Bacteria and archaea dominate the biomass of benthic deep-sea ecosystems at all latitudes, playing a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles, but their macroscale patterns and macroecological drivers are still largely unknown. We show the results of the most extensive field study conducted so far to investigate patterns and drivers of the distribution and structure of benthic prokaryote assemblages from 228 samples collected at latitudes comprising 34°N to 79°N, and from ca. 400- to 5570-m depth. We provide evidence that, in deep-sea ecosystems, benthic bacterial and archaeal abundances significantly increase from middle to high latitudes, with patterns more pronounced for archaea, and particularly for Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota. Our results also reveal that different microbial components show varying sensitivities to changes in temperature conditions and food supply. We conclude that climate change will primarily affect deep-sea benthic archaea, with important consequences on global ...
This Global Marine Insurance market report is a robust study of the Marine Insurance industry that has done a fact based analysis covering multiple dimensions of the Marine Insurance market that help players across the Marine Insurance market to holistically analyze the current state of the global Marine Insurance market and plan ahead of competition. It provides break out of the Marine Insurance market dominating countries in each region for a more granular view.The report provides consumer intelligence by sourcing and interpreting information about target market and customers.. In-depth market analysis is carried out to reveal the factors that are influencing the price movement in the global Marine Insurance market. The detailed analysis provides good knowledge about the Marine Insurance market to the market participants.This research report focuses on the strategic priorities, technological transformations, and global market presence of the leading organizations. The report studies the ...
Krause, Evamaria; Wichels, Antje; Erler, Rene; Gerdts, Gunnar (2013): Study on the effects of near-future ocean acidification on marine yeasts: a microcosm approach. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.832468, Supplement to: Krause, E et al. (2013): Study on the effects of near-future ocean acidification on marine yeasts: a microcosm approach. Helgoland Marine Research, 67(4), 607-621, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10152-013-0348-1
a) For people belonged to this factor, coral species are relatively unimportant. The Noahs Ark Fans group, in which can be noted a strong emphasis in saving those species typical of Mediterranean deep- sea ecosystems - especially those relevant for the fishing industry - expressed the viewpoints of all non-biologists - independently from conditions of instruction - and of the marine biologists when they were asked to think as if they were a fishermen. (b) This Ecosystem Functions Supporter factor underlines the importance of saving both species and habitats. In particular, priority is given to the preservation of those habitats that host peculiar communities. (c) The Deep Coral Lovers factor was retained since it provide a separate expert viewpoint that associates great interest to habitats with coral reefs and sponge fields. The opinions of non-experts and of those having a more scientific understanding of the deep-sea ecosystems considerably differ, and more than two perspectives emerged - ...
The goal of the Arabian Sea section of the TARA oceans expedition was to study large particulate matter (LPM , 100 μm) distributions and possible impact of associated midwater biological processes on vertical carbon export through the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of this region. We propose that observed spatial patterns in LPM distribution resulted from the timing and location of surface phytoplankton bloom, lateral transport, microbial processes in the core of the OMZ, and enhanced biological processes mediated by bacteria and zooplankton at the lower oxycline. Indeed, satellite-derived net primary production maps showed that the northern stations of the transect were under the influence of a previous major bloom event while the most southern stations were in a more oligotrophic situation. Lagrangian simulations of particle transport showed that deep particles of the northern stations could originate from the surface bloom while the southern stations could be considered as driven by 1-D vertical ...
Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia). Request For Customization: https://www.reporthive.com/request_customization/2334802. Report Highlights. • Comprehensive pricing analysis on the basis of product, application, and regional segments. • The detailed assessment of the vendor landscape and leading companies to help understand the level of competition in the global Marine Fire Damper market. • Deep insights about regulatory and investment scenarios of the global Marine Fire Damper market. • Analysis of market effect factors and their impact on the forecast and outlook of the global Marine Fire Damper market. • A roadmap of growth opportunities available in the global Marine Fire Damper market with the identification of key factors. • The exhaustive analysis of various trends of the global Marine Fire Damper market to help identify market developments. Table of Contents. Report Overview: It includes six chapters, ...
This study examines the potential effects of ocean acidification on countries and fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. The implications for seafood security and supply are evaluated by examining the sensitivity of the Mediterranean to ocean acidification at chemical, biological, and macro-economic levels. The limited information available on impacts of ocean acidification on harvested (industrial, recreational, and artisanal fishing) and cultured species (aquaculture) prevents any biological impact assessment. However, it appears that non-developed nations around the Mediterranean, particularly those for which fisheries are increasing, yet rely heavily on artisanal fleets, are most greatly exposed to socioeconomic consequences from ocean acidification.
For the Full Report in PDF Form, please click here. [Illustrations, footnotes and references available in PDF version] Comments related to EPAs April 15, 2009 Notice of Data Availability (NODA) on Ocean Acidification and Marine pH Water Quality Criteria. Submitted by Craig Idso and Robert Ferguson ...
Some regions of the deep ocean floor support abundant populations of organisms, despite being overlain by water that contains very little oxygen, according to an international study led by scientists at the United Kingdoms National Oceanography Center, Southampton. But global warming is likely to exacerbate oxygen depletion and thereby reduce biodiversity in these regions, they warn.. The sunlit surface waters tend to be well oxygenated as a result of their connection with the atmosphere. Here, tiny marine algae called phytoplankton thrive. When they die and sink, they are degraded by bacteria, using oxygen from the water column.. In regions of high plant growth, this can result in the natural development of mid-water oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), especially where oxygen is not replenished by mixing of the water column. Where they touch the continental slope, OMZs create strong seafloor oxygen gradients at depths between 100 and 1000 m.. In addition to low oxygen, sediments within OMZs often ...
Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socioeconomic needs and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygen waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to eastern boundary systems (EBSs) that neighbor oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The variability of the oxycline and its impact on the ecosystem (VOICE) initiative demonstrates how societal benefits drive the need for integration and optimization of biological, biogeochemical, and physical components of regional ocean observing related to EBS. In liaison with the Global Ocean Oxygen Network, VOICE creates a roadmap toward observation-model syntheses for a comprehensive understanding of selected oxycline-dependent objectives. Local to global effects, such as habitat compression or deoxygenation trends, prompt for comprehensive observing of the oxycline on
Management strategies use information provided by research and tools that can be used to make sound decisions to effectively conserve marine resources. Baseline research about organism and community sensitivity to ocean acidification is incorporated into these strategies, in an effort to sustain these resources for the future. Before management plans can be created it is necessary to have baseline research about the effects of ocean acidification on marine resources, such as Pacific oysters, Dungeness crabs and rockfish. The OAP funds NOAA Fisheries Science Centers to expose various life stages of valuable species to present and future acidification conditions. The biological response research is then incorporated into models that can be used to create tools for managers to use so that they can test different scenarios on species populations and habitats. Modeling efforts led by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution are now being used to produce one of these tools for Atlantic sea scallop ...
Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ) are the places in the world ocean where oxygen saturation in the water column is at its lowest. This zone typically occurs at depths of about 200 to 1,000 meters. The AOG lab is interested in OMZs because of their importance in controlling carbon and nitrogen cycling in the oceans. OMZ water is exposed to the rain of sinking organic matter, which we evaluate using our drifting net traps and in situ incubators. Bacteria and archea feed on this organic matter and oxygen is used. Thus, the concentration of oxygen in deep water is dependent on the amount of oxygen it had when it was at the surface minus depletion by deep sea organisms.. In many OMZ regions oxygen actually reaches zero, in which case the OMZ can be called an ODZ (oxygen deficient zone). ODZs provide appropriate conditions to enable substantial nitrogen loss because in the absence of oxygen, nitrate represents the next best electron acceptor available for respiration. Starting with organic nitrogen ...
Temperatures throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous are generally thought to have been relatively warm, and consequently dissolved oxygen levels in the ocean were lower than today - making anoxia easier to achieve. However, more specific conditions are required to explain the short-period (less than a million years) oceanic anoxic events. Two hypotheses, and variations upon them, have proved most durable.. One hypothesis suggests that the anomalous accumulation of organic matter relates to its enhanced preservation under restricted and poorly oxygenated conditions, which themselves were a function of the particular geometry of the ocean basin: such a hypothesis, although readily applicable to the young and relatively narrow Cretaceous Atlantic (which could be likened to a large-scale Black Sea, only poorly connected to the World Ocean), fails to explain the occurrence of coeval black shales on open-ocean Pacific plateaus and shelf seas around the world. There are suggestions, again from the ...
SPPI Note: More in-depth papers on this issue can be found at the SPPI website:. C02 Sciences Ocean Acidification Database. Quantifying the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Organisms. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Ecosystems. Answers to a Fishermans Testimony about Ocean Acidification. EPAs Role in Protecting Ocean Health Should Focus on the Here-and-Now Threats. See also CO2 Science website for reviewed papers on the topic Once again, therefore, we have another situation where the doom-and-gloom prognostications of the world?s climate alarmists have been made without regard to the full spectrum of important phenomena that come to bear upon the issue in question, and where the conclusions they reach are found to be far more uncertain and much less extreme than what they portray them to be. Thus, it can be appreciated that the climate-alarmist horror stories of impending extinctions of earth?s marine calcifying organisms due to a CO2-induced decrease in seawater pH are ...
Global Marine Propulsion Engines Market: This market research report focuses on Past-Current Size, Shares, Trends, Price, Segment & Forecast 2017-2022.
Little is known about the ocean temperatures long-term response to climate perturbations owing to limited observations and a lack of robust reconstructions. Although most of the anthropogenic heat added to the climate system has been taken up by the ocean up until now, its role in a century and beyond is uncertain. Here, using noble gases trapped in ice cores, we show that the mean global ocean temperature increased by 2.57 ± 0.24 degrees Celsius over the last glacial transition (20,000 to 10,000 years ago). Our reconstruction provides unprecedented precision and temporal resolution for the integrated global ocean, in contrast to the depth-, region-, organism- and season-specific estimates provided by other methods. We find that the mean global ocean temperature is closely correlated with Antarctic temperature and has no lead or lag with atmospheric CO2, thereby confirming the important role of Southern Hemisphere climate in global climate trends. We also reveal an enigmatic 700-year warming during
Pollen from New Zealand pine forests has been shown to travel more than 1500km through wind and ocean currents, and sink thousands of metres into the ocean to reach some of the worlds deepest ecosystems.
Impacts of ocean acidification may be just as dramatic as those of global warming (resulting from anthropogenic activities on top of natural variability) and the combination of both are likely to exacerbate consequences, resulting in potentially profound changes throughout marine ecosystems and in the services that they provide to humankind. Background on Ocean Acidification (OA)…
Changes in ocean circulation are not only going to kill a lot of sea life, but there is positive feedback again on greenhouse gas and warming acceleration … and the closing of the door on for ever on the solution of using sea ecosystems to sink the carbon back where it came from, living bionmass in thriving oceans [as distinct from our largely dead and dying ones] … but as if that currently almost half-complete death of the base of sea life [corals and phytoplankton] , there is something people do not seem even be aware of let alone to have modelled, the methane hydrate distribution on continental shelves is controlled by ocean temperature LOCALLY … just changing the ocean circulation at almost any coastline can trigger massive methane release without any increase in average earth temperature!. … the amount of methane is potentially so massive that it could even swamp the breakdown of methane in the atmosphere with sudden massive acceleration in warming due to methane persisting far ...
Kemp , D B & Izumi , K 2014 , Multiproxy geochemical analysis of a Panthalassic margin record of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (Toyora area, Japan) , Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology , vol. 414 , pp. 332-341 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.09. ...
Marine Cranes Market: Overview Marine cranes are the rotating lifting and pedestal-mounted elevating machinery used to transport cargo or personnel for marine vessels, oil drilling platforms, navy ships and fishing vessels. Rapidly growing industrialization, mainly in emerging nations, and noteworthy prominence on energy conservation has led to remarkable advancement in the global marine crane market during the forecast period. Over the past few years, hydraulic marine cranes have gained significant traction in the global marine crane market as it is highly reliable and has high load bearing capacity. Moreover, new project associated with offshore wind turbine is roaring and also supporting the growth of lattice boom marine cranes in European countries, particularly in the U.K. and Germany. On the other hand, flexibility, low operational cost, high safety and low maintenance cost remain the prime focus of key manufacturers in the global marine crane market throughout the forecast period. The ...
Ocean acidification hits young sea stars the hardest compared to their adult counterparts, according to a new study. Young members of a species are sensitive as it is to environmental stresses compared to their parents, so with juvenile marine life now combating ocean acidification as well, its taking its toll. That goes for the sea…
Campaign for Global Ocean Treaty from the Sargasso Sea - GP0STTRZT Actor Pedro Alonso, Dancer Isaac Hernandez and Director Manolo Caro campaigns for Global Ocean Treaty from the Sargasso Sea. House of Flowers creator, Mexican director Manolo Caro; Money Heist lead actor, Spanish actor Pedro Alonso, and English National Ballet lead principal, Mexican dancer Isaac Hernández, join Greenpeace to call attention to the urgency of approving a Global Ocean Treaty through a short film of exceptional beauty.
A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the UK Met Office using optimal interpolation (OI) on a global 0.054 degree grid. The Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) analysis uses satellite data from sensors that include the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared
Counter‑intuitively greater sea ice production can deliver relatively warmer subsurface water to the ocean abyss. When oceans freeze, the salt is ejected to form a dense brine with a temperature that always hovers at the freezing point. Typically this unmodified water is called shelf water. Dense shelf water readily sinks to the bottom of the polar seas. However in transit to the bottom, shelf water must pass through layers of variously modified Warm Deep Water or Antarctic Circumpolar Water. Turbulent mixing also entrains some of the warmer water down to the abyss. Warm Deep Water typically comprises 62% of the mixed water that finally reaches the bottom. Any altered dynamic (such as increasing sea ice production, or circulation effects that entrain a greater proportion of Warm Deep Water), can redistribute more heat to the abyss.14. Due to the Antarctic Oscillation the warmer waters carried by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current have been observed to undulate southward bringing those waters ...
Navigate directly to the URL for a descriptive web page with download links.. Source: Global Ocean Surface Water Partial Pressure of CO2 Database (LDEO Database Version 2019): Measurements Performed During 1957-2019 (NCEI Accession 0160492). ...
Belkin, I. M.: Rapid warming of Large Marine Ecosystems, Prog. Oceanogr., 81, 207-213, 2009. Belkin, I. M. and Lee, M.-A.: Long-term variability of sea surface temperature in Taiwan Strait, Clim. Change, 124, 821-834, 2014. Burrows, M., Schoeman, D., Buckley, L., Moore, P., Poloczanska, E., Brander, K., Brown, C., Bruno, J., Duarte, C., Kiessling, W., OConnor, M., Pandolfi, J., Parmesan, C., Schwing, F., Sydeman, W., and Richardson, A.: The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, Science, 334, 652-655, 2011. Guan, J., Cheung, A., Guo, X., and Li, L.: Intensified upwelling over a widened shelf in the northeastern South China Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 114, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JC004660, 2009. Harris, I., Jones, P. D., Osborn, T. J., and Lister, D. H.: Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations - the CRU TS3.10 dataset, Int. J. Climatol., 34, 623-642, 2014. Hausfather, Z., Cowtan, K., Menne, M. J., and Williams Jr., C. N.: Evaluating the impact of ...
Time series of surface wind and upper ocean temperature and velocity, obtained from equatorial moorings along 110°W, are used to assess the importance of various oceanic and atmospheric processes in the variation of the mixed layer temperature for the period January 1986 to June 1988. This period coincides with the onset and development of the 1986-87 El Niño-Southern Oscillation warm event and a subsequent cold event in 1988. Results of the temperature equation analyses indicate that seasonal and interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern Pacific cannot be accounted for by observed surface heat flux; oceanic processes play an important role in the heating of the surface water. Although no single process dominated SST change, the most important processes in the mean balance were the net incoming surface heat flux, the penetrative solar radiation, and the vertical turbulent flux out the bottom of the mixed layer. The mean vertical entrainment could not be estimated ...
Impact of leakages on marine ecosystems Cinzia De Vittor ph When dissolves in seawater, H2CO3 is formed. Most of the H2CO3 quickly dissociates into a hydrogen ion (H+) and HCO3- + H2O H2CO3 HCO3- + H+
Two of the new systems have been already delivered and the rest will be delivered and commissioned before the end of the year. A training program will be conducted in August 2013 at GMSL headquarters in the UK. In addition, GMSL has also embrace MakaiPlan as the preferred submarine route cable planning tool for their survey department.. MakaiLay is an advanced finite-segment 3D cable installation software package that enables cable installers to lay submarine cables with high placement accuracy and reliability. The software calculates and displays the surface and seafloor tension of the cable in near real-time, the layback distance of the cable, the cable slack and touchdown locations on the seafloor, to enable complete control of a cable installation process.. MakaiLay fully integrates the cable laying operations with the cable control room to adjust the cable payout speed for optimum slack/tension, the plough control room, and the helmsman DP system to modify the vessel track and speed as ...
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The Meteosat Second Generation (MSG-3) satellites are spin stabilized geostationary satellites operated by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) to provide accurate weather monitoring data through its primary instrument the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI), which has the capacity to observe the Earth in 12 spectral channels. Eight of these channels are in the thermal infrared, providing among other information, observations of the temperatures of clouds, land and sea surfaces at approximately 5 km resolution with a 15 minute duty cycle. This Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset produced by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is derived from the SEVIRI instrument on the second MSG satellite (also known as Meteosat-9) that was launched on 22 December 2005. Skin sea surface temperature (SST) data are ...
Populations of marine mammals, birds, reptiles and fish have dropped by about half in the past four decades, with fish critical to human food suffering some of the greatest declines, WWF warned Wednesday.
WOCE Upper Ocean Thermal, UOT (2006): Water temperature from profiling float from cruise UOT_020794 (SCQC). National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.356048, In: WOCE Upper Ocean Thermal, UOT (2009): Temperature and salinity records from profiling floats. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.725481
The reason Im interested in sea level effects of surface temperature change is GRACE and other satellite systems have already given some initial metrics of land, ice-melt. But Id like something a little more current. Fortunately, NOAA and others provide sea surface metrics giving world-wide, sea surface temperatures (i.e., google unisys sst.) So if we can model the sea surface temperature effects and compare them to the sea-level data, the difference should be the lost melt-water ...
Then click download to get the pdf version, so you have a copy on your computer. Sea floor spreading is the process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies ( lab) Magnetic Reversals Earths magnetic pole have changed places. Answer the following questions using your model of sea-floor spreading. Ring of Fire. (*)Make a sea floor spreading model. Place one graham cracker lightly onto the frosting next to the remaining fruit roll up piece. Uniformitarian geologists have used this rate and radiometric dating to suggest that the continents were all in one location as supercontinents-800 million years ago in Rodinia and 180 million years ago. This age progression could only be explained by the continuous formation of new oceanic crust at the ridges and gradual spreading-apart of the plates over time. Most basalt magmas contain abundant molten iron. Worksheets are Sea floor spreading work, Name date sea floor spreading l 1 2 3, Continental drift sea ...
The Biocean database was designed to collate the extremely large volume of data collected from different deep-sea ecosystem studies conducted by Ifremers department of Environnement Profond (Deep-Sea Environment). Biocean was designed to facilitate ecosystem studies in the deep sea. It represents an important new resource for deep-sea ecologists and will have wide applications in biogeography and biodiversity studies at Ifremer, but also for the international community, as faunal data are linked to the Census of Marine Life information system OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System). [Information of the supplier ...
Attention Google Earth users: Sea Surface Temperature .kmz files for selected regions are now available here. Learn more about Google Earth at http://earth.google.com It is free to download and easy to use. ...
Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.. Global Marine Slow Speed Engine Oil Market report 2020 explores the market size in the form of value, capacity, production and consumption in key regions like North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (China, Japan) and alternative regions. This report classifies the global Marine Slow Speed Engine Oil industry breakdown information by manufacturers, region, type and application. Additionally, analyses the market status, Marine Slow Speed Engine Oil market share, rate of growth, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors and Porters 5 Forces Analysis.. Get Sample Copy of this Report at:https://www.industryresearch.co/enquiry/request-sample/15837712. Marine Slow Speed Engine Oil Market Size Analysis:. ...
The emergence of the Law of the Sea Convention and establishment of Exclusive Economic Zones has given coastal states extensive and comprehensive rights and obligations over marine resources in vast areas of ocean. Wise management of ocean resources is essential if the full economic potential of these new entitlements is to be realised. To ensure the continuing biological productivity of these areas, the level and type of development of activities such as waste dumping, mineral extraction, recreation, industrial and urban growth, fisheries and aquaculture, need to be controlled, and interactions of these often conflicting activities resolved by management.. This MSc is a full-time one-year course, consisting of 9 months taught course and 3 months research project, and examined by continuous assessment. The course provides theoretical and practical training in measuring and quantifying marine resources and the effects of conflicting usage upon them. It provides a sound scientific basis on which ...
My earliest research focused on evolution in the Southern Ocean and deep sea using octopuses as a model system. This research highlighted connections between the worlds oceans, linked evolutionary radiations to climatic events through dated phylogenies, and helped explain how Southern Ocean fauna survived the massive disturbances caused by Pliocene-Pleistocene glacial cycles. My paper on the evolutionary origins of deep-sea octopuses was the top highlight in the Census of Marine Life press release at the 1st World Congress of Marine Biodiversity, Valencia 2008. More recently my group been studying the ecology and evolution of sponges and corals in the deep waters of Irelands Atlantic margin and I have just been awarded more than a million euro by Science Foundation Ireland / Marine Institute to explore their biodiscovery potential. Im an active field scientist and have led numerous research cruises as Chief Scientist. Im a former president of the Cephalopod International Advisory Council, a ...
Marine metagenomics provides an unique opportunity to study marine microorganism communities. The large amount of data available from studies like the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Expedtion is appealing for comparative studies of gene content and its link to the environment.. ...
Yes, Thomas, that is something that is going to become an issue in the near future. As the oceans warm they begin to stratify meaning reduced mixing of deep waters with the surface. This leads to declines in upwelling of nutrients to the surface and is thought to be the cause of the 40% reduction in phytoplankton in the last century. Oxygen levels in the ocean will decline simply because oxygen is less soluble in warmer water, but the stratification also reduces ventilation of oxygen to deeper waters too. So marine organisms living on the ocean floor will inevitably be one of the first to suffer.. An expansion of oxygen minimum zones in the worlds oceans have been recently observed, some palaeo data show that de-oxygenation occurs in times of global warming and ocean anoxia (oxygen depletion) is linked to some major extinction events, most notably the Permian Extinction. So there is growing evidence to support this relatively new area of research. Ocean Acidification, mass coral bleaching due ...
Recent research by ESA Living Planet Fellow Marco Bellacicco in the frame of project PHYSIOGLOB gives new insights on how the choice of the regression
abstract = {An eddy is a feature associated with a rotating body of fluid, surrounded by a ring of shearing fluid. In the ocean, eddies are 10 to 150 km in diameter, are spawned by boundary currents and baroclinic instabilities, may live for hundreds of days, and travel for hundreds of kilometers. Eddies are important in climate studies because they transport heat, salt, and nutrients through the worlds oceans and are vessels of biological productivity. The study of eddies in global ocean-climate models requires large-scale, high-resolution simulations. This poses a problem for feasible (timely) eddy analysis, as ocean simulations generate massive amounts of data, causing a bottleneck for traditional analysis workflows. To enable eddy studies, we have developed an in situ workflow for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of MPAS-Ocean, a high-resolution ocean climate model, in collaboration with the ocean model research and development process. Planned eddy analysis at high spatial and ...
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in the Arctic, Gulf of Mexico and Florida estuaries, and the Caribbean and Pacific. ...
The oxygen situation in the deep water of the Baltic Proper continues to be serious. About one sixth (~17%) of the bottom area in the Baltic Proper are affected by anoxia (oxygen free, with toxic hydrogen sulphide present) corresponding to ~10% of the water volume. Acute oxygen deficiency, with concentrations ...
In multidisciplinary efforts to understand and manage our planet, contemporary ocean science plays an essential role. Volumes 13 and 14 of The Sea focus on two of the most important components in the field of ocean science today -- the coastal ocean and its interactions with the deep sea, and coupled physical-biogeochemical and ecosystem dynamics.
This is a composite MODIS image showing the green wave of spring in North America and sea surface temperature in the ocean, collected over an 8-day period during the first week in April 2000. On land, the darker green pixels show where the most green foliage is being produced due to photosynthetic activity. Yellows on land show where there is little or no productivity and red is a boundary zone. In the ocean, orange and yellows show warmer waters and blues show colder values.. ...
Coccolithophores are single-celled algae and protists that are found throughout the surface euphotic zones of the worlds oceans. They contain chlorophyll, conduct photosynthesis and possess special plates or scales known as coccoliths, which they create via the process of calcification. This summary briefly reviews the results of several studies investigating how coccolithophores may be affected by ocean acidification in a CO2-enriched world of the future. As indicated below, the findings of these several works challenge the alarmist view of ocean acidification espoused by the IPCC and others. Instead of experiencing great harm in response to future declines in oceanic pH predicted for the future, coccolithophores will likely adapt and possible even thrive under such changes. ...
Aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (AAnP) were recently proposed to be significant contributors to global oceanic carbon and energy cycles. However, AAnP abundance, spatial distribution, diversity and potential ecological importance remain poorly understood. Here we present metagenomic data from the Global Ocean Sampling expedition indicating that AAnP diversity and abundance vary in different oceanic regions. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the composition of AAnP assemblages change between different oceanic regions, with specific bacterial assemblages adapted to open ocean or coastal areas respectively. Our results support the notion that marine AAnP populations are complex and dynamic, and compose an important fraction of bacterioplankton assemblages in certain oceanic areas.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ocean acidification on the speciation of metals in seawater. AU - Millero, Frank J.. AU - Woosley, Ryan. AU - Ditrolio, Benjamin. AU - Waters, Jason. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - Increasing atmospheric CO 2 over the next 200 years will cause the pH of ocean waters to decrease further. Many recent studies have examined the effect of decreasing pH on calcifying organisms in ocean waters and on other biological processes (photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, elemental ratios, and community structure). In this review, we examine how pH will change the organic and inorganic speciation of metals in surface ocean waters, and the effect that it will have on the interactions of metals with marine organisms. We consider both kinetic and equilibrium processes. The decrease in concentration of OH - and CO 3 2- ions can affect the solubility, adsorption, toxicity, and rates of redox processes of metals in seawater. Future studies are needed to examine how pH affects the ...
Al-Mutairi, H. and Landry, M. R.: Active export of carbon and nitrogen at station ALOHA by diel migrant zooplankton, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 48, 2083-2103, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00174-0, 2001. Andersen, V., Devey, C., Gubanova, A., Picheral, M., Melnikov, V., Tsarin, S., and Prieur, L.: Vertical distributions of zooplankton across the Almeria-Oran frontal zone (Mediterranean Sea), J. Plankton Res., 26, 275-293, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbh036, 2004. Antezana, T.: Vertical distribution and diel migration of Euphausia mucronata in the oxygen minimum layer of the Humboldt Current, Oceanogr. East. Pacific II, 2, 13-28, 2002. Antezana, T.: Species-specific patterns of diel migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone by euphausiids in the Humboldt Current Ecosystem, Prog. Oceanogr., 83, 228-236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.07.039, 2009. Antezana, T.: Euphausia mucronata: A keystone herbivore and prey of the Humboldt Current System, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 57, 652-662, ...
Global marine fisheries are currently underperforming, largely due to overfishing. An analysis of global databases finds that resource rent net of subsidies from rebuilt world fisheries could increase from the current negative US$13 billion to positive US$54 billion per year, resulting in a net gain of US$600 to US$1,400 billion in present value over fifty years after rebuilding. To realize this gain, governments need to implement a rebuilding program at a cost of about US$203 (US$130-US$292) billion in present value. We estimate that it would take just 12 years after rebuilding begins for the benefits to surpass the cost. Even without accounting for the potential boost to recreational fisheries, and ignoring ancillary and non-market values that would likely increase, the potential benefits of rebuilding global fisheries far outweigh the costs.
Ligia L. Perez-Cruz, Maria Luisa Machain-Castillo; Benthic foraminifera of the oxygen minimum zone, continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Journal of Foraminiferal Research ; 20 (4): 312-325. doi: https://doi.org/10.2113/gsjfr.20.4.312. Download citation file:. ...
Ocean acidification is a global problem and an immediate threat to marine organisms and ecosystems. Regardless of the magnitude of the warming that results from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, a topic of uncertainty and ongoing debate, the oceans will absorb a significant fraction of the anthropogenic CO2 that is released to the atmosphere. Over time, this will cause the oceans water to become increasingly acidic (ocean acidification). Corals and coral reefs may be especially vulnerable to ocean acidification because their success is dependant upon their ability to build calcium carbonate (CaCO3) skeletons in a process called calcification.. Scientists dont fully understand the mechanisms of calcification or how they might be impacted by ocean acidification, but one way of addressing this knowledge gap is by studying coral genetics. Scientists can use a gene-targeting approach that investigates only the expression of genes known to be involved in calcification; however, this ...
Oceanography is a richly interdisciplinary science encompassing the study of the deep sea and shallow coastal oceans. Oceanography comprises the study of biology, chemistry, geology and physics in the form they apply to the ocean. Physical oceanography deals with studying and understanding the changing patterns of ocean circulation, in addition to the distribution of its properties like salinity, temperature and the concentration of dissolved chemical elements and gases. Chemical oceanography is the study of the oceans chemistry, the pathways that chemical species follow on their journey through the oceans. The chemistry of the ocean is closely tied to the exchange of material with the atmosphere, cryosphere, continents, and the mantle, ocean circulation, climate, the plants and animals that live in the ocean. Biological oceanography seeks to understand the population dynamics of marine organisms and their interaction with their environment. Unfortunately, in spite of all the studies and ...
Marine life has polluted the oceans for thousands of years, and that pollution is continuing to worsen.. The United Nations estimates that as many as 50 percent of marine life in the world is suffering from pollution.. The problems are not limited to the oceans.. Marine life is also polluting freshwater aquifers that feed the food chains of humans, animals and plants.. A new study from scientists at the University of Southampton found that in some areas, the presence of marine organisms can affect the quality of water in local rivers and streams.. In others, they can alter nutrient flows, which can lead to an increase in salinity and pH levels, as well as changes in water clarity and flow.. The researchers analyzed data collected from 11 sites across the UK over several years, including the Thames River, the River Llandudno, the Thames, the Tyne, the Rhine, the Barents Sea and the North Sea.. They found that the presence or absence of marine animals, including marine organisms such as mussels, ...
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Coastal Oceanography Coastal oceanography includes the study of the physics, chemistry, ecology, and geology of the coastal ocean.. The coastal ocean is the place where the continents meet with the open ocean; therefore it serves as a bridge for transporting organic and inorganic, natural and anthropogenic materials between the land and sea.. Knowledge of the coastal ocean is very essential for the safe and efficient conduct of maritime trade, and for the defence of coastal nations and attacks by maritime powers.. ...
Global marine fuel 0.5%S prices improved in July, though demand still was below normal levels. Market sentiment was overall more positive than in June, though fundamentals of oversupply and slow demand resulted in a short-term bearish outlook for much of the globe.. ASIA. The Asian 0.5%S marine fuel market strengthened throughout July on expectations that an inflow of arbitrage cargoes from the West would decline in August and tighten supply. .. The Singapore August/September spread was assessed at a 5 cents/mt backwardation on July 30, up from a $4.25/mt contango on July 1, S&P Global Platts data showed.. Fuel oil traders expect an inflow of arbitrage cargoes to decline to 1.5 million mt-2.0 million mt for August arrival, down from 2 million-2.5 million mt for July, as the price spreads between Europe and Asia were not wide enough to bring cargoes from the West to the East.. But supply was still plentiful, as there are about 5 million mt of low sulfur fuel oil stocks sitting around Singapore, ...
This is the first volume of a final report that summarizes, often in a speculative vein, what I have learned over the past 35 years or so about large-scale, low-frequency ocean currents, primarily with support from the Office of Naval Research (ONR). I was also fortunate to have been partially supported by the National Science Foundation, and during the preparation of this report, by the Clark Foundation. This report is meant to be an informal, occasionally anecdotal, state-of-the-art summary account of the World Ocean Circulation (WOC). Seemingly simple questions about how ocean currents behave, such as where various brands of sea water are coming from and going to, have been exciting and difficult research topics for many years. This report is not remotely about all of the WOC, it is simply a set of comments about what I have looked into. I believe that the results in this report, although presented in a personal way, are consistent with community wisdom. The report is intended to be readable by
1559632550 Global Marine Biological Diversity: A Strategy For Building Conservation Into Decision Making,books, textbooks, text book
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recognising Stakeholder Conflict and Encouraging Consensus of Science-Based Management Approaches for Marine Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ). AU - Gaebel, Christine. AU - Baulcomb, Corinne. AU - Roberts, John Murray. AU - Johnson, David. PY - 2020/9/18. Y1 - 2020/9/18. N2 - Areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) encompass the seabed, subsoil and water column beyond coastal State jurisdiction and marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) is rich and varied. From providing sustenance and supporting livelihoods, to absorbing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, ABNJ ecosystems are vital to the wellbeing of humankind. However, an enhanced understanding of BBNJ and its significance has not equated to its successful conservation and sustainable use. Negotiations for a new international legally binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of BBNJ have scoped applicable principles for a future agreement, including the use of best ...
A team led by scientists from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) has demonstrated that the excess carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels interferes with the health of phytoplankton which form the base of marine food webs.. Phytoplankton are microscopic plants whose growth in ocean surface waters supports ocean food webs and global marine fisheries. They are also key agents in the long-term removal of carbon dioxide (CO2).. As reported in the March 14 edition of Nature, the team shows that a mechanism widely used by phytoplankton to acquire iron has a requirement for carbonate ions. Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are acidifying the ocean and decreasing carbonate, and the team shows how this loss of carbonate affects the ability of phytoplankton to obtain enough of the nutrient iron for growth. Ocean acidification is poised to decrease the concentration of sea ...
Microbial metagenomes are DNA samples of the most abundant, and therefore most successful organisms at the sampling time and location for a given cell size range. The study of microbial communities via their DNA content has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology and evolution. Iron availability is a critical resource that limits microbial communities growth in many oceanic areas. Here, we built a database of 2319 sequences, corresponding to 140 gene families of iron metabolism with a large phylogenetic spread, to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the oceans bacterial community. We estimate iron metabolism strategies from metagenome gene content and investigate whether their prevalence varies with dissolved iron concentrations obtained from a biogeochemical model. We show significant quantitative and qualitative variations in iron metabolism pathways, with a higher proportion of iron metabolism genes in low iron environments. We found a striking difference between
Abstract. Observations indicate an expansion of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) over the past 50 years, likely related to ongoing deoxygenation caused by reduced oxygen solubility, changes in stratification and circulation, and a potential acceleration of organic matter turnover in a warming climate. The overall area of ocean sediments that are in direct contact with low-oxygen bottom waters also increases with expanding OMZs. This leads to a release of phosphorus from ocean sediments. If anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions continue unabated, higher temperatures will cause enhanced weathering on land, which, in turn, will increase the phosphorus and alkalinity fluxes into the ocean and therefore raise the oceans phosphorus inventory even further. A higher availability of phosphorus enhances biological production, remineralisation and oxygen consumption, and might therefore lead to further expansions of OMZs, representing a positive feedback. A negative feedback arises from the enhanced ...
Lüskow, F., Martin, B., Merten, V., Silva, P., Pinheiro, N., Springer, B., Zankl, S. and Zeimet, T. (2016) SEAMOX: The Influence of Seamounts and Oxygen Minimum Zones on Pelagic Fauna in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic Cruise No. MSM49 November 28 - December 21, 2015 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain) - Mindelo (Republic of Cape Verde). ...
Oxygen Sensitivity of Anammox and Coupled N-Cycle Processes in Oxygen Minimum Zones. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The worlds oceans are important for both the global ecological balance and a number of ecosystem services like food production and transport. While scientists have tested the effects of terrestrial warming using greenhouses, no research has been done to look at the effects of ocean warming.. The EU-funded CC AND MARINE LIFE (The influence of multiple global change stressors on marine communities: A novel field approach) project aimed to test how marine ecosystems respond to changes in surface and water temperature.. To achieve this, researchers developed an underwater hotplate system - a collection of panels that can be heated to more than 10 °C above ambient temperature. The hotplate system could also record the nearby water temperature very accurately.. CC AND MARINE LIFE first used the hotplate system to maintain a higher water temperature and study how the marine ecosystems colonised the panels. This experiment yielded very different ecosystems to the surrounding colder water, with ...
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Lec 22 - Ocean Currents and Productivity The Atmosphere, the Ocean and Environmental Change (GG 140) Ocean currents are generally divided into two categories: thermohaline currents and wind...
The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) has been responsible for a recent upsurge in international cooperation in ocean science and for some notable advances in biological and chemical oceanography. These advances have included the collaborative study of the northward progress of the spring bloom in the North Atlantic in 1989-90, during which the role of primary producers in drawing down mixed layer PCO2 was demonstrated for the first time; the establishment of a series of time-series stations in the Atlantic and Pacific where upper water column processes and the settling flux of particular organic matter are being monitored; the 1992-93 Equatorial Pacific Study which showed that the magnitude of CO2 outgasing from this vast area changes substantially between El Niño and La Niña conditions; the ongoing Arabian Sea program that is looking at the response of the ocean carbon pumps to monsoon forcing; and the formulation of an invaluable set of new international standards and method protocols. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autonomous Biogeochemical Floats Detect Significant Carbon Dioxide Outgassing in the High-Latitude Southern Ocean. AU - Gray, Alison R.. AU - Johnson, Kenneth S.. AU - Bushinsky, Seth M.. AU - Riser, Stephen C.. AU - Russell, Joellen. AU - Talley, Lynne D.. AU - Wanninkhof, Rik. AU - Williams, Nancy L.. AU - Sarmiento, Jorge L.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Although the Southern Ocean is thought to account for a significant portion of the contemporary oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2), flux estimates in this region are based on sparse observations that are strongly biased toward summer. Here we present new estimates of Southern Ocean air-sea CO2 fluxes calculated with measurements from biogeochemical profiling floats deployed by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling project during 2014-2017. Compared to ship-based CO2 flux estimates, the float-based fluxes find significantly stronger outgassing in the zone around Antarctica where carbon-rich ...
This global image is a combination of the MODIS Land Surface Reflectance product and Sea Surface Temperature product. MODIS bands at 645nm, 555nm, and 469nm (displayed as red, green, and blue) were used to make this quasi-true-color image of the land surface. The operational atmospheric correction produces images of land that are similar to what would be observed if there were no atmosphere. MODIS calibrated multi-spectral observations are essential to monitor the vegetation and study the Earths biogeochemical cycles. Over the ocean the surface temperature is computed using MODIS bands at 3.9µm and 4.0µm. Temperature is cooler to warmer from purple to red. This is the first view of the oceans obtained using the highly transmissive window channels not available on heritage instruments. These new bands are much less affected by the presence of atmospheric water vapor and thus present a better picture of the Sea Surface Temperature in the moist tropics. Note that the Sea Surface Temperature is ...
The availability of iron is known to exert a controlling influence on biological productivity in surface waters over large areas of the ocean and may have been an important factor in the variation of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide over glacial cycles. The effect of iron in the Southern Ocean is particularly important because of its large area and abundant nitrate, yet iron-enhanced growth of phytoplankton may be differentially expressed between waters with high silicic acid in the south and low silicic acid in the north, where diatom growth may be limited by both silicic acid and iron. Twomesoscaleexperiments, designed to investigate the effects of iron enrichment in regions with high and low concentrations of silicic acid, were performed in the Southern Ocean. These experiments demonstrate irons pivotal role in controlling carbon uptake and regulating atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide.. ...
So how do we know about this as ocean scientists?. - Ocean scientists go to sea 40-50 days at a time and collect thousands of water samples, from the seafloor up through the water column to the sea surface. We can measure the carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the water samples - WOCE = World Ocean Circulation Experiment This is a map of the station locations from the global survey of carbon measurements as part of WOCE, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The red stations indicate measurements collected as part of the US WOCE one time survey. The yellow stations were a part of NOAAs OACES program. We have also made an effort to incorporate as much international data as possible. The blue stations in the Indian Ocean are from the French. Pacific data came from the Australians, Japanese, and Canadians. Much of the new Atlantic work was performed by the Europeans. The synthesis began in the Indian Ocean. These cruises had the best coordination are required the least effort to synthesize. We have ...
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The changes in sea surface temperature patterns over a year reflect the warming and cooling trends known as seasonal change. The changes are directly related to which latitudes receive the most direct rays of the sun and the longest periods of daylight. Can you think of other variables that change with respect to latitude over the course of a year?. Over longer periods of time, sea surface temperature patterns also show shifts in longitude. Some years, a large body of warm water moves from the western Pacific Ocean eastward to the west coast of South America. This shift in ocean circulation affects global atmospheric conditions and can result in increased flooding, droughts, and damaging hurricanes. This occurrence is known as El Niño.. ! Click the image to play the animation. Examine the animation frame by frame to look for months when El Niño is occurring ...
Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) form from dissolved precursors and significantly contribute to the pool of particulate organic carbon in the ocean. In addition, TEP are an important structural component since they provide attachment sites for microbes on a nanometer to micrometer scale. To investigate the effect of ocean acidification on the concentration and dynamics of TEP, we conducted a series of experimental studies in the Baltic Sea in summer 2007 within the frame of the SOPRAN (Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene) project. At this time diazotrophs were the main primary producers. Thus, the relation between autotrophic N2-fixation and heterotrophic activity (uptake of radiolabeld Leucine) was determined and compared with TEP concentration measurements to elucidate how production and fate of TEP may be altered due to short term responses to acidification.We observed that the amount of TEP as well as microbiological activities were sensitive to changes in pCO2. Our results ...
Drifting profiler shown before deployment. Instruments of this type make Lagrangian measurements as they are swept along by ocean currents. Satellites track their positions with Global Positioning Systems (GPS).. Another direct way to measure ocean currents is by tagging a water material with either floats or dyes. This viewpoint of following a tagged water parcel is called Lagrangian, named in honor of Joseph Louis Lagrange, a French mathematician. Near-surface ocean currents are measured by so-called drifters, which is a buoy that rides at the ocean surface and is usually weighted at some depth to negate the direct effects of wind on the buoy itself. Tracking this drifter (by satellite, radar, radio, sound, etc.) will give a description of the ocean current.. The animation below shows the tracks of many drifters through time. Each half second frame of the animation represents 12 hours of drifter movement. The animation loops after representing two weeks of drifter movement. Notice the drifter ...
Microbe communities living in the seafloor off Peru havent bounced back from a deep-sea mining experiment 26 years ago. The populations are still reduced by 30 percent in this part of the South Pacific Ocean, researchers report April 29 in Science Advances. From 1989 to 1996, the DISturbance and reCOLonization, or DISCOL, experiment plowed grooves into the seafloor to mimic deep-sea mining for valuable metal-bearing rocks. The lumps of rock, known as polymetallic or manganese nodules, contain economically important metals such as copper, nickel and cobalt. To recover the nodules, miners dredge the seafloor, scraping off much of the top layer of sediment along with the rocks. Researchers have long expressed concern about how this might affect deep-sea ecosystems (SN: 2/19/14). But there is little data about the effects of deep-sea mining on the ocean environment - and particularly on the microbes at the base of the food web, which cycle the nutrient nitrogen between seafloor and bottom waters ...
Dive and explore marine ecosystems to discover their mysteries: how to recognize marine fauna? We explore all kind of questions about marine life.
ocean current: Stream made up of horizontal and vertical components of the circulation system of ocean waters that is produced by gravity, wind friction, and water density variation in different...
Increases in Atlantic tropical cyclone intensity have been related to increases in Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), and Elsner (2007) has shown that it is likely to be rising global temperatures that drive the increases in both cyclone intensity and Atlantic SST. However, the nature of the climate relationships to tropical cyclones is likely to be complex, and certainly includes oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns that operate on ocean basic scales. Significant but weak. J.B. Elsner and T.H. Jagger (eds.), Hurricanes and Climate Change, 139. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-09410-6, © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009. statistical correlations exist between the Atlantic hurricane source region and the northern Atlantic (Goldenberg et al., 2001) and tropical Pacific warm pools (Wang et al., 2006). Several authors have used these statistical relationships to produce predictive models of Atlantic hurricane season intensity and tropical storm numbers (e.g. Elsner and Jagger, 2006; ...
Disrupting just one process in the important relationship between microbes and bigger plants and animals that live in ocean floor sediment may have knock-on effects that could reduce the productivity of coastal ecosystems, according to international research published online yesterday in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.. Dr Bonnie Laverock, an Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre Research Fellow associated with The University of Western Australia, is the lead author of the paper which outlines the effects of ocean acidification on marine microorganisms.. Dr Laverock and her team from the UK and the US are the first to investigate the impacts of ocean acidification - caused by increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide - on the interactions between macro and micro-organisms in sediments. There has been very little work done so far on the microbial responses to ocean acidification in the benthic (sea floor) zone, she said. In particular, little is known about how ...
The Global Fisheries franchise is a boon for those who have big dreams and want to do something big in life. Today there are many people who want to do their own business, but people are scared to see the cost of starting a new business and the condition of todays market and its risks. Global Fisheries has come up with an attractive plan as a franchise for people who will have higher profits with lower costs and minimal risk. Fish farming is a business whose market is never dull, but in the last several years, there has been a continuous increase in the demand for fish.Full details of each farm will be available in the companys software. How many fish are in which pond of which farm, how much fish feed is left in which farm, when food was given to the fish, when the water of the pond was last tested, when the fish was tested, etc. These and many other details of the activities of the farm will remain with The company in a certain way. It will be the endeavor of the company that every person ...
The present-day distribution of oxygen in the internal deep ocean is thus determined by a complicated and not fully understood interplay of water circulation and bio-logical productivity, which leads to oxygen consumption in the oceans interior. Extensive measurements have shown that the highest oxygen concentrations are found at high latitudes, where the ocean is cold, especially well-mixed and ventilated. The mid-latitudes, by contrast, especially on the western coasts of the continents, are characterized by marked oxygen-deficient zones. The oxygen supply here is very weak due to the sluggish water circulation, and this is further compounded by -elevated oxygen consumption due to high biological productivity. This leads to a situation where the oxygen is almost completely depleted in the depth range between 100 and 1000 metres. This situation is also observed in the northern Indian Ocean in the area of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Different groups of marine organisms react to the ...
International law has had its go at the waters of the South China Sea, and what a magnificent splash.. The ruling from The Hague on 12 July was surprisingly definitive. As Mira Rapp-Hooper comments: The tribunal ruled in favour of the Philippines on almost every count, declaring nearly all of Chinas maritime claims in the region invalid under international law…Chinas defeat was so crushing that it has left Beijing few ways to save face.. The law has spoken; the trouble is the binding judgement has no enforcement mechanism. We are back to the tides and currents of politics and diplomacy and strategy. China has been embarrassed but it hasnt blushed. Or blinked. Two months since the ruling, Sam Batemans judgement is that the decision likely wont have any great lasting political or strategic impact on the region.. That was the backdrop to a South China Sea conference at the Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra, run by UNSW Canberra, the Diplomatic Academy of Vietnam and the Japan ...
Washington If the Census Bureau thinks it has its hands full counting Americans, imagine what scientists are up against in trying to tally every living thing in the ocean, including microbes so small they seem invisible.. And just try to get them to mail back a form.. The worldwide Census of Marine Life has four field projects focusing on hard-to-see sea life such as tiny microbes, zooplankton, larvae and burrowers in the sea bed.. Tiny as individuals, these life forms are massive as groups and provide food that helps underpin better-known living things.. Scientists are discovering and describing an astonishing new world of marine microbial diversity and abundance, distribution patterns and seasonal changes, said Mitch Sogin of the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass., leader of the International Census of Marine Microbes.. The Census of Marine Life, which is scheduled to be reported Oct. 4 in London, has involved more than 2,000 scientists from more than 80 nations.. The ...
The field of Oceans and Human Health (OHH) is an emerging discipline that requires novel, interdisciplinary approaches to address the ecological and public health consequences of our changing oceans. As population growth and development continue to increase in coastal zones, there is an urgent need to reduce anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems. This research is framed around the premise that the increasing availability of environmental genomic sequence data in tandem with the advancing bioinformatics now offers high-throughput and systems-based approaches and opportunities for environmental health monitoring. Specifically, we hypothesize that environmental genomic information can provide sensitive and functional markers of human impacts on marine ecosystems which can then be used to improve our understanding of how the composition of micro-organism communities relates to public health. We utilize a gene-environment approach whereby the complex interplay between genetic and environmental ...
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Ocean acidification to threaten sea life, worsen climate change say 2 new studies, reports Bryan Walsh at Time Magazine. Oceans are absorbing a large portion of the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere-in fact, oceans are the largest single carbon sink in the world, dwarfing the absorbing abilities of the Amazon rainforest. But the more CO2…
Bo Poulsen tells a fascinating story of the surprising connections between the Danish scientist Johannes Schmidt, the famous Carlsberg brewery, and the pivotal role that marine science played in Denmarks pursuit of international geopolitical standing as its formal North Atlantic empire waned in the first decades of the 20th century. A national celebrity in his own time, Schmidt is remembered by scientists today for solving the mystery of the spawning ground for the European eel in the far-distant Sargasso Sea. The legacy of his relationship with the Carlsberg Foundation, one of the earliest private foundations to patronize science, has been complicated by conflicting assessments since the Second World War about why and whether a brewery should have funded marine science. Poulsens research reveals why the Foundation, in conjunction with the Danish state government and private shipping and other companies, supported marine science in an era when international cooperation operated in tandem with ...
An abrupt rise in temperature, forced by a massive input of CO2 into the atmosphere, is commonly invoked as the main trigger for Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Global warming initiated a cascade of palaeoenvironmental perturbations starting with increased continental weathering and an accelerated hydrological cycle that delivered higher loads of nutrients to coastal areas, stimulating biological productivity. The end-result was widespread anoxia and deposition of black shales: the hallmarks of OAEs. In order to assess the role of weathering as both an OAE initiator and terminator (via CO2 sequestration) during the Early Aptian OAE 1a (Selli Event, ∼120 Ma) the isotopic ratio of lithium isotopes was analysed in three sections of shallow-marine carbonates from the Pacific and Tethyan realms and one basinal pelagic section from the Tethyan domain. Because the isotopic composition of lithium in seawater is largely controlled by continental silicate weathering and high- and low-temperature ...
(Image source: NOAA) ENSO, the global regulator for, generally, how much heat the world ocean system dumps into the atmosphere, remained on the cool side of neutral for much of August 2013. Ocean surface temperatures in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific remained 1 to 2 degrees Celsius below the 1981-2010 average for most of the month.…
Antoine, D., J.-M. Andre, and A. Morel. 1996. Oceanic primary production. 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (coastal zone color scanner) chlorophyll. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10:57-69.. Armstrong, R.A., C. Lee, J.I. Hedges, S. Honjo, and S.G. Wakeham. 2002. A new mechanistic model for organic carbon fluxes in the ocean based on quantitative association of POC with ballast minerals. Deep-Sea Research II 49:219-236.. Asper, V.L. 1986. Accelerated settling of marine particulate matter by marine snow aggregates. Ph.D. Thesis, MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography, WHOI-86-12, 189 pp.. Balch, W.M., D.T. Drapeau, J.J. Fritz, B.C. Bowler, and J. Nolan. 2002. Optical backscattering in the Arabian Sea: Continuous underway measurements of particulate inorganic and organic carbon. Deep-Sea Research I 48:2,423-2,452.. Balch, W.M., H.R. Gordon, B.C. Bowler, D.T. Drapeau, and E.S. Booth. 2005. Calcium carbonate measurements in the surface global ocean based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging ...