What does ocular physiological phenomena mean?
Definition of ocular physiological phenomena in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of ocular physiological phenomena. What does ocular physiological phenomena mean? Information and translations of ocular physiological phenomena in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
CELL JUNCTIONS IN OMMATIDIA OF LIMULUS | JCB
The intercellular relationships in the ommatidia of the lateral eye of Limulus have been investigated. The distal process of the eccentric cell gives origin to microvilli which interdigitate with the microvilli of the retinular cells. Therefore, both types of visual cells contribute to form the rhabdom and may have an analogous photoreceptor function. Quintuple-layered junctions are found within the rhabdom at the lines of demarcation between adjoining microvilli, whether the microvilli originate from a single retinular cell, from two adjacent retinular cells, or from a retinular cell and the eccentric cell. Furthermore, quintuple-layered junctions between the eccentric cell and the tips of the microvilli of the retinular cells occur at the boundary between the distal process and the rhabdom. These findings are interpreted to indicate that the rhabdom provides an extensive electrotonic junction relating retinular cells to one another and to the eccentric cell. Quintuple-layered junctions between ...
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Theory of ocular dominance column formation | SpringerLink
A general theory previously proposed by the author which describes synaptic stabilization on the basis of three basic assumptions is employed for the understanding of ocular dominance column formation
Adapting-bump model for eccentric cells of Limulus. | JGP
Light-evoked intracellular voltage noise records have been obtained from Limulus eccentric cells, from threshold light intensity to an intensity .10(5) times threshold. These data are analyzed in terms of a simple adapting-bump noise model. It is shown how the model yields a data reduction procedure that slightly generalizes the familiar use of Campbells theorem for Poisson shot noise: the correlative effect of adaptation amends Campbells theorem by a single multiplicative factor, which may be estimated directly from the power spectrum of the noise data. The model also permits direct estimation of the bump shape from the power spectrum. The bump shape estimated from noise at dim light is in excellent agreement with the average shape of bumps observed directly in the dark. The data yield a bump rate that is linear with light up through about 50 times threshold intensity but that falls short of linearity by a factor of 35 at the brightest light. The bump height decreases as the -0.4 power of ...
Author: Schmid, A. - PubAg Search Results
The Central American hunting spider Cupiennius salei, like most other spiders, has eight eyes, one pair of principal eyes and three pairs of secondary eyes. The principal eyes and one pair of the secondary eyes have almost completely overlapping visual fields, and presumably differ in function. The retinae of the principal eyes can be moved independently by two pairs of eye muscles each, whereas t ...
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Involvement of subplate neurons in the formation of ocular dominance columns | Science
During development of the mammalian visual system, axon terminals of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons, initially intermixed within layer 4 of the visual cortex, gradually segregate according to eye preference to form ocular dominance columns. In addition to LGN axons and layer 4 neurons, subplate neurons may also participate in interactions leading to column formation. Deletion of subplate neurons before the formation of ocular dominance columns prevents the segregation of LGN axons within layer 4. Thus, interactions between LGN axons and layer 4 neurons are not sufficient; subplate neurons are also required for formation of ocular dominance columns in the visual cortex. ...
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The receptive fields of cells in the retina of the housefly (Musca domestica) | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B:...
A theory of movement perception has been proposed to explain the optomotor responses of the housefly (Musca domestica), and this has been tested by McCann & Maginitie (1965). The present study was made in order to ascertain if the anatomical and physiological properties of the compound eye are commensurate with those postulated by the model. The three properties studied were the inter-ommatidial angle, the receptive field of the retinula cells, and the relationship between light intensity and the magnitude of the generator potential. The angle between the axes of adjacent ommatidia was measured anatomically. This varies with the position in the eye but has a mean value of 3.9° in the horizontal plane and 2.4° in the vertical. During dark adaptation the secondary pigment cells contract by about 5 pm at either end, moving the pigment back away from the lenses and also exposing the focal region of the ommatidium. The receptive field of single retinula cells was measured electrophysiologically. ...
lateral eye movement, patterns of thinking and internal representation
In NLP they use eye accessing cues. The idea is that when we access memory or construct an experience our eyes move in a certain way. The NLP claim is that by learning these eye accessing cues, you will get a clue to the way another person is thinking. E.g., looking down left indicates internal dialogue processing / tape loops - i.e. thinking about an unsolved problem. In an NLP session such points in a conversation will be marked as key moments indicating something which needs to be resolved later on. Looking up left is visual recall etc. http://www.smartdriving.co.uk/Misc_pages/Eye_accessing.htm My question is: What is the scientific basis for this, if any? Anyone with a good link? -Simon ...
Development of the geniculocortical pathway in rat - Lund - 2004 - Journal of Comparative Neurology - Wiley Online Library
Lund, R. D. and Mustari, M. J. (1977), Development of the geniculocortical pathway in rat. J. Comp. Neurol., 173: 289-305. doi: 10.1002/cne.901730206 ...
What are compound eyes? | Reference.com
Compound eyes are types of eyes made up of many repeating units called ommatidia. These types of eyes are mainly present in insects, although some crustaceans, such as crayfish, also possess them. A...
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Serotonin shifts the phase of the orcadian rhythm from the Aplysia eye<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotonin shifts the phase of the orcadian rhythm from the Aplysia eye. AU - Corrent, G.. AU - McAdoo, D. J.. AU - Eskin, A.. PY - 1978/12/1. Y1 - 1978/12/1. N2 - A putative neurotransmitter, serotonin, may be used to transmit temporal information in the eye of Aplysia, because it can shift the phase of the circadian rhythm of spontaneous optic nerve impulses from the eye and the eye contains a significant quantity of serotonin. Serotonin acts either directly on the cell, or cells, containing the circadian pacemaker or on cells electronically coupled to the pacemaker cells.. AB - A putative neurotransmitter, serotonin, may be used to transmit temporal information in the eye of Aplysia, because it can shift the phase of the circadian rhythm of spontaneous optic nerve impulses from the eye and the eye contains a significant quantity of serotonin. Serotonin acts either directly on the cell, or cells, containing the circadian pacemaker or on cells electronically coupled to the ...
Models of Orientation and Ocular Dominance Columns in the Visual Cortex: A Critical Comparison | MIT CogNet
Orientation and ocular dominance maps in the primary visual cortex of mammals are among the most thoroughly investigated of the patterns in the cerebral cortex. A considerable amount of work has been dedicated to unraveling both their detailed structure and the neural mechanisms that underlie their formation and development. Many schemes have been proposed, some of which are in competition. Some models focus on development of receptive fields while others focus on the structure of cortical maps, i.e., the arrangement of receptive field properties across the cortex. Each model used different means to determine its success at reproducing experimental map patterns, often relying principally on visual comparison. Experimental data are becoming available that allow a more careful evaluation of models. In this contribution more than 10 of the most prominent models of cortical map formation and structure are critically evaluated and compared with the most recent experimental findings from macaque ...
ONE SMALL LEAP FOR THE JUMPING SPIDER BUT A GIANT STEP FOR VISION SCIENCE | Journal of Experimental Biology
If you want to know how good the principal eyes spatial resolution is, the answer depends on where you are in the salticids principal-eye retina. The best spatial resolution (0.2 deg.) is in a central (`foveal) region in Layer 1. To put this into perspective, 0.2 deg. is the kind of resolution we might expect for a mammal or a bird eye but not for a small arthropod eye. Out of the details in this classic paper on the structure of the principal eyes retina, there emerges an unsettling suspicion that, with this unfamiliar design, the principal eye has an unusual, specialised role in vision. In the 1980s, this paper of Lands and the extraordinary spatial acuity of Layer 1 became the impetus for David Blests laboratory at the Australian National University making major advances in our understanding of how salticids see.. Besides the conventional approach of making measurements from sectioned material when calculating Layer 1s spatial acuity, Land designed and built an experimental ...
Table of Contents - July 27, 1990, 249 (4967) | Science
Optical imaging of primate visual cortex based on the intrinsic, activity-dependent signals. An overlaid image of the orientation columns (cortical regions that respond preferentially to visual stimuli containing borders of a particular angle, indicated by a particular color) and the ocular dominance columns (cortical regions prefering left eye stimulation coded by a darkening of color). See page 417. [Field of view: 6 millimeters by 3.5 millimeters. Imaged by Daniel Y. Tso, Ron D. Frostig, Edmund E. Lieke, and Amiram Grinvald, The Rockefeller University, and IBM Research Division] ...
Biological bifocal lenses with image separation
Almost all animal eyes follow a few, relatively well-understood functional plans. Only rarely do researchers discover an eye that diverges fundamentally from known types. The principal eye E2 of sunburst diving beetle (Thermonectus marmoratus) larvae clearly falls into the rarer category. On the bas …
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During my undergraduate degree at Dalhousie University I studied visual neuroscience. My honors project investigated the role of inhibitory interneurons in contrast adaptation. My passion for neuroscience started as a junior in high school when my grandmother had a stroke. I was driven to understand: What was the cause? Why did the symptoms manifest in such a way? My current project focuses on how natural compounds affect visual system development. I am very passionate about this project because of the clinical relevance and the potential to promote brain development through diet.. ...
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Comparative Retinae and Visual Cells | Bentham Science
During evolution, the eyes of vertebrates develop different adaptations in order to fit into the different habitats. In this chapter, 27 vertebrates, both rare and common, from different animal groups were selected to illustrate the histological differences in their retinae. For example, it is interesting to compare vertebrates between groups e.g. fish and amphibians. It is also interesting to compare vertebrates that are herbivores with those that are omnivores. In addition, comparing between species is also enlightening. A cat, which is an agile and fast moving animal, has a lot more types of visual cells than other slow moving species, while bottom living Chinese soft shelled turtles have visual cells that are rudimentary. In other cases, the Japanese eels, which inhabit both ocean and freshwater streams during their life-cycle, have retinae with highly packed and numerous visual cells while the goldfishes, which live in freshwater streams and ponds, have retinae with scattered visual cells. ...
The Scorpion Files Newsblog: 2014
Scorpions possess two types of visual organs, the median and lateral eyes. Both eyes consist of simple ocelli with biconvex lenses that differ in structure and function. There is little variation in the number of median ocelli across the order. Except for a few troglomorphic species in which the median ocelli are absent, all scorpions possess a single pair. In contrast, the number of pairs of lateral ocelli varies from zero to five across Scorpiones and may vary within species. No attempt has been made to homologize lateral ocelli across the order, and their utility in scorpion systematics has been questioned, due to the variation in number. A recent study examined the number of lateral ocelli among various Asian Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837 and proposed a five-eye model for the family. This model has not been examined more broadly within Buthidae, however, nor compared with the patterns of variation observed among other scorpion families. An eyespot, referred to as an accessory lateral eye, ...
Role of Subplate Neurons in Functional Maturation of Visual Cortical Columns - PubMed
The subplate forms a transient circuit required for development of connections between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. When subplate neurons are ablated, ocular dominance columns do not form in the visual cortex despite the robust presence of thalamic axons in layer 4. We show that subplate ab …
Previous investigators have reported greater shrinkage of ocular dominance columns ipsilateral to the sutured eye (Hubel et al., 1977; LeVay et al., 1980) or in peripheral cortex as opposed to opercular cortex (Swindale et al., 1981). We confirm these tendencies but attribute them to preexisting inequalities in column widths present in normal mosaics before the onset of visual deprivation. For example, the smallest columns are located in the peripheral cortex, serving the ipsilateral eye. After monocular deprivation, these columns become the most severely reduced in size. Visual deprivation seems to subtract the same amount of territory from all of the columns throughout any given mosaic, at least to a first approximation. This impression was supported by simulation of column shrinkage using the dilation filter available with the Mocha image analysis program. Stripping pixels evenly from one set of columns and adding them to the other set created a mosaic of artificially shrunken columns that ...
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Anatomy of the Anterior Eye for Ocularists
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