Normetanephrine is a metabolite of norepinephrine created by action of catechol-O-methyl transferase on norepinephrine. It is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for catecholamine-secreting tumors such as pheochromocytoma. ...
Pressure, she was prescribed captopril and bisoprolol-hydrochlorothiazide. A 24-hour urine collection demonstrated elevated normetanephrine at 1250
Case Presentation: 42 year old male presented to the hospital with non-exertional left-sided chest pain that was radiating to his left jaw. His past medical history was significant for gastro-esophageal reflux disease and generalized anxiety disorder. He had a one year history of palpitations, headache, and sweating associated with minimal blood pressure fluctuations. These episodes lasted few minutes to half an hour and occurred two to three times per week. Initial blood pressure was 113/73 mm Hg and pulse rate was 78 bpm. Complete blood count, random blood sugar, blood urea, troponin levels, chest x-ray, and EKG were within normal limit. CT scan of abdomen showed a small right heterogeneously enhancing adrenal mass. 24-hour testing for urine metanephrine, normetanephrine, and dopamine were obtained. Urine 24-hour dopamine level was elevated at 1300 mcg/24h but metanenephrine and normetanephrine levels were in high normal range. Subsequent MRI and MIBG scan confirmed a small right adrenal mass. ...
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The Dopamine Metabolite 3-Methoxytyramine Is a Neuromodulator. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
O-methylated metabolites Deaminated metabolites FHfflRHIflH Catecholaminergic neurotransmission. A, In dopamine-producing nerve terminals, dopamine is
Looking for online definition of normetanephrine in the Medical Dictionary? normetanephrine explanation free. What is normetanephrine? Meaning of normetanephrine medical term. What does normetanephrine mean?
The protein matrix of the plasma sample is removed by using special precipitating reagents. normetanephrine and metanephrine in the supernatant are then quantitatively acylated to their N-acyl-derivates. The assay procedure follows the basic principle of radioimmunoassays, involving competition between a radioactive and a non-radioactive antigen for a fixed number of antibody binding sites. The amount of 125Ilabelled antigen bound to the antibody is inversely proportional to the analyte concentration of the sample. When the system is in equilibrium, the antibody bound radioactivity is separated using a 2nd antibody and PEG. After centrifugation the precipitate is counted in a gamma counter. Quantification of unknown samples is achieved by comparing their activity with a reference curve prepared with known standards. Important note: The antisera used in this test kit only recognize the biologically relevant L-forms of metanephrines. Commercially availabe synthetic normetanephrine or metanephrine ...
Nephrines urine ELISA kit is intended for detecting in vitro quantitative concentrations of metanephrine (M) and normetanephrine (NM) in human urine samples.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay for Plasma Free Metanephrines in the Biochemical Diagnosis of Phaeochromocytoma in Adults is not ideal. AU - Mullins, F. AU - Fitzgerald, R. AU - OShea, P. AU - Tormey, William. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. U2 - 10.1515/CCLM.2011.742. DO - 10.1515/CCLM.2011.742. M3 - Article. VL - 50. SP - 105. EP - 110. JO - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. T2 - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. JF - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. SN - 1434-6621. IS - 1. ER - ...
Results:. Pheochromocytomas were associated with increases in plasma concentrations of metanephrines that were greater and more consistent than those in plasma catecholamine concentrations. No patient with a pheochromocytoma had normal plasma concentrations of both normetanephrine and metanephrine. The sensitivity of these tests was 100% (52 of 52 patients [95% CI, 94% to 100%]), and the negative predictive value of normal plasma concentrations of metanephrines was 100% (162 of 162 patients). Tests for plasma catecholamines yielded eight false-negative results and a sensitivity of 85% (44 of 52 patients [CI, 72% to 93%]). The negative predictive value of normal plasma concentrations of catecholamines was 95% (156 of 164 patients). Tests for urinary metanephrines yielded five false-negative results and a sensitivity of 89% (41 of 46 patients [CI, 76% to 96%]). Because no statistical difference was noted in the number of false-positive results between tests for plasma metanephrines (15%) and tests ...
The main theme of this thesis are rare neuroendocrine tumors and we describe the optimization of the current laboratory methods that are used in the diagnostic procedure for patients with a pheochromocytoma and the development of new diagnostic laboratory methods. Pheochromocytoma are rare neuroendocrine tumors that derive from the adrenal gland and secrete catecholamines. The metabolic end-products of the catecholamines can be measured as metanephrine and normetanephrine in plasma and urine. We showed that patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral adrenalectomy had a higher concentration of plasma normetanephrine and a lower concentration of plasma metanephrine. We recommend the use of adapted laboratory reference values in these patients. In addition, we have shown that the concentration of metanephrine and normetanephrine in plasma is not affected by commonly used blood pressure lowering medication, when determined with a very sensitive laboratory method. Furthermore, we studied the ...
Products / HPLC ClinRep® Complete Kits Metanephrines Metanephrines are important parameters for the diagnosis of tumors of the sympathoadrenal system. Serum Urine Plasma Whole Blood Dried Blood Spots manual sample preparation with Gilson ASPEC TM manual sample preparation Metanephrines, i.e. metanephrine (M), normetanephrine (NM) and 3-methoxytyramine (MT), are the primary…
Also known as: Plasma Metanephrines Formal name: Fractionated plasma free metanephrines (normetanephrine and metanephrine) Related tests: Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine; Urine Metanephrines; Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) At a Glance Why Get Tested? To help diagnose or rule out a pheochromocytoma When to Get Tested? When you have persistent or episodic high blood pressure and symptoms such…
This test measures the substances metanephrine and normetanephrine in your blood. It helps find out if you have a tumor of the adrenal glands.
Urine metanephrines testing is used to help detect or rule out the presence of a rare tumor called a pheochromocytoma or a paraganglioma that releases excess metanephrines.
1. The following compounds were glucuronidated in the presence of UDP-glucuronic acid and a microsomal preparation made from guinea-pig liver: 14C-labelled 3-O-methyladrenaline, 3-O-methylnoradrenaline, 3-methoxytyramine and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethanol, as well as unlabelled harmalol and harmol. 2. [14C]Homovanillic (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic) acid was not a substrate for the microsomal glucuronyltransferase. 3. The Km values for harmalol and harmol were 0·69×10−4m and 0·50×10−4m respectively. 4. The Km values for UDP-glucuronic acid, in the presence of 14C-labelled 3-O-methylnoradrenaline, harmalol and harmol as aglycones, were 0·57×10−4m, 0·44×10−4m and 2·20×10−4m respectively. 5. Mg2+ added at 2·5-10mm activated glucuronyltransferase, with harmalol as substrate. Concentrations above 10mm inhibited the enzymic activity. 6. The overall, or net, transglucuronidating activity of microsomal preparations of the liver, with harmalol as substrate, was greatest for guinea ...
for the diagnosis of cancer of the adrenal glands, in addition to carrying out routine laboratory investigations (the general, biochemistry of blood coagulation, urinalysis), provided the execution of tests aimed at to identify the increased production of hormones.. order to identify Cushings syndrome is dexamethasone suppression test (1 mg) and is determined by the excretion of cortisol in the urine (24 h).If hyperaldosteronism estimated concentration and the ratio of aldosterone and renin;virilization - provides evaluation of serum levels of adrenal androgens (androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) and testosterone, and 17-ketosteroids excretion in the urine (24 h);feminization - estimated plasma concentrations of estradiol and zstrona.To exclude pheochromocytoma necessary to estimate the daily urinary catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine) and their metabolites in urine (in particular, normetanephrine and metanephrine) and serum levels of catecholamines and ...
The principal finding in this study is that orexin modulates the activity of RVLM adrenal sympathetic premotor neurons, resulting in excitation of adrenal chromaffin cells. We showed that local glucoprivation or disinhibition of PeH neurons increased ASNA, whereas inhibition of PeH neurons abolished the ASNA response after systemic glucoprivation. Conversely, glucoprivation of perifornical neurons subsequent to activation by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline reduced the adrenal sympathoexcitatory response. In addition, local neuroglucoprivation in the RVLM failed to activate premotor neurons in vivo or in vitro, suggesting that RVLM neurons are not intrinsically glucose-sensitive. Finally, ASNA was directly correlated with plasma metanephrine levels but not normetanephrine levels, confirming that adrenal sympathoexcitation coincides with adrenaline release into the circulation. The ASNA, noradrenaline, and adrenaline responses to glucoprivation noted in our study were consistent with previous ...
3MT : A first- and second-order screening test for the presumptive diagnosis of catecholamine-secreting pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas   Testing in conjunction or as an alternative to plasma metanephrines (PMET / Metanephrines, Fractionated, Free, Plasma) or plasma catecholamine (CATP / Catecholamine Fractionation, Free, Plasma) testing
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 881-95-8 (±)-METANEPHRINE:HCL (D3, 98%) 100 UG/ML IN METHANOL (AS FREE BASE). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
METAF : A first- and second-order screening test for the presumptive diagnosis of catecholamine-secreting pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas Confirming positive plasma metanephrine results
Alpha-Methyldopa. 20 Jahre Erfahrung u. Bewertung. Internat. Symposium Wien 1980. Hrsg. v. W. Kaufmann u. G. Kroneberg. PDF By author last download was at 2017-02-20 57:58:44. This book is good alternative for Alpha-Methyldopa - 20 Jahre Erfahrung und Bewertung -- - Internationales Symposium Wien 4. - 7. Dezember 1890 -. Download now for free or you can read online Alpha-Methyldopa. 20 Jahre Erfahrung u. Bewertung. Internat. Symposium Wien 1980. Hrsg. v. W. Kaufmann u. G. Kroneberg. book ...
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Metanephrine definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in phase II (conjugative) metabolism of catecholamines and catechol drugs, such as dopamine, as well as the catechol-estrogens. COMT transfers a donor methyl-group from S-adenosylmethionine to acceptor hydroxy groups on catechol structures (aromatic ring structures with vicinal hydroxy-groups).(1) Bioactive catecholamine metabolites are metabolized by COMT in conjunction with monoamine oxidase (MAO):. -Norepinephrine is methylated by COMT forming normetanephrine.. -Epinephrine is methylated by COMT forming metanephrine.. -Dopamine is converted to homovanillic acid through the combined action of MAO and COMT.. Parkinsonism patients receiving levodopa (L-DOPA) therapy are frequently also prescribed a COMT inhibitor to minimize metabolism of L-DOPA by COMT, thereby prolonging L-DOPA action.. COMT is also involved in the inactivation of estrogens. Estradiol can be hydroxylated forming the catechol estrogens 2-hydroxyestradiol and 4-hydroxyestradiol.(2) ...
... can detect abnormal levels of metanephrine and normetanephrine in the blood. Symptoms of pheochromocytoma include headaches, sweating, flushing, and rapid heart rate.
Definition of Alpha-methyltyrosine with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
During postnatal development of CA1 pyramidal neurons, GABAergic synapses are excitatory and established prior to glutamatergic synapses. As interneurons are generated before pyramidal cells, we have tested the hypothesis that the GABAergic interneuronal network is operative before glutamate pyramidal neurons and provides the initial patterns of activity. We patch-clamp recorded interneurons in foetal (69 neurons) and neonatal P0 (162 neurons) hippocampal slices and performed a morphofunctional analysis of biocytin-filled neurons. At P0, three types of interneurons were found: (i) non-innervated silent interneurons (5%) with no spontaneous or evoked synaptic currents; (ii) G interneurons (17%) with GABAA synapses only; and (iii) GG interneurons with GABA and glutamatergic synapses (78%). Relying on the neuronal capacitance, cell body size and arborization of dendrites and axons, the three types of interneurons correspond to three stages of development with non-innervated neurons and ...
The effects of dl-metanephrine (300 µg/kg i.v.) were determined on responses of the nictitating membrane to norepinephrine, to phenylephrine and to nerve stimulation. After the administration of metanephrine there was an increase in responses of the normal nictitating membrane to norepinephrine and to pnenylephrine in the lower part of the dose-response curve. The rest of the dose-response curve was practically superimposed on the corresponding controls. A similar pattern was observed for the denervated (2 days) nictitating membrane. Responses to pre- and to postganglionic stimulation obtained after the administration of metanephrine were increased for the range of low frequencies of stimulation. The rest of the frequency-response curve was superimposed on the control curve. The increase in responses in the lower part of the response curves was shown to be due to the additive effects of metanephrine and the injected sympathomimetic amine or the endogenously released norepinephrine. It is ...
A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with a presumed allergic reaction to a single dose of amoxicillin given for a suspected upper respiratory tract infection. She complained of chest tightness although there was no wheeze or stridor. On examination, she was pyrexial, tachycardic, hypertensive and had a diffuse mottled rash on her lower limbs. Her initial investigations showed raised inflammatory markers. She was treated in the intensive care for a presumed anaphylactic reaction with an underlying sepsis. Further investigations including CT head and CSF examination were unremarkable; however, a CT abdomen showed a 10 cm heterogeneous right adrenal mass. Based on review by the endocrine team, a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma crisis was made, which was subsequently confirmed on 24-h urinary metanephrine measurement. An emergency adrenalectomy was considered although she was deemed unfit for surgery. Despite intensive medical management, her conditioned deteriorated and she died secondary to ...
A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with a presumed allergic reaction to a single dose of amoxicillin given for a suspected upper respiratory tract infection. She complained of chest tightness although there was no wheeze or stridor. On examination, she was pyrexial, tachycardic, hypertensive and had a diffuse mottled rash on her lower limbs. Her initial investigations showed raised inflammatory markers. She was treated in the intensive care for a presumed anaphylactic reaction with an underlying sepsis. Further investigations including CT head and CSF examination were unremarkable; however, a CT abdomen showed a 10 cm heterogeneous right adrenal mass. Based on review by the endocrine team, a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma crisis was made, which was subsequently confirmed on 24-h urinary metanephrine measurement. An emergency adrenalectomy was considered although she was deemed unfit for surgery. Despite intensive medical management, her conditioned deteriorated and she died secondary to ...
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Using an isolated canine heart preparation, the myocardial norepinephrine pool was labeled by injecting tritiated norepinephrine into the blood perfusing the heart. The extraction of the norepinephrine during a single circulation through the coronary bed was shown to be large (74%). As the isotopic material, which was extracted, was released spontaneously from the norepinephrine pool 75% to 88% of it was metabolized before appearing in the coronary venous blood. The chief metabolite has been demonstrated to be normetanephrine which accounts for 39.0% to 61.7% of the spontaneously released norepinephrine. Because of this it is concluded that catechol-O-methyl transferase is the enzyme primarily responsible for the metabolic inactivation of norepinephrine in the canine heart. When release was increased by the injection of tyramine, more of the released norepinephrine appeared unmetabolized in coronary venous blood, suggesting that the enzymatic process by which norepinephrine is inactivated may be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of catechol O-methyltransferase to the removal of accumulated interstitial catecholamines evoked by myocardial ischemia. AU - Kuroko, Yosuke. AU - Fujii, Takafumi. AU - Yamazaki, Toji. AU - Akiyama, Tsuyoshi. AU - Ishino, Kozo. AU - Sano, Shunji. AU - Mori, Hidezo. PY - 2005/11/11. Y1 - 2005/11/11. N2 - Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays an important role for clearance of high catecholamine levels. Although myocardial ischemia evokes similar excessive catecholamine accumulation, it is uncertain whether COMT activity is involved in the removal of accumulated catecholamines evoked by myocardial ischemia. We examined how COMT activity affects myocardial catecholamine levels during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. We implanted a dialysis probe into the left ventricular myocardial free wall and measured dialysate catecholamines levels in anesthetized rabbits. Dialysate catecholamine levels served as an index of myocardial interstitial catecholamine levels. We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-DOPA biotransformation. T2 - Correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with metabolic pathways in Parkinsonian patients. AU - Dousa, M. K.. AU - Weinshilboum, Richard M. AU - Muenter, M. D.. AU - Offord, K. P.. AU - Decker, P. A.. AU - Tyce, G. M.. PY - 2003/8/1. Y1 - 2003/8/1. N2 - The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the effects of dose and drug absorption on pathways of biotransformation of L-DOPA in Parkinsonian patients treated with Sinemet, and (2) the extent to which genetically-determined variations in the activities of erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and/or platelet phenol sulfotransferase might be reflected in individual differences in L-DOPA metabolism. In the 19 patients studied, there were negative correlations between dosage or absorption and extent of O-methylation and of sulfation of L-DOPA or its metabolites. Levels of activity for erythrocyte COMT were also reflected in individual ...
A 76-year-old woman was admitted for cardiac decompensation, hypertension, and renal failure. To explore her chronic hypertension, urinary fractionated metanephrines were quantified. Fig. 1A shows the chromatogram of the patients urine, and Fig. 1B shows the chromatogram of a calibration standard. A very large methoxytyramine peak was observed (Fig. 1A, black arrow). The peak signal was saturated, representing a concentration greater than 16 200 nmol/L (0-1 600 nmol/L).. ...
The effects of morphine have been evaluated in two strains of mice showing different behavioral responses. Morphine elicits an increase of locomotor activity only in the C57BL/6J(C57) strain, whereas no effect is found when the opiate is injected to the DBA/2J mice (DBA). On the other hand, the DBA strain, unlike the C57 mice, is very sensitive to the analgesic effects of morphine. The following biochemical parameters have been studied: dopamine (DA) release in the striatum as shown by the measurements of 3-methoxytyramine and cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels in the striatum, cyclic AMP and cyclic guanosine 3:5-monophosphate (cylic GMP) levels in the cerebellum. The levels of 3-methoxytyramine and cyclic AMP in the striatum are increased in the C57 strain. Haloperidol, a DA receptor blocker, and naltrexone, a pure morphine antagonist, reverse this effect. Neither DA release nor cyclic AMP is increased by morphine in the DBA strain. The results demonstrate that the ...
1292] Mattay, V. S., Goldberg T. E., Fera F., Hariri A. R., Tessitore A., Egan M. F., et al. (2003). Catechol O-methyltransferase val158-met genotype and individual variation in the brain response to amphetamine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100(10), 6186 - 6191. ...
Nutopia, Lowest Price NMN at $1.76/gram ? - posted in Retailer/Product Discussion: Nutopia NMN, 500mg of NMN per serving, 30 servings per bottle. Currently priced at $26.40 a bottle. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07XX326SW/ Could this be the lowest priced NMN?
Chest X-Ray to evaluate cardiac size; echocardiogram to assess valves and ejection fraction as well as LVH; bloodwork includes a basic chemistry to asses for electrolytes and creatinine; 24 hours fractionated urinary metanephrines and cathecolamines; renal ultrasound; nuclear imaging of kidneys with Lasix to assess renal function; MRA of renal arteries as a non invasive approach to renovascular hypertension ...
After i.p. injection of l-3-14C-[3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl]alanine (l-3-14C-O-methyldopa) to rats, small amounts of labeled catecholamines are found in the brain. In the urine, homovanillic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, 3, 4-dihydroxvphenylacetic acid and O-methyldopa appear as the main radioactive compounds. In addition, minor amounts of labeled 3-methoxytyramine, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine are excreted. Dopacetamide, an inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase, enhances the urinary content of 14C-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 14C-dopamine but decreases that of 14C-3-methoxytyramine. The major metabolite of 14C-3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid in the urine of rats is 14C-homovanillic acid, but in addition some labeled O-methyldopa and catecholamines appear. The decarboxylation of l-1-14C-O-methyldopa (carboxyl-labeled) in vivo proceeds at a much slower rate than that of l-1-14C-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as judged by measurements of the expired 14CO2. In ...
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Demethylzeylasteral is among the extracts of Hook F, which has important assignments in multiple biological procedures such as irritation inhibition, aswell as immunosuppression. thus inhibits its ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Jointly, demethylzeylasteral is normally a appealing anti-tumor substance in melanoma cells. Demethylzeylasteral can be a potential inhibitor of MCL1. Melanoma can be known as malignant melanoma from melanocytes.1 Surgical resection may be the main way for sufferers NSC 105823 struggling early-stage melanoma.1, 2 Unfortunately, melanoma lesions always stay undetectable,3 which leads to the hold off for melanoma therapy.4, 5 Moreover, melanoma may break out NSC 105823 in later levels,6 when melanoma cells disseminate to varied organs, such as for example human brain, lung or liver organ.2 Consequently, surgical procedure is much less favorable for sufferers. Chemotherapeutic therapy has an important function in cases like this. Theoretically, chemotherapeutic agents ...
Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme inhibitor. Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a non-endogenous drug involved in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway. AMPT inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase whose enzymatic activity is regulated through the phosphorylation of different serine residue regulatory domain sites. Catecholamine biosynthesis starts with dietary tyrosine, which is hydroxylated by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. It is hypothesized that AMPT competes with tyrosine at the tyrosine-binding site, causing inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase. It has been used in the treatment of pheochromocytoma. It has been demonstrated to inhibit the production of melanin. AMPT inhibits catecholamine biosynthesis at the first step-the hydroxylation of tyrosine. Reduction in catecholamines and their metabolites (normetanephrine, metanephrine, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid) result from the inhibition of tyrosine using AMPT. AMPT doses of 600 to 4,000 mg per day cause a 20 to ...
in the control diet were substituted by fish oil, but in the 4th, and 5th group beef fat substituted the carbohydrate in a ratio of 20% and 40% respectively. After two weeks of feeding, the animals were sacrificed, the plasma and liver samples were obtained and kept at -20 till analysis. PLasma levels of glucose, free fatty acids [FAAs] , total lipids and insulin were measured, moreover, liver FFAS and total lipids were measured. The results indicated that the plasma glucose level was increased by 73% in groups [4 and 5] fed on diets containing 20% and 40% beef fat, while [FFAs] in plasma significantly increased in the same groups. On the other hand, plasma [FFAs] level revealed 40% and 50% decrease in the animal groups fed on the diets containing 20% and 40% fish oil respectively. The plasma insulin levels were significantly increased by 109% and 135% in the same respective groups. In the animals fed on the diet containing 40% fish oil, the total plasma lipids showed a significant decrease of ...
Diagnosis of malignant PPGL, based on imaging or biopsy evidence of metastases in liver, bones, lungs and or lymph nodes, combined with at least one of two further confirmatory diagnoses: 1. diagnosis of PPGL from histopathological review of resected or biopsied tissue performed by a skilled pathologist (centralized review will be performed in all cases either before enrolment in case of any doubt or during the study); or 2. in patients where tumor tissue is unavailable for formal pathological review, from combined biochemical and functional imaging evidence of PPGL (e.g., MIBG scintigraphy combined with consistently and highly elevated plasma or urine levels of metanephrines ...
Diagnosis of malignant PPGL, based on imaging or biopsy evidence of metastases in liver, bones, lungs and or lymph nodes, combined with at least one of two further confirmatory diagnoses: 1. diagnosis of PPGL from histopathological review of resected or biopsied tissue performed by a skilled pathologist (centralized review will be performed in all cases either before enrolment in case of any doubt or during the study); or 2. in patients where tumor tissue is unavailable for formal pathological review, from combined biochemical and functional imaging evidence of PPGL (e.g., MIBG scintigraphy combined with consistently and highly elevated plasma or urine levels of metanephrines ...
Clinical endocrinology has always had a close relationship with laboratory medicine. In fact, the quantification of hormones is of great importance for diagnosis, treatment, recurrence and patients prognosis of endocrine disorders. This review dealt with the role of the laboratory in diagnosing endocrine pathologies related to adrenal gland, pituitary, gonads and thyroid. The measurements of the main hormones (17- hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone, estradiol, cortisol, aldosterone, metanephrines, thyroglobulin and insulin-like-growth factor-1) were described considering analytical characteristics but also some aspects of pre-analytical and post- analytical steps. Traditionally, hormonal quantification is performed with immunoassays (IMAs), which have several advantages (i.e. limited training of technicians, high throughput, widely spread worldwide), but also some limitations on the accuracy of the results due mainly to cross-reactivity of IMA ...
A standing shock wave behind the Moon was predicted by Michel (1967) but never observed nor simulated. We use 1D hybrid code in order to simulate the collapse of the plasma-free cavity behind the Moon and for the first time to model the formation of this shock. Starting immediately downstream of the obstacle we consider the evolution of plasma expansion into the cavity in the frame of reference moving along with the solar wind. Well-known effects as electric charging of the cavity affecting the... ...