In enzymology, a mRNA guanylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.50) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GTP + (5)ppPur-mRNA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } diphosphate + G(5)pppPur-mRNA Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are GTP and (5)ppPur-mRNA, whereas its two products are diphosphate and G(5)pppPur-mRNA. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups (nucleotidyltransferases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is GTP:mRNA guanylyltransferase. Other names in common use include mRNA capping enzyme, messenger RNA guanylyltransferase, and Protein 2. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1CKM, 1CKN, 1CKO, 1P16, and 2C46. Ensinger MJ, Martin SA, Paoletti E, Moss B (1975). "Modification of the 5-terminus of mRNA by soluble guanylyl and methyl transferases from vaccinia virus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72 (7): 2525-9. ...
1H5S: Kinetic and Crystallographic Analyses Support a Sequential-Ordered Bi Bi Catalytic Mechanism for Escherichia Coli Glucose-1-Phosphate Thymidylyltransferase
Thymidine diphosphate glucose (often abbreviated dTDP-glucose or TDP-glucose) is a nucleotide-linked sugar consisting of deoxythymidine diphosphate linked to glucose. It is the starting compound for the syntheses of many deoxysugars. DTDP-glucose is produced by the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and is synthesized from dTTP and glucose-1-phosphate. Pyrophosphate is a byproduct of the reaction. DTDP-glucose goes on to form a variety of compounds in nucleotide sugars metabolism. Many bacteria utilize dTDP-glucose to form exotic sugars that are incorporated into their lipopolysaccharides or into secondary metabolites such as antibiotics. During the syntheses of many of these exotic sugars, dTDP-glucose undergoes a combined oxidation/reduction reaction via the enzyme dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, producing dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-glucose. Xue M. He & Hung-wen Liu (2002). "Formation of unusual sugars: Mechanistic studies and biosynthetic applications". Annu Rev Biochem. 71: 701-754. ...
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-associated deaths in men, and signaling via a transcription factor called androgen receptor (AR) is an important driver of the disease. Consequently, AR target genes are prominent candidates to be specific for prostate cancer and also important for the survival of the cancer cells. Here we assess the levels of all hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) enzymes in 15 separate clinical gene expression data sets and identify the last enzyme in the pathway, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase 1 (UAP1), to be highly overexpressed in prostate cancer. We analyzed 3261 prostate cancers on a tissue microarray and found that UAP1 staining correlates negatively with Gleason score (P=0.0039) and positively with high AR expression (P|0.0001). Cells with high UAP1 expression have 10-fold increased levels of the HBP end-product, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). UDP-GlcNAc is essential for N-linked glycosylation occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Thermostabilities of kanamycin nucleotidyltransferase and of its mutants that became thermostable, in the free state, because of single-amino-acid replacements were studied after immobilization of the enzymes on cyanogen bromide-activated Sephadex G-200 particles. Lys in place of Gln at position 102 decreased the thermostability of the immobilized enzyme, whereas replacement with other amino acids enhanced it. ...
Complete information for TRNT1 gene (Protein Coding), TRNA Nucleotidyl Transferase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for TRNT1 gene (Protein Coding), TRNA Nucleotidyl Transferase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Numerous significant hits in gapped BLAST to Glucose-1-P Adenyltransferase sequences; e.g. residues 21-440 are 34% similar to GLGC_SYNY3; residues 21-440 are 35% similar to GLGC_ANASP; residues 25-440 are 35% similar to GLGS_SOLTU; and residues 25-429 are 35% similar to GLGS_ORYSA ...
Administration of dexamethasone to pregnant rats at 19 days gestation increased phosphatidylcholine synthesis (45%) from radioactive choline in type II cells. This enhanced synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accompanied by an increased conversion of choline phosphate into CDP-choline. Similar results were obtained by incubating organotypic cultures of 19-day-fetal rat lung with cortisol. The increased conversion of choline phosphate into CDP-choline correlated with an enhanced choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase activity (31% after dexamethasone treatment; 47% after cortisol exposure) in the cell homogenates. A similar increase (26% after dexamethasone treatment; 39% after cortisol exposure) was found in the microsomal-associated enzyme. No differences in cytosolic enzyme activity were observed. The specific activity of the microsomal enzyme was 3-4 times that of the cytosolic enzyme. Most of the enzyme activity was located in the microsomal fraction (58-65%). The treatments had no effect ...
Nicotinate mononucleotide:5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole phosphoribosyltransferase (CobT) from Salmonella typhimurium plays a central role in the synthesis of alpha-ribazole, which is a key component of the lower ligand of cobalamin. Two X-ray structures of CobT are reported here at 1.9 A resolution. Fir …
The cytidylyltransferases are a family of enzymes that utilize cytidine 5â?? triphosphate (CTP) to synthesize molecules that are precursors to membrane phospholipids. There are four well known enzymes: CTP: phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT), CTP: glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (GCT), 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase synthetase (CMS), and CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT). Previously, a radioisotope tagging method was employed to study cytidylyltransferase catalysis. Using CCT as a model, a method utilizing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed to replace the radioisotope scintillation technique. The development of this new HPLC method is cheaper, more efficient, and more accurate than the previously established method. The targets of separation are the substrate CTP and the product cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-choline) of the reaction catalyzed by CCT. A solvent system based on previous literature which separated
ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase 1 (ADG1); FUNCTIONS IN: glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase activity; INVOLVED IN: photoperiodism, flowering, starch biosynthetic process; LOCATED IN: heterotetrameric ADPG pyrophosphorylase complex, apoplast, chloroplast, chloroplast stroma; EXPRESSED IN: 28 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 14 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (InterPro:IPR011831), ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, conserved site (InterPro:IPR005836), Nucleotidyl transferase (InterPro:IPR005835); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit 1 (TAIR:AT5G19220.1); Has 1807 Blast hits to 1807 proteins in 277 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 736; Fungi - 347; Plants - 385; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 339 (source: NCBI BLink ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclic GMP-AMP Ameliorates Diet-induced Metabolic Dysregulation and Regulates Proinflammatory Responses Distinctly from STING Activation. AU - Guo, Xin. AU - Shu, Chang. AU - Li, Honggui. AU - Pei, Ya. AU - Woo, Shih Lung. AU - Zheng, Juan. AU - Liu, Mengyang. AU - Xu, Hang. AU - Botchlett, Rachel. AU - Guo, Ting. AU - Cai, Yuli. AU - Gao, Xinsheng. AU - Zhou, Jing. AU - Chen, Lu. AU - Li, Qifu. AU - Xiao, Xiaoqiu. AU - Xie, Linglin. AU - Zhang, Ke K.. AU - Ji, Jun Yuan. AU - Huo, Yuqing. AU - Meng, Fanyin. AU - Alpini, Gianfranco. AU - Li, Pingwei. AU - Wu, Chaodong. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Endogenous cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) binds and activates STING to induce type I interferons. However, whether cGAMP plays any roles in regulating metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here we show that exogenous cGAMP ameliorates obesity-associated metabolic dysregulation and uniquely alters proinflammatory responses. In obese mice, treatment with cGAMP significantly decreases ...
Accepted name: mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase. Reaction: GTP + α-D-mannose 1-phosphate = diphosphate + GDP-mannose. For diagram click here.. Other name(s): GTP mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase; PIM-GMP (phosphomannose isomerase-guanosine 5-diphospho-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase); GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase; guanosine 5-diphospho-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase; guanosine diphosphomannose pyrophosphorylase; guanosine triphosphate-mannose 1-phosphate guanylyltransferase; mannose 1-phosphate guanylyltransferase (guanosine triphosphate). Systematic name: GTP:α-D-mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase. Comments: The bacterial enzyme can also use ITP and dGTP as donors.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 37278-24-3. References:. 1. Munch-Peterson, A. Enzymatic synthesis and phosphorolysis of guanosine diphosphate mannose. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 55 (1955) 592-593.. 2. Preiss, J. and Wood, E. Sugar nucleotide reactions in Arthrobacter. ...
1D0S: The three-dimensional structures of nicotinate mononucleotide:5,6- dimethylbenzimidazole phosphoribosyltransferase (CobT) from Salmonella typhimurium complexed with 5,6-dimethybenzimidazole and its reaction products determined to 1.9 A resolution.
Nuclear localization of enzymatically active green fluorescent protein-CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase fusion protein is independent of cell cycle conditions and cell types
In a study published in the journal of Cell Host & Microbe by Shiloh et al [1]. It has recently become apparent that pathogen directed immune cell can produces and may be secretes an identifiable e enzyme involved in protecting the body from different pathogens having a remarkable ability to senses Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), the most powerful killer of a bacterial pathogen that can leave 1.5 million deaths annually with an estimated of millions of infected people worldwide.. The Team researchers stated that the new finding has potential implications for the development of immunity-based therapies to treat tuberculosis. This development, may be, is inevitable in the salvation of the poor patients from a prolonged agonized 9 month Treatment and from a serious complications of this disease. This signaling enzyme, The researchers explained, called cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), exerting its unique sensor effects in immune defense stream against the bacteria in general and tuberculosis ...
Deoxycytidyl transferase involved in DNA repair. Transfers a dCMP residue from dCTP to the 3-end of a DNA primer in a template-dependent reaction. May assist in the first step in the bypass of abasic lesions by the insertion of a nucleotide opposite the lesion. Required for normal induction of mutations by physical and chemical agents. Involved in mitochondrial DNA mutagenesis (By similarity).
Previous studies have indicated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGlc PPase) from the cyanobacteriumAnabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is more similar to higher-plant than to enteric bacterial enzymes
A - Tilt: 3° - Segments: 1( 32- 43), 2( 45- 60), 3( 78- 91), 4( 95- 106), 5( 130- 147), 6( 150- 167), 7( 189- 210), 8( 221- 238), 9( 267- 285 ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0A073FPV4 (A0A073FPV4_ECOLX), Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase. Escherichia coli 2-427-07_S4_C3
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0A0D1K1G7 (A0A0D1K1G7_STAAU), Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase. Staphylococcus aureus subsp aureus
ADOK_MYCTO (P9WID4 ), ADOK_MYCTU (P9WID5 ), FRUK_MYCGE (Q49396 ), FRUK_MYCPN (P75038 ), HEPPK_BORBR (Q7WGU8 ), HLDE_ACICJ (A5FVE7 ), HLDE_ACTP2 (A3MZC0 ), HLDE_ACTPL (Q8GLU7 ), HLDE_ACTSZ (A6VP06 ), HLDE_AERHH (A0KPL4 ), HLDE_AERS4 (A4SIG6 ), HLDE_ALCBS (Q0VM60 ), HLDE_ALISL (B6ELZ7 ), HLDE_ALKEH (Q0A4T7 ), HLDE_ARCB4 (A8EVR4 ), HLDE_AZOVD (C1DGT9 ), HLDE_BLOFL (Q7VQQ6 ), HLDE_BLOPB (Q493X3 ), HLDE_BRASB (A5EN78 ), HLDE_BRASO (A4YYB6 ), HLDE_CAMC1 (A7ZE26 ), HLDE_CAMC5 (A7GZF6 ), HLDE_CAMFF (A0RQR9 ), HLDE_CAMJ8 (A8FMK8 ), HLDE_CAMJD (A7H2L7 ), HLDE_CAMJE (Q6TG09 ), HLDE_CAMJJ (A1W0D6 ), HLDE_CAMJR (Q5HTW1 ), HLDE_CAUCR (Q9A2C5 ), HLDE_CAUSK (B0T663 ), HLDE_CHRSD (Q1R1M6 ), HLDE_CITK8 (A8APT1 ), HLDE_COXBN (A9KDJ2 ), HLDE_COXBR (A9N9S2 ), HLDE_COXBU (Q83B60 ), HLDE_CROS8 (A7MP93 ), HLDE_DESAA (B8FB71 ), HLDE_DICNV (A5EWS4 ), HLDE_ECO24 (A7ZRT3 ), HLDE_ECO27 (B7UIW0 ), HLDE_ECO45 (B7MAC8 ), HLDE_ECO55 (B7LGY7 ), HLDE_ECO57 (Q7AAQ7 ), HLDE_ECO5E (B5YR91 ), HLDE_ECO7I (B7NJR5 ), HLDE_ECO81 (B7N0K1 ...
Involved in the biosynthesis of ADP-glucose, a building block, required in the biosynthesis of maltose-1-phosphate (M1P) and in the elongation reactions to produce linear alpha-1,4-glucans. Catalyzes the reaction between ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) to produce pyrophosphate and ADP-Glc.
RNA triphosphatase is an essential mRNA processing enzyme that catalyzes the first step in cap formation. The 2.05 A crystal structure of yeast RNA triphosphatase Cet1p reveals a novel active site fold whereby an eight-stranded beta barrel forms a topologically closed triphosphate tunnel. Interactions of a sulfate in the center of the tunnel with a divalent cation and basic amino acids projecting into the tunnel suggest a catalytic mechanism that is supported by mutational data. Discrete surface domains mediate Cet1p homodimerization and Cet1p binding to the guanylyltransferase component of the capping apparatus. The structure and mechanism of fungal RNA triphosphatases are completely different from those of mammalian mRNA capping enzymes. Hence, RNA triphosphatase presents an ideal target for structure-based antifungal drug discovery ...
A conditional-lethal mutant of bacillus subtilis 168 with a thermosensitive glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, an enzyme specific for the synthesis of t
IFI16 was demonstrated to bind to DNA of nucleus-replicating herpesviruses (2, 6); however, the full range of its functional outputs is not understood. In this study, we observed the rapid formation of IFI16 subnuclear puncta located exclusively at the nuclear periphery upon infection with herpesviruses HSV-1 and HCMV. This dynamic behavior was maintained during infection with the transcription- and replication-deficient d109 HSV-1 mutant, suggesting that only the viral nucleocapsid and genome are required to trigger IFI16 peripheral focus formation. The d109 viral genome has been previously shown to persist within infected nuclei (34), explaining why assembly of peripheral foci continues into later hours of infection. Furthermore, these intranuclear foci were dependent on the MOI and formed instantaneously at sites directly adjacent to where the viral nucleocapsid binds on the outer nuclear membrane. The earliest viral genomes are deposited in the nucleus within 1 h of HSV-1 virion adsorption ...
In humans, the cGAS-STING signaling pathway is essential for immunity to diverse pathogens. Upon recognition of foreign DNA, the enzyme cGAS catalyzes formation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), a second-messenger cyclic dinucleotide that activates the receptor STING to initiate an immune gene expression program. Due to broad tissue tropism and the ability to potently respond to natural small-molecules, STING is a rapidly emerging target for cancer immunotherapy. Using a structural and biochemical approach, we are working to determine the mechanisms of cGAS-STING signaling ...
MORÁN ZORZANO, María Teresa (2006) ADPglucose metabolism in bacteria and plants. PhD thesis, UPNA.. Texto completo no está disponible desde este repositorio ...
MetabolismCentral intermediary metabolismSulfur metabolismsulfate adenylyltransferase, large subunit (TIGR02034; EC 2.7.7.4; HMM-score: 17) ...
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从昨天开始,四六级阅卷已经开始了 这两天主要是改短文和复合,可以说,短文的正确率很低很低 由于阅卷太累,具体得分情况注意今后我的帖子
Looking for online definition of phosphatidylethanolamine cytidylyltransferase in the Medical Dictionary? phosphatidylethanolamine cytidylyltransferase explanation free. What is phosphatidylethanolamine cytidylyltransferase? Meaning of phosphatidylethanolamine cytidylyltransferase medical term. What does phosphatidylethanolamine cytidylyltransferase mean?
UDP-sugar metabolizing pyrophosphorylases provide the primary mechanism for de novo synthesis of UDP-sugars, which can then be used for myriads of glycosyltranferase reactions, producing cell wall carbohydrates, sucrose, glycoproteins and glycolipids, as well as many other glycosylated compounds. The pyrophosphorylases can be divided into three families: UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USPase) and UDP-N-acety lglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAGPase), which can be discriminated both by differences in accepted substrate range and amino acid sequences.. This thesis focuses both on experimental examination (and re-examination) of some enzymatic/ biochemical properties of selected members of the UGPases and USPases and UAGPase families and on the design and implementation of a strategy to study in vivo roles of these pyrophosphorylases using specific inhibitors. In the first part, substrate specificities of members of the Arabidopsis UGPase, USPase and UAGPase ...
Inhibitors of 4-phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) were identified through high-throughput screening of the AstraZeneca compound library. One series, cycloalkyl pyrimidines, showed inhibition of PPAT isozymes from several species, with the most potent inhibition of enzymes from Gram-positive species. Mode-of-inhibition studies with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus PPAT demonstrated representatives of this series to be reversible inhibitors competitive with phosphopantetheine and uncompetitive with ATP, binding to the enzyme-ATP complex. The potency of this series was optimized using structure-based design, and inhibition of cell growth of Gram-positive species was achieved. Mode-of-action studies, using generation of resistant mutants with targeted sequencing as well as constructs that overexpress PPAT, demonstrated that growth suppression was due to inhibition of PPAT. An effect on bacterial burden was demonstrated in mouse lung and thigh infection models, but further
TY - CHAP. T1 - Characterization of DNA bound cyclic GMP-AMP synthase using atomic force microscopy imaging. AU - Lushnikov, Alexander. AU - Hooy, Richard. AU - Sohn, Jungsan. AU - Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - The protocol described herein allows for acquiring topography images of DNA-protein complexes using Atomic Force Microscopy imaging. Since the very beginning of this method, AFM has been an indispensable tool for characterization of biomolecular complexes with exceptional capability of observing single complexes. This method can visualize structural characteristics of DNA-protein assemblies and evaluate differences between individual complexes. Although this protocol is generally applicable to a large number of various proteins complexed with DNA, we use cyclic G/AMP synthase (cGAS) enzyme as a case study for the protocol description.. AB - The protocol described herein allows for acquiring topography images of DNA-protein complexes using Atomic Force ...
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2--C--methyl--D--erythritol 4--phosphate cytidylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.60) / 2--C--methyl--D--erythritol 2,4--cyclodiphosphate synthase (EC 4.6.1.12 ...
Recent studies identified cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) as a metazoan second messenger triggering an interferon response. cGAMP is generated from GTP and ATP by cytoplasmic dsDNA sensor cGAMP synthase (cGAS). We combined structural, chemical, biochemical, and cellular assays to demonstrate that this second messenger contains G(2,5)pA and A(3,5)pG phosphodiester linkages, designated c[G(2,5)pA(3,5)p]. We show that, upon dsDNA binding, cGAS is activated through conformational transitions, resulting in formation of a catalytically competent and accessible nucleotide-binding pocket for generation of c[G(2,5)pA(3,5)p]. We demonstrate that cyclization occurs in a stepwise manner through initial generation of 5-pppG(2,5)pA prior to cyclization to c[G(2,5)pA(3,5)p], with the latter positioned precisely in the catalytic pocket. Mutants of cGAS dsDNA-binding or catalytic pocket residues exhibit reduced or abrogated activity. Our studies have identified c[G(2,5)pA(3,5)p] as a founding ...
Looking for online definition of nucleotidyl in the Medical Dictionary? nucleotidyl explanation free. What is nucleotidyl? Meaning of nucleotidyl medical term. What does nucleotidyl mean?
Cytosolic DNA stimulates innate immune responses, including type I interferons (IFN), which have antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. Cyclic GMP‐AMP synthase (cGAS) recognizes cytoplasmic DNA and signals via STING to induce IFN production. Despite the importance of DNA in innate immunity, the nature of the DNA that stimulates IFN production is not well described. Using low DNA concentrations, we show that dsDNA induces IFN in a length‐dependent manner. This is observed over a wide length‐span of DNA, ranging from the minimal stimulatory length to several kilobases, and is fully dependent on cGAS irrespective of DNA length. Importantly, in vitro studies reveal that long DNA activates recombinant human cGAS more efficiently than short DNA, showing that length‐dependent DNA recognition is an intrinsic property of cGAS independent of accessory proteins. Collectively, this work identifies long DNA as the molecular entity stimulating the cGAS pathway upon cytosolic DNA challenge such as ...
UDPacetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase: forms UDP-N-acetylglucosamine from N-acetylglucosamine- 1-phosphate and UTP; also catalyzes acetylation of glucosamine-1-phosphate
The cGAS-STING cytosolic DNA sensing pathway mediates recognition of MHV-68 in MSCs.MSCs were infected with MHV-68 (MOI 0.1) (a) or transfected with MHV-68 DNA
D.J. Heyes, C. Levey, P. Lafite, I.S. Roberts, M. Goldrick, A.V. Stachulski, S.B. Rossington, D. Stanford, S.E.J. Rigby, N.S. Scrutton, D. Leys, Structure based mechanism of CMP-KDO Synthase: Convergent evolution of a sugar activating enzyme with DNA-RNA polymerases, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2009, 284, 35514-35523. ...
Do you have a sweet tooth? Sugar isnt the only way to satisfy it. Here are some alternatives to satisfy it without the harmful effects of so much sugar.
Originally integrated into the MON531 line and persisted through to the 15985 line. The T-DNA from this vector contains the coding sequence of the cry1A(c) gene and the nptII resistance gene. The aadA gene was also integrated into the host genome however it is not expressed ...
Originally integrated into the MON531 line and persisted through to the 15985 line. The T-DNA from this vector contains the coding sequence of the cry1A(c) gene and the nptII resistance gene. The aadA gene was also integrated into the host genome however it is not expressed ...
Glucocorticoids appear to play an integral role in stimulating surfactant synthesis by activating the rate-regulatory enzyme for phosphatidylcholine synthesis, CTP:cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase (CT). The activity of liver CT, in vitro, has been shown to be inhibited by the sphingomyelin hydrolysis product, sphingosine. In order to investigate the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids alter CT activity, in vivo, we administered betamethasone (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) sequentially to adult male rats for 5 days. Betamethasone increased CT activity 2-fold relative to control in whole lung. The hormone also increased membrane-bound activity, but did not affect cytosolic enzyme activity. Betamethasone modestly increased CT mRNA as determined by the reverse-transcription PCR and Southern analysis of PCR products, but did not alter the levels of immunoreactive enzyme in lung membranes as demonstrated by Western blotting. The hormone did, however, produce a nearly 3-fold increase in ...