A single immature neuron could express Olfrs from up to seven different chromosomes. The mature state in which expression of Olfr genes is restricted to one per neuron emerges over a developmental progression that appears independent of neuronal activity requiring sensory transduction molecules.. ...
New research, published in the journal Development, by Dr. Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, professor of Pharmacology & Physiology and director of the newly formed GW Institute for Neuroscience, and his colleagues have identified the stem cells that generate three critical classes of nerve cells "" olfactory receptors (ORNs), vomeronasal (VRNs) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons "" that are responsible for enabling animals and humans, to eat, interact socially and reproduce.. This research is the first evidence identfying these stem cells. By studying mice at the earliest stages of embryonic development, LaMantia and his colleagues were able to identify the location of these cells, confirm that they divide slowly and symmetrically""thus making more stem cells, have a distinct molecular identity, and give rise to all cell types in the tissue""including ORNs, VRNs and GnRH neurons. These embryonic olfactory stem cells also are ultimately responsible for generating stem cells that remain in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning of a novel Olf-1/EBF-like gene, O/E-4, by Degenerate Oligo-based Direct Selection. AU - Wang, Song S.. AU - Betz, Alexander G.. AU - Reed, Randall R. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The Olf-1/EBF (O/E) family of transcription factors plays important roles in neural development and B-cell maturation. We have utilized a variation of the direct selection scheme (Degenerate Oligo-based Direct Selection, or DODS) to identify a fourth member of the O/E family (O/E-4). We demonstrated that, similar to previously identified mouse O/E proteins, O/E-4 is expressed in the neuronal and basal cell layers of mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike other O/E members, O/E-4 expression is absent in the vomeronasal organ. O/E-4 can partner with the other O/Es to form heterodimers that are capable of binding an Olf-1 consensus site in vitro. In contrast to other O/E family members, the O/E-4 protein only weakly activates transcription in a reporter assay. In summary, we have identified O/E-4 ...
Dr. Carlos Lima published his paper in the Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine last month on the treatment of patients with their own stem cells, derived from olfactory stem cells found in the nasal mucosa. These stem cells are easily obtained with minimal risk and reproduce readily, both in the body and in culture. In…
Two unique forms of cytochrome P-450 (P-450), designated NMa and NMb, were recently isolated in this laboratory from nasal microsomes of rabbits. In the present study, polyclonal antibodies to the purified nasal cytochromes were prepared. Immunochemical analysis with specific rabbit anti-NMa and sheep anti-NMb antibodies indicated that P-450 isozymes identical to or having a high structural homology with NMa are present in both olfactory and respiratory mucosa, as well as in liver, but NMb was detected only in the olfactory mucosa. Neither form was detected in other tissues examined, including brain, esophageal mucosa, heart, intestinal mucosa, kidney, and lung. The specific occurrence of NMb in the olfactory mucosa was further substantiated by the detection and specific inhibition by anti-NMb of the formation of unique NMb-dependent metabolites of testosterone in olfactory microsomes but not in microsomes from liver or respiratory mucosa. Similar experiments with antibodies to previously ...
The olfactory membrane is a thick yellow-brown structure, about one inch square, located in the upper part of each nasal cavity. It consists of about one hundred million smell receptor cells, which are surrounded by supporting cells. The smell receptor cells have an olfactory vesicle bearing cilia, which project into the mucus that covers the smell membrane. Chemicals in the air react with the cilia and stimulate the receptor cells. The smell information is passed by the receptor cell axons, which leave the membrane as the first cranial nerve, and which relay with mitral cell axons to the olfactory cortex. The supporting sustentacular cells contain a pigment that colors the membrane yellow. The membrane also contains Bowmans glands, which secrete mucus. Their function is to keep the membrane moist so that chemicals can dissolve and stimulate the cilia ...
(provided by candidate): The goal of this application is to provide a supervised training program that will promote the candidates development into an independ...
In order to clarify whether or not the electronegative olfactory mucosal potentials (EOG) are generator potentials, the effects of changed ionic enviroment were studied. The EOG decreased in amplitude and in some cases nearly or completely disappeared, when Na+ in the bathing Ringer solution was replaced by sucrose, Li+, choline+, tetraethylammonium+ (TEA), or hydrazine. In the K+-free Ringer solution, the negative EOGs initially increased and then decreased in amplitude. In Ringers solution with increased K+, the negative EOGs increased in amplitude. When K+ was increased in exchange for Na+ in Ringers solution, the negative EOGs decreased, disappeared, and then reversed their polarity (Fig. 6). Next, when the K+ was replaced by equimolar sucrose, Li+, choline+, TEA+, hydrazine, or Na+, the reversed potentials recovered completely only in Na+-Ringers solution, but never in the other solutions. Thus, the essential role of Na+ and K+ in the negative EOGs was demonstrated. Ba++ was found to ...
J:171417 Henion TR, Faden AA, Knott TK, Schwarting GA, {beta}3GnT2 Maintains Adenylyl Cyclase-3 Signaling and Axon Guidance Molecule Expression in the Olfactory Epithelium. J Neurosci. 2011 Apr 27;31(17):6576-86 ...
Transplantation of exogenous stem cells has been proposed as a treatment to prevent or reverse sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigate the effects of transplantation of adult human olfactory mucosa-derived stem cells on auditory function in A/J mice, a strain exhibiting early-onset progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Recent evidence indicates that these stem cells exhibit multipotency in transplantation settings and may represent a subtype of mesenchymal stem cell. Olfactory stem cells were injected into the cochleae of A/J mice via a lateral wall cochleostomy during the time period in which hearing loss first becomes apparent. Changes in auditory function were assessed 1 month after transplantation and compared against animals that received sham injections. Hearing threshold levels in stem cell-transplanted mice were found to be significantly lower than those of sham-injected mice (p | .05) for both click and pure tone stimuli. Transplanted cells survived within the perilymphatic
Transplants of cells obtained from the olfactory system are a potential treatment for spinal cord injury and a number of clinical trials are in progress. However, the extent to which transplants improve recovery of function remains unclear and there are contradictory reports on the extent to which they support axonal regeneration. Here, we have used anatomical and electrophysiological techniques to investigate the repair promoted by olfactory cell transplants after a dorsal column lesion. Since the use of olfactory cells of varying type and origin may contribute to the differing outcomes of previous studies, regeneration of dorsal column axons was compared following transplants of pure olfactory ensheathing cells from neonatal animals and mixed olfactory cells from both neonatal and adult rats. Two to three months after lesioning, numerous regenerating fibres could be seen in each type of transplant. However, tracing of ascending dorsal column fibres showed that few regenerated beyond the ...
Naphthalene produces species and cell selective injury to respiratory tract epithelial cells of rodents. In these studies we determined the apparent K{sub m}, V{sub max}, and catalytic efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) for naphthalene metabolism in microsomal preparations from subcompartments of the respiratory tract of rodents and non-human primates. In tissues with high substrate turnover, major metabolites were derived directly from naphthalene oxide with smaller amounts from conjugates of diol epoxide, diepoxide, and 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones. In some tissues, different enzymes with dissimilar K{sub m} and V{sub max} appeared to metabolize naphthalene. The rank order of V{sub max} (rat olfactory epithelium , mouse olfactory epithelium , murine airways ≫ rat airways) correlated well with tissue susceptibility to naphthalene. The V{sub max} in monkey alveolar subcompartment was 2% that in rat nasal olfactory epithelium. Rates of metabolism in nasal compartments of the monkey were low. The ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 1jod: Crystal Structure of Murine Olfactory Marker Protein in Spacegroup P43212
Shop Olfactory marker protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Olfactory marker protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
View more ,Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) proliferation and growth on Biosilicate and collagen bioscaffolds, and to determine whether the application of laser phototherapy would result in increased OEC proliferation on the scaffolds. The use of bioscaffolds is considered a promising strategy in a number of clinical applications where tissue healing is suboptimal. As in vitro OEC growth is a slow process, laser phototherapy could be useful to stimulate proliferation on bioscaffolds. Methods OEC cells were seeded on the Biosilicate and collagen scaffolds. Seeded scaffolds were irradiated with a single exposure of 830-nm laser. Nonirradiated seeded scaffolds acted as negative controls. Cell proliferation was assessed 7 days after irradiation. Results OECs were successfully grown on discs composed of a glass-ceramic and collagen composite. Laser irradiation produced a 32.7% decrease and a 13.2% increase in OEC proliferation on ...
Both the olfactory and vomeronasal pathways are neuronal systems in which the sensory neurons are thought to be capable of continuous replenishment and re-innervation of their central targets...
New research from the Max Planck Institute shows that mice can sense oxygen levels in the environment using specialized neurons in their noses that are present in the olfactory mucosa.. The genome of mice harbors more than 1000 odorant receptor genes, which enable them to smell myriad odors in their surroundings. Researchers at the Max Planck Research Unit for Neurogenetics in Frankfurt, the University of Saarland in Homburg, the University of Cambridge and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm have discovered that mice can also sense the oxygen level of the inhaled air using neurons in their nose. For this newly discovered sensory property, mice rely on two genes termed Gucy1b2 and Trpc2, but apparently not on odorant receptor genes.. The research team discovered that a specific type of chemosensory neuron in the mouse olfactory mucosa responds to oxygen decreases in the environment. Chemosensory cells typically detect an increase in the concentration of a substance. In mammals, a lack of ...
The development of the respiratory and olfactory mucosae from the old world monkey, Macaca nemestrina, from fetal (F) 121 days to postnatal (P) 9.5 years, has been examined by light and electron microscopy. By F121 days, respiratory and olfactory mucosae appeared to be morphologically capable to carry out their required functions. Olfactory receptor cells were well developed with the presence of a ciliated olfactory knob and abundant dendritic microtubules. At the light and electron microscopic levels, prenatal receptor cells were differentiated into pale, intermediate and dark cells. The lightly stained receptor cells appeared to be young. They were sparsely ciliated and had dendritic centrioles and mitochondria. The receptor cells with intermediate staining appeared to be mature. The olfactory knobs contained mitochondria and basal bodies associated with the cilia. The nuclei of the darkly stained electron dense receptor cells were located distally in the olfactory epithelium. Although these receptor
Facial shape is the basis for facial recognition and categorization. Facial features reflect the underlying geometry of the skeletal structures. Here we reveal that cartilaginous nasal capsule (corresponding to upper jaw and face) is shaped by signals generated by neural structures: brain and olfactory epithelium. Brain-derived Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) enables the induction of nasal septum and posterior nasal capsule, whereas the formation of a capsule roof is controlled by signals from the olfactory epithelium. Unexpectedly, the cartilage of the nasal capsule turned out to be important for shaping membranous facial bones during development. This suggests that conserved neurosensory structures could benefit from protection and have evolved signals inducing cranial cartilages encasing them. Experiments with mutant mice revealed that the genomic regulatory regions controlling production of SHH in the nervous system contribute to facial cartilage morphogenesis, which might be a mechanism responsible ...
Cells taken from the nose may have great potential A woman in the US has developed a tumor-like growth eight years after a stem cell treatment to cure her paralysis failed. There have been a handful of cases of stem cell treatments causing growths but this appears to be the first in which the treatment was given at a Western hospital as part of an approved clinical trial.. At a hospital in Portugal, the unnamed woman, a US citizen, had tissue containing olfactory stem cells taken from her nose and implanted in her spine. The hope was that these cells would develop into neural cells and help repair the nerve damage to the womans spine. The treatment did not work - far from it. Last year the woman, then 28, underwent surgery because of worsening pain at the implant site.. The surgeons removed a 3-centimetre-long growth, which was found to be mainly nasal tissue, as well as bits of bone and tiny nerve branches that had not connected with the spinal nerves.. The growth wasnt cancerous, but it was ...
In mammals, the olfactory epithelium secretes odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), which are lipocalins found freely dissolved in the mucus layer protecting the olfactory neurons. OBPs may act as passive transporters of predominantly hydrophobic odorant molecules across the aqueous mucus layer, or they may play a more active role in which the olfactory neuronal receptor recognizes the OBP-ligand complex. To better understand the molecular events accompanying the initial steps in the olfaction process, we have performed molecular dynamics studies of rat and pig OBPs with the odorant molecule thymol. These calculations provide an atomic level description of conformational changes and pathway intermediates that remain difficult to study directly. A series of eight independent molecular dynamics trajectories of rat OBP permitted the observation of a consensus pathway for ligand unbinding and the calculation of the potential of mean force (PMF) along this path. Titration microcalorimetry confirmed the ...
The sense of smell in vertebrates is detected by specialized sensory neurons derived from the peripheral nervous system. Classically, it has been presumed that the olfactory placode forms all olfactory sensory neurons. In contrast, we show that the cranial neural crest is the primary source of microvillous sensory neurons within the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish embryos. Using photoconversion-based fate mapping and live cell tracking coupled with laser ablation, we followed neural crest precursors as they migrated from the neural tube to the nasal cavity. A subset that coexpressed Sox10 protein and a neurogenin1 reporter ingressed into the olfactory epithelium and differentiated into microvillous sensory neurons. Timed loss-of-function analysis revealed a critical role for Sox10 in microvillous neurogenesis. Taken together, these findings directly demonstrate a heretofore unknown contribution of the cranial neural crest to olfactory sensory neurons in zebrafish and provide important insights ...
8 6 8 6 8 6 Soprano Piano b˙ eo. eobeo oe oe oe oe bb oe oe b oe oe b oe oe b oe oe Largo e = 92 p ˙. oe oe oe oe b b oe oe b oe oe b oe oe b oe oe ˙ eo. eo oe oe b oe oe b oe oe b b oe oe b oe oe eoeo b˙. oe oe oe oe b oe oe n oe oe b oe oen oe oe b & & ? 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 6 8 6 8 6 S Pno. 5 5 .. b˙˙ oe oe oe oe bb oe oe b oe oe b oe oe b eoeo eo eoeo EO beo eobeo. EO ˙. Com oe oe oe oe oe oe bbb oe oe b oe oe b oe oe oe oe p beo. eo beo eo eo eo beo eo 5 fort in ox i diz ing oe oe oe oe b b oe oe b oe oe b oe oe b oe oe - - - - & & ? S Pno. 9 beo eo eo EO eoj cop per, these 9 oe oe b oe oeb oe oe bb oe oe b oe oe eoeo beo eo ‰ ‰ EO. months: oe oe oe oe b oe oe n oe oe b oe oe n oe oe b & eor eo eo eo beo eo eo eoj eo eo. eo. 3 my fa vor ite lo vers a ghost and the oe oe oe oe b oe oe oe oe oe oe b oe oe b - - - - History of St. Caduceus IV Lucas Hausrath 2012 Fox Henry Frazier ...
Our research can be thematically organized into three broad components ranging from the microscopic to the macroscopic: molecular and cellular analysis of human olfactory tissue; in vivo electrophysiological analysis using intracranial EEG recordings in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy; and systems-level analysis using functional MRI and olfactory psychophysical techniques in human subjects, and also in mouse subjects. Currently even the most well-founded research assumptions - the cellular organization of the peripheral olfactory system; the cortical projection pathways and centrifugal feedback connections; the physiological coding principles that underlie odor processing and memory consolidation - remain almost completely untested in humans. Together these different research strands support a consolidated research platform to investigate human olfaction with a neuroscientific breadth intended to connect the dots from molecules to mind, and from health to disease ...
Chapter 18 - Special Senses Olfaction (Smell) Chemicals that we perceive as smell are detected by olfactory organs that consist of: Olfactory epithelium - This epithelium consists of olfactory receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells (stem cells). Lamina propria - The lamina propria of olfactory epithelium
A recent study from The Monell Center found the connection between the olfactory marker protein (OMP) and the detection of different scents after a 30-year-old mystery.
Neurons, Olfactory Receptor Neurons, Calcium, Kinase, Ability, Role, Cells, Sodium, Cell, Plays, Transient, Cilia, Epithelium, Olfactory Epithelium, G Protein, Phosphatidylinositol, Inhibition, Mediating, Rat, Invertebrates
The epidermis contains three types of cells. On the surface are flat cells, known as squamous cells. Under these are round cells called basal cells. In between the basal cells are melanocytes.. The dermis contains nerve endings, blood vessels, and oil and sweat glands. Its held together by a protein called collagen.. The hypodermis (subcutaneous fat and connective tissue) attaches the skin to bone and muscles, as well as supplying blood vessels and nerves.. ...
Site designed and maintained by Gregg Thomas, 2017 , Some of the CSS used to design this site is from the Pure CSS project. , Banner image ...
Site designed and maintained by Gregg Thomas, 2017 , Some of the CSS used to design this site is from the Pure CSS project. , Banner image ...
The olfactory epithelium (OE) of mice deficient in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) exhibits ion transport deficiencies reported in human CF airways, as well as progressive neuronal loss, suggesting defects in olfactory neuron homeostasis. Microvillar cells, a specialized OE cell-subtype, have been implicated in maintaining tissue homeostasis. These cells are endowed with a PLCβ2/IP3 R3/TRPC6 signal transduction pathway modulating release of neuropeptide Y (NPY), which stimulates OE stem cell activity. It is unknown, however, whether microvillar cells also mediate the deficits observed in CFTR-null mice. Here we show that Cftr mRNA in mouse OE is exclusively localized in microvillar cells and CFTR immunofluorescence is coassociated with the scaffolding protein NHERF-1 and PLCβ2 in microvilli. In CFTR-null mice, PLCβ2 was undetectable, NHERF-1 mislocalized, and IP3 R3 more intensely stained, along with increased levels of NPY, suggesting profound alteration of the ...
Glaucoma is the term used to describe a group diseases characterised by a specific type of damage to the optic nerve head (ONH) known as cupping and a characteristic type of visual field loss. This loss is associated with progressive atrophy and loss of the retinal ganglion cells. Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. This project was aimed at investigating olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), a population of radial glia proven to be neuroprotective in central and peripheral nerve injury models, and their potential to protect the retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma. We studied the interactions of RGC and OEC in culture. We show that OEC can straighten, ensheath and bundle RGC neurites as well as support the survival of RGC and their synapses in culture. We also show that OEC endocytose dead RGC in culture. We modified a rat model of glaucoma (where paramagnetic microbeads are injected into the anterior chamber of the rat eyes) and characterised the early and late ...
Retrograde signaling from the brain to the olfactory sensory epithelium is important for neuronal survival, but the importance of the olfactory bulb in retrograde signaling during the naturally-induced, neuronal plasticity occurring during metamorphosis is unclear. The olfactory system of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) undergoes dramatic rearrangements during metamorphosis, making this an ideal system in which to examine interactions between the brain and the olfactory sensory epithelium. The main olfactory epithelium of larvae, located in the principal cavity (PC), changes at metamorphosis in function, receptor neuron morphology, biochemistry, and axon termination sites. A new,
Glutathione peroxidase 6 (GPx-6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPX6 gene.[5][6] This gene product belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family, which functions in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide. It contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue at its active site. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3 UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Expression of this gene is restricted to embryos and adult olfactory epithelium.[5] ...
Determination of the Functional Status of the Human Olfactory Epithelium with Optical Electrophysiological Techniques. With D. Kurtz, T. White, P. Emko and D. Leopold. One theme central to our work is understanding olfactory dysfunction at both more central and peripheral levels. To this end, psychophysical instruments and MR imaging techniques will be developed. Unfortunately, evaluation of olfactory dysfunction at the site of initial transduction at the mucosal level is by inference only. Currently, we evaluate the mucosa with olfactory biopsies and through direct visualization with endoscopy. Olfactory biopsies provide limited information because of their inherent nature of sampling a small area of the mucosa that may not reflect the over-all pathology. Traditional endoscopy may reveal gross anatomical features, but tells nothing of function. A technique that could monitor the initial olfactory transduction events across a large portion of the mucosa may shed light on both basic mechanisms of ...