Head-eye movement control deficit is an identified problem in patients with chronic neck pain, particularly in cases of whiplash associated disorders (WAD). To date, there is no evidence concerning the reliability and validity of visually assessed active head-eye movement control tests. Therefore, the objectives of the present cross-sectional study were, a) to develop a test battery; and b) to investigate inter-observer reliability and discriminative validity in patients with chronic neck pain compared to healthy controls. The study was conducted at two physiotherapy clinics in Switzerland. Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Ten active head-eye coordination tests, on 23 patients with chronic neck pain and associated symptoms and 19 healthy controls, were videotaped. The tests included eye movements in the neutral head position and 45° relative neck rotation, gaze stability and sequential head-eye movements. All tests were performed in the sitting and standing positions. Two blinded
Head-eye movement control deficit is an identified problem in patients with chronic neck pain, particularly in cases of whiplash associated disorders (WAD). To date, there is no evidence concerning the reliability and validity of visually assessed active head-eye movement control tests. Therefore, the objectives of the present cross-sectional study were, a) to develop a test battery; and b) to investigate inter-observer reliability and discriminative validity in patients with chronic neck pain compared to healthy controls. The study was conducted at two physiotherapy clinics in Switzerland. Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Ten active head-eye coordination tests, on 23 patients with chronic neck pain and associated symptoms and 19 healthy controls, were videotaped. The tests included eye movements in the neutral head position and 45° relative neck rotation, gaze stability and sequential head-eye movements. All tests were performed in the sitting and standing positions. Two blinded
Assessment of the Intra- and Inter-Observer Reliabilities of Ultrasonographically Measured Optic Nerve Sheath Diameters in Normal Adults, Li-juan Wang, Li-min Chen, Ying Chen, Yang
Knowledge of the accuracy of chest radiograph findings in acute lower respiratory infection in children is important when making clinical decisions. I conducted a systematic review of agreement between and within observers in the detection of radiographic features of acute lower respiratory infections in children, and described the quality of the design and reporting of studies, whether included or excluded from the review. Included studies were those of observer variation in the interpretation of radiographic features of lower respiratory infection in children (neonatal nurseries excluded) in which radiographs were read independently and a clinical population was studied. I searched MEDLINE, HealthSTAR and HSRPROJ databases (1966 to 1999), handsearched the reference lists of identified papers and contacted authors of identified studies. I performed the data extraction alone. Ten studies of observer interpretation of radiographic features of lower respiratory infection in children were identified. Seven
Objective: Capsule endoscopy is a novel investigation for diagnosing small bowel diseases. However, its interpretation is highly subjective and the potential variability may compromise its accuracy and reliability. Here we studied the potential inter-observer variations on the interpretation of capsule endoscopy. Method: Two residents and one specialist in gastroenterology independently reviewed 58 capsule endoscopy studies in the same sequential order. The gastric transit time, small bowel transit time, and the most significant small bowel lesion were independently recorded. The consensus transit time was determined by the joint review of the three gastroenterologists. The gold standard for small bowel diagnoses was based on final surgical, endoscopic findings or consensus diagnosis. Results: Clinically significant and relevant small bowel lesions were found in 32 (55%) cases by consensus review. The overall mean accuracy in determining gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time and ...
Purpose: To assess reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement by means of ultrasonic pachymetry.. Methods: Fifty one volunteers underwent three sessions of CCT measurements, each consisting of three CCT measurements, performed by each of three different observers. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was calculated by means of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The expected range of variability between two independent evaluations was calculated using scatter plots of each test-retest difference against their mean. The standard deviation of the mean differences in the test-retest scores was used to describe the differences in the score spread.. Results: The ICC ranges of the intra- and interobserver evaluations were 0.95-0.97 and 0.89-0.95 respectively; the expected variability was ⩽±1% and ⩽± 2% respectively (95% confidence interval).. Conclusions: The measurement of CCT by means of ultrasonic pachymetry is highly reproducible.. ...
Repeatability and interobserver reproducibility of Artemis-2 high-frequency ultrasound in determination of human corneal thickness Kelechi C Ogbuehi, Uchechukwu L OsuagwuOutpatient Clinic, Department of Optometry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability and limits of agreement of corneal thickness values measured by a high-frequency ultrasound (Artemis-2), hand-held ultrasound pachymeter (DGH-500) and a specular microscope (SP-3000P).Methods: Central corneal thickness (CCT) was analyzed in this prospective randomized study that included 32 patients (18 men and 14 women) aged 21–24 years. Measurements were obtained in two sessions, one week apart, by two examiners with three devices in a randomized order. Nine measurements were taken (three with each device) on one randomly selected eye of each patient in each measurement session. The coefficient of repeatability and interobserver reproducibility for the values of
Background: This study, promoted by Italian Association of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology (AIRO) Head and Neck Group, aimed to assess the current national practice of target volume delineation on a case of neck lymph node metastases from unknown primary evaluating inter-observer variability, in a setting of primary radiotherapy. Materials and methods: A case of metastatic neck lymph node from occult primary was proposed to 17 radiation oncologists. A national reference RT center was identified and considered as benchmark. Participants were requested to delineate target volumes. A structured questionnaire was administered. A comparison between following parameters of the CTVs was performed: centroids distances, Dice similarity index (DSI), Jaccard index and mean distance to agreement (MDA). Volume expressed in cubic centimeters and CTVs cranio-caudal extension were evaluated. Results: Sixteen of 17 radiation oncologists recommended three CTVs dose levels. (CTV HD, CTV ID and CTV LD); CTV ID ...
Background: The aim of this study was to develop a research tool used to assess the efficiency a goalkeeper's actions in a game of futsal. Material/Methods: Author's own proposal of an observation sheet was created and subject to a validation procedure. To assess intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability, the ICC test was used. Results: There was a strong compatibility of ratings of the intra-rater reliability - 1.00 (95% Cl 1.00-1.00) and the inter-rater reliability − 0.99 (95% CI 0.99-1.00), which proves the reliability of the proposed research tool. Conclusions: The developed sheet allows the registration and evaluation of individual performance and cooperation in terms of goalkeeper's game objectives pursued both in offence and defence ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of interobserver agreement for assessing lymph node staging in pancreatic cancer using current Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) criteria. AU - Gress, F.. AU - Schmitt, C.. AU - Catalane, M.. AU - Affronti, John Paul. AU - Binmoeller, K.. AU - Stevens, P.. AU - Savides, T.. AU - Bhutani, M.. AU - Ciaccia, D.. AU - Nicki, N.. AU - Faigel, D.. AU - Birk, J.. AU - Roubein, L.. AU - Lightdale, C.. PY - 1998/12/1. Y1 - 1998/12/1. N2 - Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) has been reported to be an accurate modality for T staging of pancreatic cancer (CA). However, lymph node staging has been less accurate. Recent data suggests that current EUS criteria used to determine benign or malignant status of a lymph node might be inadequate. Aim of Study: To determine the effects of interobserver variation on the overall accuracy of lymph node staging in pancreatic CA. Methods: Twelve patients with previously diagnosed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma underwent staging with EUS. Surgical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - INTRA- AND INTEROBSERVER VARIABILITY OF ULTRASONOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OF THE ADRENAL GLANDS IN HEALTHY BEAGLES. AU - Barberet, Virginie. AU - Pey, Pascaline. AU - Duchateau, Luc. AU - Combes, Anais. AU - Daminet, Sylvie. AU - Saunders, Jimmy H.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - The aim of the present study was to establish which adrenal gland measurement was characterized by the least variations. To do this, we quantified the variability of seven different size measurements of the canine adrenal gland (maximal length, maximal height at the cranial and caudal poles on longitudinal and transverse images, and maximal width of the cranial and caudal poles) within observer, between observer, and between dogs based on three different measurements made by each of the three observers in six healthy Beagle dogs. The height of the caudal pole of both adrenal glands measured on longitudinal images had the lowest intra-and interobserver variability, while measurements of the length had the highest ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interexaminer reliability of the McKenzie algorithm. Thirty-one subjects (25 females and 6 males), ages 20 to 77, with reported neck pain participated in this study. Each subject was examined twice by two McKenzie trained physical therapists. The subjects were evaluated separately utilizing standard McKenzie Cervical Assessment formats and procedures. Upon completion of the assessment, each therapist used an adapted McKenzie cervical algorithm to classify each patient into one of the possible syndromes (Postural, Dysfunction, or Derangements 1-7). Only five diagnostic categories contained enough data to accurately examine reliability and, therefore, coefficient alpha was selected to analyze internal consistency between scores. The results of this study demonstrated fair to excellent interexaminer reliability (.736 to 1.00) for dysfunction and derangements 1, 3, and 7. The poor reliability found with derangement 4 may be attributed to difficulty in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pre- and post-training session evaluation for interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy for biliary strictures. AU - Talreja, Jayant P.. AU - Turner, Brian G.. AU - Gress, Frank G.. AU - Ho, Sammy. AU - Sarkaria, Savreet. AU - Paddu, Naveen. AU - Natov, Nikola. AU - Bharmal, Sheila. AU - Gaidhane, Monica. AU - Sethi, Amrita. AU - Kahaleh, Michel. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Background and Aim Current diagnostic modalities for indeterminate biliary strictures offer low accuracy. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) permits microscopic assessment of mucosal structures by obtaining real-time high-resolution images of the mucosal layers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previously, an interobserver study demonstrated poor to fair agreement even among experienced confocal endomicroscopy operators. Our objective was to assess interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy upon completion of a pCLE training session. Methods ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used as a clinical outcome measure. However, the reliability of the 6MWT is unknown in individuals who have recently experienced a hip fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative and absolute interrater reliability of the 6MWT in individuals with hip fracture.. METHODS: Two senior physical therapy students independently examined a convenience sample of 20 participants in a randomized order. Their assessments were separated by 2 days and followed the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. Hip fracture-related pain was assessed with the Verbal Ranking Scale.. RESULTS: Participants (all women) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 78.1 (5.9) years performed the test at a mean of 31.5 (5.8) days postsurgery. Of the participants, 10 had a cervical fracture and 10 had a trochanteric fracture. Excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC2.1] = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.97) ...
Studies of elderly patients with Garden-I and Garden-II femoral neck fractures (FNFs) suggest that a preoperative posterior tilt of the femoral head of at least 20° increases the risk of fixation failure. A recently published treatment algorithm recommended hemiarthroplasty over internal fixation for elderly patients with Garden-I and Garden-II FNFs and a preoperative posterior tilt of at least 20°. However, the reliability of the method used to measure the posterior tilt has not been assessed according to recommended standards for reliability trials. Four orthopedic registrars and four consultants measured the posterior tilt angle in 50 preoperative lateral radiographs at two occasions six weeks apart. We estimated inter- and intrarater reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We also assessed repeatability by the repeatability coefficient (RC) and agreement by the minimal detectable change (MDC). Based on the suggested cutoff value of 20°, we reported the overall percentage and
PURPOSE Accurate delineation of target volume and normal tissue is critical for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) use in cervical cancer. Phase III Multicentre Trial of Weekly Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Standard Chemoradiation versus Standard Chemoradiation Alone in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer (INTERLACE) radiation therapy quality assurance (RTQA) has highlighted significant interobserver delineation variation. Prescriptive guidelines reduce interobserver variation in other cancers. METHODS AND MATERIALS A literature search using PubMed/Medline database of guidelines for target anatomy delineation in cervical cancer was undertaken. Differences in practice in these publications and INTERLACE trial RTQA were identified. Consensus best practice delineation was derived and a pictorial atlas produced. The proportion of outlines complying with protocol in test and real-time cases was compared before and after atlas implementation within the INTERLACE RTQA pack.
Expert psychiatrists conducting work disability evaluations often disagree on work capacity (WC) when assessing the same patient. More structured and standardised evaluations focusing on function could improve agreement. The RELY studies aimed to establish the inter-rater reproducibility (reliability and agreement) of functional evaluations in patients with mental disorders applying for disability benefits and to compare the effect of limited versus intensive expert training on reproducibility. We performed two multi-centre reproducibility studies on standardised functional WC evaluation (RELY 1 and 2). Trained psychiatrists interviewed 30 and 40 patients respectively and determined WC using the Instrument for Functional Assessment in Psychiatry (IFAP). Three psychiatrists per patient estimated WC from videotaped evaluations. We analysed reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]) and agreement (standard error of measurement [SEM] and proportions of comparisons within prespecified limits
Purpose: Develop a direct observation (DO) system to serve as a criterion measure for the calibration of models applied to free-living (FL) accelerometer data. Methods: Ten participants (19.4 ± 0.8 years) were video-recorded during four, one-hour FL sessions in different settings: 1) school, 2) home, 3) community, and 4) physical activity. For each setting, 10-minute clips from three randomly selected sessions were extracted and coded by one expert coder and up to 20 trained coders using the Observer XT software (Noldus, Wageningen, the Netherlands). The coder defines each whole-body movement which was further described with three modifiers: 1) locomotion, 2) activity type, and 3) MET value (used to categorize intensity level). Percent agreement was calculated for intra- and inter-rater reliability. For intra-rater reliability, the criterion coder coded all 12 clips twice, separated by at least one week between coding sessions. For inter-rater reliability, coded clips by trained coders were ...
Objective To evaluate the applicability, reproducibility, and diagnostic performance of a new 2D-shear wave elastography (SWE) using the comb-push technique (2D CP-SWE) for detection of hepatic fibrosis, using histopathology as the reference standard. Materials and methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. The liver stiffness (LS) measurements were obtained from 140 patients, using the new 2D-SWE, which uses comb-push excitation to produce shear waves and a time-aligned sequential tracking method to detect shear wave signals. The applicability rate of 2D CP-SWE was estimated, and factors associated with its applicability were identified. Intraobserver reproducibility was evaluated in the 105 patients with histopathologic diagnosis, and interobserver reproducibility was assessed in 20 patients. Diagnostic performance of the 2D CP-SWE for hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC)
Purpose: To estimate inter-observer agreement with regard to describing adnexal masses using the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) terminology and the risk of malignancy calculated using IOTA logistic regression models LR1 and LR2, and to elucidate what explained the largest inter-observer differences in calculated risk of malignancy. Experimental Design: 117 women with adnexal masses were examined with transvaginal gray scale and power Doppler ultrasound by two independent experienced sonologists who described the masses using IOTA terminology. The risk of malignancy was calculated using LR1 and LR2. A predetermined risk of malignancy cutoff of 10% indicated malignancy. Results: There were 94 benign, four borderline and 19 invasively malignant tumors. There was substantial variability between the two sonologists in measurement results and some variability in assessment of categorical variables (agreement 40-98%, Kappa 0.30-0.91). Inter-observer agreement when classifying tumors as ...
Examiner A found 25 BC, examiner B found 30 BC in 220 knees examined (κ = 0.35; 95% CI; 0.14-0.56) and inter-observer reliability was moderate. When US examination taken as the reference, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.58 (95% CI; 0.51-0.65) for examiner A and 0.57 (95% CI; 0.50-0.64) for examiner B, showing a weak agreement between physical examination and US assessment. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interrater reliability of an etiologic classification of ischemic stroke. AU - Johnson, C. J.. AU - Kittner, C. J.. AU - McCarter, R. J.. AU - Sloan, R. J.. AU - Stern, Barney. AU - Buchholz, David. AU - Price, T. R.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Precise identification of the cause of stroke is critical to research and clinical practice. Published series of ischemic stroke show considerable variation in the proportion of cases classified as atherosclerotic large-vessel disease, lacunar infarct, cardioembolic stroke, stroke of other known cause, and stroke of undetermined etiology. We describe the development and use of an etiology-specific classification of ischemic stroke. The interrater reliability of the classification is then evaluated. Methods A total of 160 cases of ischemic strokes in young adults were reviewed by paired neurologists who assigned cases to prioritized categories. The results of paired ratings were evaluated for each of the potential causes. Interrater ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The joint council on thoracic surgery education coronary artery assessment tool has high interrater reliability. AU - Lee, Richard. AU - Enter, Daniel. AU - Lou, Xiaoying. AU - Feins, Richard H.. AU - Hicks, George L.. AU - Gasparri, Mario. AU - Takayama, Hiroo. AU - Young, J Nilas. AU - Calhoon, John H.. AU - Crawford, Fred A.. AU - Mokadam, Nahush A.. AU - Fann, James I.. PY - 2013/6. Y1 - 2013/6. N2 - Background: Barriers to incorporation of simulation in cardiothoracic surgery training include lack of standardized, validated objective assessment tools. Our aim was to measure interrater reliability and internal consistency reliability of a coronary anastomosis assessment tool created by the Joint Council on Thoracic Surgery Education. Methods: Ten attending surgeons from different cardiothoracic residency programs evaluated nine video recordings of 5 individuals (1 medical student, 1 resident, 1 fellow, 2 attendings) performing coronary anastomoses on two simulation models, ...
BACKGROUND: Accurate limb volume measurement is key in the assessment of outcomes in lymphedema microsurgery. There are two commonly used methods as follows: manual circumferential measurement (tape) or Perometer measurement. There are no data on the intra- and interclass correlation of either method, making it difficult to establish a gold standard of limb volume measurement. We aim to assess the intra- and interclass correlation of each method to establish the most appropriate method for clinical practice and future research studies, aiming to compare the accuracy and reliability of tape measurement as assessed against Perometer measurement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Student volunteers and experts (lymphedema practitioners) were each asked to perform repeat tape and Perometer measurements on the upper or lower limb of one healthy volunteer. Perometer measurements were globally more accurate than tape (average SE [Perometer]: 23.23 vs. 77.21 [tape]). For intraobserver reliability, experts outperformed
The Berlin Definition of ARDS maintains a link to prior definitions with diagnostic criteria of timing, chest imaging, origin of edema, and hypoxemia. Patients may have ARDS if the onset is within 1 week of a known clinical insult or new/worsening respiratory symptoms. For the bilateral opacities on chest radiograph criterion, a reference set of chest radiographs has been developed to enhance inter-observer reliability. The pulmonary artery wedge pressure criterion for hydrostatic edema was removed, and illustrative vignettes were created to guide judgments about the primary cause of respiratory failure. If no risk factor for ARDS is apparent, however, objective evaluation (e.g., echocardiography) is required to help rule out hydrostatic edema. A minimum level of positive end-expiratory pressure and mutually exclusive PaO2/FiO2 thresholds were chosen for the different levels of ARDS severity (mild, moderate, severe) to better categorize patients with different outcomes and potential responses to ...
Differences between IG using 4D-CBCT as gold standard and the two IG techniques using 3D-CBCT were 3.6 mm (IG-3D) and 1.9 mm (IG-ITV) on average. These uncertainties of 3D CBCT IG appear especially large when compared to the average base-line shift of 4.9 mm in our study, the reason for performing soft-tissue IG. Korreman et al. estimated the residual uncertainty of the IG procedure to 20 % of the initial motion [5], which is optimistic based on our results. Differences in the tumor position between 4D-CBCT and 3D-CBCT based IG increased with increasing motion magnitude of the pulmonary targets and increased with worse image quality scores of 3D-CBCT. These results clearly indicate that 3D-CBCT is not fully sufficient for full motion integration into IG.. This finding of improved accuracy using 4D-CBCT compared to 3D-CBCT is in contrast to the study by Hugo et al. [7], which could be explained by two reasons. First, our study is based on a larger number of patients and poor image quality of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparative analysis of pediatric uroflowmetry curves. AU - Vijverberg, Marianne A W. AU - Klijn, Aart J. AU - Rabenort, Ad. AU - Bransen, Jeroen. AU - Kok, Esther T. AU - Wingens, Johanna P M. AU - de Jong, Tom P V M. N1 - Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. PY - 2011/11. Y1 - 2011/11. N2 - AIMS: This study was conducted to try to objectify assessment of pediatric uroflowmetry curves.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine professionals in pediatric incontinence care judged 480 pediatric uroflows. On a 1-5 scale, where 1 = anomalous and 5 = normal, uroflows were assessed on four items: staccato, interrupted, flow time and obstruction. Eighty uroflows were re-evaluated for intra-observer agreement. After staccato and interrupted flow had been defined more sharply, another 100 uroflows were analyzed. Cohens Kappa test for nominally classified data was applied to assess agreement. Kappa value of ,0.20 denoted poor agreement, 0.21-0.40 fair, 0.41-0.60 moderate, 0.61-0.80 substantial ...
INTRODUCTION. Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) in children are a leading cause of death and constitute a substantial burden of disease in developed and developing countries.1,2 A significant proportion of children with ALRI presenting to emergency wards may have also concurrent wheezing of varying severity.3-6. The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes a case-detection and antibiotic management policy for ALRI, particularly pneumonia.7* Tachypnea and chest retraction are the key findings for making a diagnosis of pneumonia and putting patients on antibiotic therapy. There is strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of this policy in reducing childhood mortality due to pneumonia.8,9 However, in children with ALRI and wheezing, it is difficult to determine whether the difficulty in breathing is due to pneumonia or to bronchial obstruction underlying the wheezing. Physicians faced with these patients usually prescribe inhaled or nebulized beta-adrenergics and systemic ...
This article highlights the myths and misunderstandings surrounding the straight leg raise (SLR) test for sciatica. Unfortunately, neither intra- nor inter-observer reliability of the passive SLR test has ever been agreed upon. In addition, there is poor consensus about what constitutes a positive SLR test in terms of pain location, leg elevation limitation or clinical significance. Until there are stricter performance standards and uniform agreement, researchers and clinicians should interpret the test with caution. We believe a true positive SLR should be the reproduction or exacerbation of the typical leg dominant pain in the affected limb at any degree of passive elevation. Those with only increased back pain or any leg pain other than that presenting as the chief complaint should be regarded as false positives ...
Background It is estimated that between 34% and 50% of Australian women entering pregnancy are overweight and obese, which is associated with an increased risk in complications for both the woman and...
The global move towards more conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer requires better imaging modalities that both visualise the disease accurately and are reproducible; to reduce interobserver variation. This review explores the advances in imaging modalities used in target volume delineation, with a view to make recommendations for current clinical practice and to propose future directions for research. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Articles considered relevant by the authors were included. Planning with orthogonal films is being replaced by computed tomography (CT) simulation. This is now considered the gold standard and allows conformal three-dimensional planning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to overcome some of the limitations of CT and can be used either as a diagnostic image to visually aid planning, or as a planning MRI carried out in the treatment position and co-registered with the planning CT. The latter approach has been shown to ...
PurposeTo investigate whether the observed international differences in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treatment rates within the Benefits of Oxygen Saturation Targeting (BOOST) II trials might have been caused by international variation in ROP disease grading.MethodsGroups of BOOST II trial ophthalmologists in UK, Australia, and New Zealand (ANZ), and an international reference group (INT) used a web based system to grade a selection of RetCam images of ROP acquired during the BOOST II UK trial. Rates of decisions to treat, plus disease grading, ROP stage grading, ROP zone grading, inter-observer variation within groups and intra-observer variation within groups were measured.ResultsForty-two eye examinations were graded. UK ophthalmologists diagnosed treat-requiring ROP more frequently than ANZ ophthalmologists, 13.9 (3.49) compared to 9.4 (4.46) eye examinations, P=0.038. UK ophthalmologists diagnosed plus disease more frequently than ANZ ophthalmologists, 14.1 (6.23) compared to 8.5 (3.24) eye
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is increasingly important in the assessment of inflammatory activity in clinical trials with patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We investigated feasibility, inter-reader reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory ability of 3 different scoring methods for MRI activity and change in activity of the spine in patients with AS. METHODS: Thirty sets of spinal MRI at baseline and after 24 weeks of followup, derived from a randomized clinical trial comparing a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking drug (n = 20) with placebo (n = 10) and selected to cover a wide range of activity at baseline and change in activity, were presented electronically in a partial latin-square design to 9 experienced readers from different countries (Europe, Canada). Readers scored each set of MRI 3 times, using 3 different methods including the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per ...
Purpose: : To compare endothelial cell density (ECD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements assessed with the laser-scanning-in-vivo-confocal-microscope HRT II corneal module and noncontact specular microscopy. Intrasession intra-observer and inter-observer agreement of the two instruments in a cohort of normal subjects were also determined. Methods: : This prospective observational cross-sectional study included 48 healthy subjects (mean age of 50.9±13.7 years, range 28-82). All subjects underwent ECD and CCT measurement with the laser-scanning-in-vivo-confocal-microscope HRT II corneal module (HRT-CM) and a noncontact-specular-microscope (NCSM) (Tomey EM-3000). The measurements were repeated 3 times with each device by two independent observers during the same session. The differences between the CCT and ECD values recorded by the two instruments were calculated using the paired t-test. The agreement between devices was evaluated using the Bland-Altman method. Intra- and ...
Background/Purpose: Although Ultrasound (US) has demonstrated to be a sensitive and specific tool, its feasibility in daily clinical practice is still under debate. We have developed and validated a fast 4-joints ultrasonographic (US) score to assess disease activity in RA patients. This score named REUMA (Rapid Evaluation by US to Monitor Arthritis) showed an excellent correlation with 28-joint US assessment and good responsiveness. In order to generalize the utilization of this new and simple US score, we evaluated the performance of this score using an external sample of RA patients and assessed the intra and inter-reader reliability. Material and Methods: We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study, including ambulatory patients with RA diagnosed according to ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria. Clinical data, demographic and disease characteristics were recorded. The 4-joints US score was calculated for each patient including bilateral radio and intracarpal joint and second metacarpophalangeal. ...
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: 1) investigate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of use of the Flexicurve for measurement of spinal length (L), thoracic (TL) and lumbar length (LL), thoracic (TW) and lumbar width (LW), and 2) q
RESULTS: Five different pain classification schemas, six self-report measures of pain, and two measures of pain impact on functioning were selected based on our inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies identified in these areas reported inter- and intra-rater reliability information. Of the little validity data found for pain screening measures, it was difficult to compare due to the variability of the descriptors used. No data on sensitivity was identified ...
Results:. As scored by the readers, the mean chronicity index score varied from 2.3 to 4.8 on a 12-point scale (P = 0.001) and the mean activity index score varied from 5.8 to 11.4 on a 24-point scale (P = 0.0001). Pairs of readers gave scores within 1 point for the chronicity index and within 2 points for the activity index in 50% of cases, and risk group assignments based on chronicity index (three strata) and activity index (two strata) were concordant in 59% and 76% of cases, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter-reader agreement were 0.58 for the chronicity index (P , 0.01) and 0.52 for the activity index (P , 0.01). Intrareader agreement was uniformly higher than inter-reader agreement, but mean intraclass correlation coefficients exceeded 0.70 for only 1 of the 10 index components. Repeated readings yielded chronicity index scores that were more than 1 point discordant in 45% of cases and activity index scores that were more than 2 points discordant in 43% of cases. ...
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Background The collapsibility index of inferior vena cava (cIVC) is widely used to decide fluid infusion in spontaneously breathing intensive care unit patients. The authors hypothesized that high inspiratory efforts may induce false-positive high cIVC values. This study aims at determining a value of diaphragmatic motion recorded by echography that could predict a high cIVC (more than or equal to 40%) in healthy volunteers. Methods The cIVC and diaphragmatic motions were recorded for three levels of inspiratory efforts. Right and left diaphragmatic motions were defined as the maximal diaphragmatic excursions. Receiver operating characteristic curves evaluated the performance of right diaphragmatic motion to predict a cIVC more than or equal to 40% defining the best cutoff value. Results Among 52 included volunteers, interobserver reproducibility showed a generalized concordance correlation coefficient (ρ c ) above 0.9 for all echographic parameters. Right diaphragmatic motion correlated with ...
The first reading for eminent domain against the Union Dry Dock in uptown Hoboken passed easily 8-1 Wednesday night. The next and critical second reading will not be held as typically anticipated in two weeks but on November 13th - after Hobokens heavily contested mayoral election.. The vote as it turns out was anti-climatic. All of the candidates running this election cycle voted on first reading for approval: City Council President Jen Giattino and council members Ravi Bhalla, Mike DeFusco, Dave Mello and Jim Doyle. The vote however was preceded with less than the usual official reading of the ordinance with no discussion.. City Council President Jen Giattino announced if the ordinance passed it would be scheduled for November 13th after the election. She said it was to remove the politics from the matter with the upcoming Hoboken mayoral election.. Councilman Ravi Bhalla immediately took issue strenuously seeking to keep the issue alive before the November 7th mayoral election. Were Bhalla ...
Microscopy image-based measurement variability in high-throughput imaging experiments for biological drug discoveries, such as COVID-19 therapies was addressed in this study. Variability of measurements came from (1) computational approaches (methods), (2) implementations of methods, (3) parameter settings, (4) chaining methods into workflows, and (5) stabilities of floating-point arithmetic on diverse hardware. Measurement variability was addressed by (a) introducing interoperability between algorithms, (b) enforcing automated capture of computational provenance and parameter settings, and (c) quantifying multiple sources of variabilities for 10 nucleus measurements, from 8 workflow streams, executed in 2 workflow graph configurations, on 2 computational hardware platforms at 2 locations. Using modified Mean Absolute Error (mMAE [%]) to compare measurements, We concluded that for the task of image-based nucleus measurements the variability sources were (1) implementations (0.10 % - 5.72 % per ...
Introduction: This study evaluated the influence of cast-gold posts on the diagnostic ability of a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system in assessing longitudinal root fractures. In addition, the influence of gutta-percha and variations in voxel resolution were assessed. Methods: One hundred eighty endodontically prepared teeth were divided into 3 experimental and 3 control groups and placed in a dry human skull. The teeth in the experimental groups were artificially fractured. Certain experimental and control groups were filled with gutta-percha cones. Other experimental and control groups were filled with cast-gold posts. All the teeth were viewed by using a tomography scan with 2 voxel resolution protocols (0.3-mm and 0.2-mm). A calibrated examiner, blinded to the protocol, assessed the images by using the nominated scan software. Results: The kappa values obtained for intraobserver reproducibility were 0.84 and 0.93 for 0.3-mm and 0.2-mm voxel resolution, respectively. The presence of ...
We take measurements every day to control processes and to accept or reject products. Often, there is little thought that goes into understanding the measurement system. We take it for granted that the numbers are good. The quality of a measurement system is determined by the statistical properties of the data that are generated. We know, for example, that when the same person measures the same part with the same instrument that there can be different results. This is termed repeatability - re
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between model observer and human observer performance in CT imaging for the task of lesion detection and localization when the lesion location is uncertain.Methods: Two cylindrical rods (3-mm and 5-mm diameters) were placed in a 35 × 26 cm torso-shaped water phantom to simulate lesions with −15 HU contrast at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times on a 128-slice CT scanner at each of four dose levels (CTDIvol = 5.7, 11.4, 17.1, and 22.8 mGy). Regions of interest (ROIs) around each lesion were extracted to generate images with signal-present, with each ROI containing 128 × 128 pixels. Corresponding ROIs of signal-absent images were generated from images without lesion mimicking rods. The location of the lesion (rod) in each ROI was randomly distributed by moving the ROIs around each lesion. Human observer studies were performed by having three trained observers identify the presence or absence of lesions, indicating the ...
INTRODUCTION: Manual interpretation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a subjective, time-consuming and variable process, with an inherent intra-observer and inter-observer variability. Automated image analysis approaches offer the possibility of developing rapid, uniform indicators of IHC staining. In the present article we describe the development of a novel approach for automatically quantifying oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) protein expression assessed by IHC in primary breast cancer. METHODS: Two cohorts of breast cancer patients (n = 743) were used in the study. Digital images of breast cancer tissue microarrays were captured using the Aperio ScanScope XT slide scanner (Aperio Technologies, Vista, CA, USA). Image analysis algorithms were developed using MatLab 7 (MathWorks, Apple Hill Drive, MA, USA). A fully automated nuclear algorithm was developed to discriminate tumour from normal tissue and to quantify ER and PR expression in both cohorts. Random forest clustering was
Methods Sections from 38 cases of OED were stained with H&E and 6 immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers. All were then digitally scanned. Virtual cores were generated by image capturing a 0.6mm2 area of the IHC slide that corresponded to the same dysplastic area marked on the H&E slide. Two trained blinded observers scored both whole slides and virtual cores independently. The degree of reliability in scores between the individual raters and between virtual TMA cores and slides was assessed using both interclass correlation coefficient (ICCC) and weighted κ statistics.. ...
Methods Sections from 38 cases of OED were stained with H&E and 6 immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers. All were then digitally scanned. Virtual cores were generated by image capturing a 0.6mm2 area of the IHC slide that corresponded to the same dysplastic area marked on the H&E slide. Two trained blinded observers scored both whole slides and virtual cores independently. The degree of reliability in scores between the individual raters and between virtual TMA cores and slides was assessed using both interclass correlation coefficient (ICCC) and weighted κ statistics.. ...
OBJECTIVES: To test the reproducibility of the ABILOCO questionnaire. To validate the patient self-reporting method and the third-party assessment of the stroke patients locomotion ability by a treating physical therapist. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult stroke patients (N=28; 59+/-13y). The time since stroke ranged from 3 to 253 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The ABILOCO questionnaire. RESULTS: The results of patient self-assessment and the results of the third-party assessments by the physiotherapists at a 2-week interval were highly correlated (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=.77 and ICC=.89, respectively). The results of the patient self-assessment and the third-party assessment by the physical therapist were both well correlated to assessment by an independent medical examiner who observed the patient during the 13 ABILOCO activities (ICC=.69 and ICC=.87, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The use of ABILOCO as a ...