Approximately 80% of secreted and membrane proteins (40% of all proteins) of eukaryotes become covalently linked to sugars in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, a cellular organelle that is part of the secretory system of all eukaryotes. The sugar donors are mostly nucleoside diphosphate sugars (nucl …
CDP-glycerol | C12H21N3O13P2 | CID 439249 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
1 ]Dong C, Beis K, Giraud MF, Blankenfeldt W, Allard S, Major LL, Kerr ID, Whitfield C, Naismith JH. A structural perspective on the enzymes that convert dTDP-d-glucose into dTDP-l-rhamnose. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Jun;31(Pt 3):532-6. PMID 12773151 ...
Treatments with Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have offered patients carrying cancers with mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes a new and in many cases effective option for disease control. There is potentially a large patient population that may also benefit from PARP inhibitor treatment, either in monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy. Here, we describe the multifaceted role of PARP inhibitors and discuss which treatment options could potentially be useful to gain disease control without potentiating side effects.
Uridine Diphosphate Sugars information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
Ated statistic is the odds ratio (instead of fold-change). Matching 95 CIs were calculated as described . f p-values were calculated using the Fishers exact
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Abstract: Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown clinical activity in epithelial ovarian cancer, leading both the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency to approve olaparib for tumors characterized by BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that tumors that share molecular features with BRCA-mutant tumors-a concept known as BRCAness-also may exhibit defective homologous recombination DNA repair, and therefore will respond to PARP inhibition. A number of strategies have been proposed to identify BRCAness, including identifying defects in other genes that modulate homologous recombination and characterizing the mutational and transcriptional signatures of BRCAness. In addition to olaparib, a number of other PARP inhibitors are in clinical development. This article reviews the development of PARP inhibitors other than olaparib, and discusses the evidence for PARP inhibitors beyond BRCA1/2-mutant ...
article{1cb77357-aca8-4b11-9d70-6a2e46c89bc9, abstract = {We report the association of an inherited variant located upstream of the poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) gene (rs2249844), with survival in 11 BioGenoMEL melanoma cohorts. The gene encodes a protein involved in a number of cellular processes including single-strand DNA repair. Survival analysis was conducted for each cohort using proportional hazards regression adjusting for factors known to be associated with survival. Survival was measured as overall survival (OS) and, where available, melanoma-specific survival (MSS). Results were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Evidence for a role of the PARP1 protein in melanoma ulceration and survival was investigated by testing gene expression levels taken from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors. A significant association was seen for inheritance of the rarer variant of PARP1, rs2249844 with OS (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16 per allele, 95% confidence interval ...
The second recently approved drug is olaparib, which is indicated as monotherapy for women who have germline BRCA mutations and have been treated with 3 or more lines of previous chemotherapy. Olaparib is an inhibitor of the enzyme poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Approval in December 2014 was based on a trial by Kaufman and colleagues that included patients with ovarian cancer and germline BRCA mutations. The final publication included 193 patients with a median of 4 prior regimens; all were considered platinum resistant or not suitable for further platinum therapy. Using single-agent olaparib, the response rate was 31% with a 225-day median duration of response. Generally, toxicities were mild to moderate and included fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and anemia. One concern about olaparib is the potentially increased rate of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (2% in this trial).. H&O Are there any more angiogenesis inhibitors in current or recent clinical ...
Recognized as one of the 100 most technologically significant products introduced to the marketplace in the past year. The Remote Methane Leak Detector can quickly and efficiently detect leaks up to one hundred feet away. Using laser technology, remote detection allows the user to safely survey areas that may be difficult to reach, such as busy roadways, yards with large dogs, locked gates, pipe suspended under a bridge and other hard to access places. In the independent validation tests, the RMLD has proven to be a highly effective leak survey instrument, compared to flame ionization and similar equipment, but with the added advantage of remote detection. By design the RMLD is capable of achieving significant productivity gains and drastically reduce operations and maintenance costs ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1mfz. Partially refined 2.8 A Crystal structure of GDP-mannose dehydrogenase from P. aeruginosa
A Membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of Cyclic ADP-Ribose (cADPR) from Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the Hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-Ribose, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of Cyclic ADP-Ribose 2 phosphate (2-P-cADPR) from NADP ...
Randomised, phase II/III 3 stage trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the addition of olaparib to platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with TNBC and/or gBRCA.. Disease under investigation: Breast Cancer. Purpose of clinical trial: To establish if the addition of olaparib to neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) and/or germline BRCA (gBRCA) breast cancer is safe and improves efficacy.. Trial Design: Open label, randomised, 3-stage Phase II/III. Sample Size: Minimum of 527 patients (including at least 220 gBRCA patients equally allocated to the control and the selected research arm).. Non Investigational Medicinal Products: Prophylactic granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to be given as per local practice and 3 cycles of anthracyclines as per local practice.. Treatment period: A minimum of 21 weeks of chemotherapy followed by surgery.. Procedures: Screening & enrolment. Eligible patients with early breast ...
A combined two-step high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the analysis of endogenous levels of cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose (cADPR) in cell extracts. The detection sensitivity for cADPR was about 10 pmol. Linearity of the HPLC detection system was demonstrated in the range of 10 pmol up to 2 nmol. The method was validated in terms of within-day and between-day reproducibility of retention times and peak areas of standard nucleotides. The method was applied to the analysis of endogenous cADPR in human T cell lines. Sequential separation of perchloric acid extracts from cells on strong anion-exchange and reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC resulted in a single symmetrical peak co-eluting with standard cADPR. The identity of this endogenous material was further confirmed by its ability to be converted to ADPR upon heating the cell samples at 80 degrees C for 2 h. Recoveries of the combined perchloric acid extraction-HPLC analysis procedures were 48.3 +/- 10.2%. The determined
Rationale: TRPM2 (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-2) expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) is a cation channel mediating Ca2+ entry in response to intracellular generation of adenosine diphosphoribose (ADPR), the TRPM2 ligand. Objective: Because polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) interaction with endothelial cells (ECs) generates ROS, we addressed the possible role of TRPM2 expressed in ECs in the mechanism of transendothelial migration of PMNs. Methods and Results: We observed defective PMN transmigration in response to LPS challenge in adult mice in which the EC expressed TRPM2 is conditionally deleted (Trpm2iΔEC). PMN interaction with ECs induced the entry of Ca2+ in ECs via the EC-expressed TRPM2. Prevention of generation of ADPR in ECs significantly reduced Ca2+ entry in response to PMN activation of TRPM2 in ECs. PMNs isolated from gp91phox-/- mice significantly reduced Ca2+ entry in ECs via TRPM2 as compared to WT PMNs and failed to induce PMN transmigration. Overexpression of the ...
The rhamnolipid pathway in P. aeruginosa comprises three key enzymes and is based on the two precursors rhamnose and β-hydroxy-fatty acid (Fig. 1). The activated β-hydroxy-fatty acid hydroxyacyl-ACP is generated in the fatty acid de novo synthesis. Subsequently the first rhamnolipid specific enzyme 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP:3-hydroxyacyl-ACP O-3-hydroxy-acyl-transferase (RhlA) connects two hydroxyacyl-ACP molecules to form a dimer called hydroxyalkanoyloxy alkanoate (HAA). This molecule does not contain a rhamnose unit and thus is not a rhamnolipid. Due to its ester, carboxyl, and hydroxy groups and resulting amphiphilic structure, it nevertheless is a biosurfactant. The second precursor originates in six reactions from glucose. Activated dTDP-l-rhamnose is then fused by rhamnosyltransferase I (RhlB) to the HAA molecule to yield a mono-rhamnolipid. The second rhamnosyltransferase (RhlC) adds a second sugar to the mono-rhamnolipid, finally leading to the di-rhamnolipid biosurfactant.. The environmental ...
It is shown that an inorganic ionic polymer (sodium polyphosphate) exhibits the same type of glass transition temp. versus average chain length behavior as non-ionic organic polymers. If the chain ends resemble the terminal units, specifically in terms of the number of anions per phosphorus atom, the material is entirely analogous in its behavior to the organic materials, as shown, for instance, by the applicability of the Gibbs-DiMarzio theory. By contrast, if the terminal units possess two anions per phosphorus atom, a profound change in behavior is observed. (Author)(*INORGANIC POLYMERS
The acid-soluble products of exhaustive digestion of native DNA with Bacillus laterosporus DNase consist of 6.5% of mononucleotides and 93.5% of oligonucleotides with an average chain length of 3.2. The results of viscometric studies and inactivation of transforming DNA indicate the exi...read more ...
The Poly (ADP-Ribose) Antibody is an anti-poly (ADP-ribose) antibody raised in mouse and can be used for Western blot, IHC, and ICC detection.
The Poly (ADP-Ribose) Antibody is an anti-poly (ADP-ribose) antibody raised in mouse and can be used for Western blot, IHC, and ICC detection.
Ated GCC box in vitro.Prediction of cis-acting Elements of Promoter Region of AaERFPutative cis-acting elements of the promoter were predicted using the
Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain ATCC 9595 Wzd (wzd), Wze (wze), Wzx (wzx),WelF (welF), WelG (welG), WelH (welH), WelI (welI), Wzy (wzy), WelJ (welJ),Wzm (wzm), RmlA (rmlA), RmlC (rmlC), RmlB (rmlB), RmlD (rmlD), WelE (welE),Wzr (wzr), Wzb (wzb), ClpL (clpL), and Nrp (nrp) genes, complete ...
DABBS Eric r. , YAZAWA Katsukiyo , TANAKA Yasushi , MIKAMI Yuzuru , MIYAJI Makoto , ANDERSEN Susan j. , MORISAKI Naoko , IWASAKI Shigeo , SHIDA Osamu , TAKAGI Hiroaki , KADOWAKI Kiyoshi Journal of antibiotics 48(8), 815-819, 1995-08-25 J-STAGE 参考文献12件 被引用文献2件 ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recently, a number of mimics of the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) with replacement of adenosine by inosine were introduced. In addition, various alterations in the molecule ranging from substitutions at C8 of the base up to full replacement of the ribose moieties still retained biological activity. However, nothing is known about the metabolic stability and cellular effects of these novel analogues. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: cADPR and the inosine-based analogues were incubated with CD38, ADP-ribosyl cyclase and NAD-glycohydrolase and metabolism was analysed by RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the effect of the analogues on cytokine expression and proliferation was investigated in primary T-lymphocytes and T-lymphoma cells. KEY RESULTS: Incubation of cADPR with CD38 resulted in degradation to adenosine diphosphoribose. ADP-ribosyl cyclase weakly catabolised cADPR whereas NAD-glycohydrolase showed no such activity. In contrast, N1-cyclic inosine 5-diphosphoribose (N1-cIDPR) was not
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in nuclei isolated from differentiating cardiac muscle of the rat has been characterized and its activity measured during development. Optimum enzyme activity is observed at pH 8.5. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is inhibited by ATP, thymidine, nicotinamide, theophylline, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and caffeine and stimulated by actinomycin D. The activity measured under optimal assay conditions increases during differentiation of cardiac muscle and is inversely related to the rate of DNA synthesis and to the activities of DNA polymerase α and thymidine kinase. When DNA synthesis and the activity of DNA polymerase α are inhibited in cardiac muscle of the 1-day-old neonatal rat by dibutyryl cyclic AMP or isoproterenol, the specific activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase measured in isolated nuclei is increased. The concentration of NAD+ in cardiac muscle increases during postnatal development. In the adult compared with the 1-day-old neonatal rat the ...
Nowadays it has become evident that a chronic systemic inflammation is present in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).. The role of the nuclear enzyme poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose)polymerase (PARP) as a key mediator within these systemic inflammatory processes as well as in COPD associated exercise intolerance and muscle weakness could recently been identified. The attenuating effect of dietary ingredients with PARP inhibiting activity on systemic inflammation was supported by data from in vitro and in vivo studies, from other groups as well as from our own lab. We identified several caffeine metabolites as potent inhibitors of the most abundant PARP-isoform PARP-1 in-vitro, in animal models as well as in ex-vivo experiments with whole blood from COPD patients.. However, clinical data with respect to their anti-inflammatory effects in COPD patients are currently not available for none of these substances. Therefore, the current clinical pilot study is ...
Trypanosomatids express complex glycoproteins and glycolipids that are often essential to their viability and virulence. In these parasites, sugar nucleotides are the sugar donors for protein and lipid glycosylation. But there had been no information on which sugar nucleotides are present in these parasites, and what their cellular concentrations might be. Daniel C. Turnock and Michael A.J. Ferguson of the University of Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom, developed a new liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method to sensitively and selectively identify and measure sugar nucleotides in cell extracts.
TRPM2 is a Ca2+-permeable cation channel that is specifically activated by adenosine diphosphoribose (ADPR). Channel activation in the plasma membrane leads to Ca2+ influx and has been linked to apoptotic mechanisms. The primary agonist, ADPR, is produced both extra- and intracellularly and causes increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), but the mechanisms involved are not understood. Using short interfering RNA and a knockout mouse, we report that TRPM2, in addition to its role as a plasma membrane channel, also functions as a Ca2+-release channel activated by intracellular ADPR in a lysosomal compartment. We show that both functions of TRPM2 are critically linked to hydrogen peroxide-induced β cell death. Additionally, extracellular ADPR production by the ectoenzyme CD38 from its substrates NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) or cADPR causes IP3-dependent Ca2+ release via P2Y and adenosine receptors. Thus, ADPR and TRPM2 represent multimodal signaling elements ...
Disclosed are oral compositions comprising one or more linear polyphosphates having an average chain length of about 4 or more, sodium monofluorophosphate, a buffering agent, an abrasive polishing material containing less than 23% calcium, and one or more aqueous carriers, wherein the oral composition has a total water content of from about 5% to about 20%.
Accepted name: teichoic acid glycerol-phosphate primase. Reaction: CDP-glycerol + N-acetyl-β-D-mannosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = CDP + 4-O-[(2R)-1-glycerophospho]-N-acetyl-β-D-mannosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol. Other name(s): Tag primase; CDP-glycerol:glycerophosphate glycerophosphotransferase; tagB (gene name); tarB (gene name). Systematic name: CDP-glycerol:N-acetyl-β-D-mannosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol glycerophosphotransferase. Comments: Involved in the biosynthesis of teichoic acid linkage units in bacterial cell walls. This enzyme adds the first glycerol unit to the disaccharide linker of the teichoic acid.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Bhavsar, A.P., Truant, R. and Brown, E.D. The TagB protein in Bacillus subtilis 168 is an intracellular peripheral membrane ...
dTDP-β-L-rhamnose = dTDP-6-deoxy-β-L-mannose. Other name(s): dTDP-4-keto-L-rhamnose reductase; reductase, thymidine diphospho-4-ketorhamnose; dTDP-4-ketorhamnose reductase; TDP-4-keto-rhamnose reductase; thymidine diphospho-4-ketorhamnose reductase; dTDP-6-deoxy-L-mannose:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase; dTDP-6-deoxy-β-L-mannose:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase. Systematic name: dTDP-β-L-rhamnose:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase. Comments: In the reverse direction, reduction on the 4-position of the hexose moiety takes place only while the substrate is bound to another enzyme that catalyses epimerization at C-3 and C-5; the complex has been referred to as dTDP-L-rhamnose synthase.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37250-64-9. References:. 1. Melo, A. and Glaser, L. The mechanism of 6-deoxyhexose synthesis. II. Conversion of deoxythymidine diphosphate 4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to deoxythymidine diphosphate L-rhamnose. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 1475-1478. [PMID: ...
Enzymatic synthesis of cytidine diphosphate 3,6-dideoxyhexoses. II. Reversible 2-epimerization of cytidine diphosphate paratose ...
BFA induces the ADP-ribosylation of BARS-50 and GAPDH in permeabilized cells. (A) RBL cells were permeabilized with 3 U/ml SLO and exposed to 10 μg/ml BFA
1KC3: Variation on a theme of SDR. dTDP-6-deoxy-L- lyxo-4-hexulose reductase (RmlD) shows a new Mg2+-dependent dimerization mode.
Looking for online definition of ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour-suppressor protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour-suppressor protein 1 explanation free. What is ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour-suppressor protein 1? Meaning of ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour-suppressor protein 1 medical term. What does ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour-suppressor protein 1 mean?
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Pooley HM, Abellan FX, Karamata D (1992) CDP-glycerol:poly(glycerophosphate) glycerophosphotransferase, which is involved in the synthesis of the major wall teichoic acid in Bacillus subtilis 168, is encoded by tagF (rodC). J Bacteriol 174:646-9.[PMID:1309530 ...
Mingji Dai and co-workers at Purdue reported in JACS on the synthesis of spinosyn A through a carbonylative macrolactonization. JACS paper
[120 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP) Inhibitor -Pipeline Insights, 2017 report by Delve Insight. DelveInsight s, Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP) Inhibitor-Mechanism...
INTRODUCTION Sebum is a hallmark characteristic of oily skin, which typifies or is usually associ- ated with acne-prone skin. The goal of this chapter is to present recent findings regarding ...
GDP-mannose + D-Glc-beta-(1->4)-Glc-alpha-1-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol <=> GDP + D-Man-alpha-(1->3)-D-Glc-beta-(1->4)-D-Glc-alpha-1-diphospho-ditrans,octacis- ...
In the absence of detergent, the transfer of mannose from GDP-mannose to rat liver microsomal vesicles was highly stimulated by exogenous retinyl phosphate in incubations containing bovine serum albumin, as measured in a filter binding assay. Under these conditions 65% of mannose 6-phosphatase activity was latent. The transfer process was linear with time up to 5min and with protein concentration up to 1.5mg/0.2ml. It was also temperature-dependent. The microsomal uptake of mannose was highly dependent on retinyl phosphate and was saturable against increasing amounts of retinyl phosphate, a concentration of 15μm giving half-maximal transfer. The uptake system was also saturated by increasing concentrations of GDP-mannose, with an apparent Km of 18μm. Neither exogenous dolichyl phosphate nor non-phosphorylated retinoids were active in this process in the absence of detergent. Phosphatidylethanolamine and synthetic dipalmitoylglycerophosphocholine were also without activity. Several ...
Arginine adenosine-5′-diphosphoribosylation (ADP-ribosylation) is an enzyme-catalyzed potentially reversible posttranslational changes where the ADP-ribose moiety is transferred from NAD+ towards the guanidino CHR2797 moiety of arginine. proteins with binding companions e.g. toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of actin at R177 blocks actin polymerization sterically. In case there is the nucleotide-gated P2X7 ion route ADP-ribosylation at R125 near the ligand-binding site causes route Rabbit Polyclonal to SF3B3. gating. Arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) bring a quality R-S-EXE theme that distinguishes these enzymes from structurally related enzymes which catalyze ADP-ribosylation of additional amino acid part chains DNA or little substances. Arginine-specific ADP-ribosylation could be inhibited by little molecule arginine analogues such as for example CHR2797 agmatine or meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) which themselves can serve as focuses on for arginine-specific ARTs. ...
Definition of cytidine diphosphate choline. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
... is an acid degradation product produced by selective hydrolysis of the more labile forosamine saccharide in the 17-position in spinosyn D, the minor component of commercial product, Spinosad. Spinosyn D 17-pseudoaglycone is only weakly active as an insecticide as the forosamine moiety is considered essential for potent activity. Despite the importance of spinosyns as agro-chemical insecticides and more recently as animal health products, there are few published reports of the biological activity or the levels of spinosyn D 17-pseudoaglycone in animals or in the environment ...
Mouse monoclonal Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymer antibody [10H]. Validated in IHC and tested in Rat, Human. Cited in 31 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 12 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to -.
Background: Poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is important in maintaining genomic stability, repairing DNA damage, and regulating transcriptional processe
ADP-ribosylation is the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to a protein. It is a reversible post-translational modification that is involved in many cellular processes, including cell signaling, DNA repair, gene regulation and apoptosis. Improper ADP-ribosylation has been implicated in some forms of cancer. It is also the basis for the toxicity of bacterial compounds such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and others. The first suggestion of ADP-ribosylation surfaced during the early 1960s. At this time, Pierre Chambon and coworkers observed the incorporation of ATP into hen liver nuclei extract. After extensive studies on the acid insoluble fraction, several different research laboratories were able to identify ADP-ribose, derived from NAD+, as the incorporated group. Several years later, the enzymes responsible for this incorporation were identified and given the name poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Originally, this group was thought to be a linear sequence of ADP-ribose units ...
Cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance is an important factor that influences the effects of chemotherapy in multiple myeloma. DTX3L, a ubiquitin ligase, plays a key role in cell-cycle-related process. Here, we found that the expression of DTX3L gradually increased during the proliferation of myeloma cells, which resulted in arrest of the cell cycle in the G1 phase and promoted the adherence of myeloma cells to fibronectin or bone marrow stromal cells. In addition, silencing of DTX3L improved sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs in multiple myeloma cell lines adherent to bone marrow stromal cells and increased the expression of caspase-3 and poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase, two markers of apoptosis ...