ABSTRACT: Betanodaviruses, the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis in marine fish, have bipartite positive-sense RNA genomes. The viruses have been classified into 4 distinct types based on nucleotide sequence similarities in the variable region (the so-called T4 region) of the smaller genomic segment RNA2 (1.4 kb). Betanodaviruses have marked host specificity, although the primary structures of the viral RNAs and encoded proteins are similar among the viruses. We have previously demonstrated, using reassortants between striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), that RNA2, which encodes the coat protein, strictly controls host specificity. However, because RNA2 is large, we were unable to propose a mechanism underlying this RNA2-based host specificity. To identify the RNA2 region that controls host specificity, we constructed RNA2 chimeric viruses from SJNNV and RGNNV and tested their infectivity in the original host fish, striped ...
Localization of RNA replication to intracellular membranes is a universal feature of positive-strand RNA viruses. The betanodavirus greasy grouper (Epinephelus tauvina) nervous necrosis virus (GGNNV) is a positive-RNA virus with one of the smallest genomes among RNA viruses replicating in fish cells. To understand the localization of GGNNV replication complexes, we generated polyclonal antisera against protein A, the GGNNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Protein A was detected at 5 h postinfection in infected sea bass cells. Biochemical fractionation experiments revealed that GGNNV protein A sedimented with intracellular membranes upon treatment with an alkaline pH and a high salt concentration, indicating that GGNNV protein A is tightly associated with intracellular membranes in infected cells. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and bromo-UTP incorporation studies identified mitochondria as the intracellular site of protein A localization and viral RNA synthesis. In addition, protein A fused ...
Nodaviridae is a family of non-enveloped isometric viruses with bipartite positive-sense RNA genomes. The Nodaviridae family consists of two genera: alpha- and beta-nodavirus. Alphanodaviruses usually infect insect cells. Some commercially available insect cell lines have been latently infected by Alphanodaviruses. A non-enveloped small virus of approximately 30 nm in diameter was discovered co-existing with a recombinant Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (Hear NPV) in Hz-AM1 cells. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic assays indicate that this novel virus belongs to the genus of alphanodavirus in the family Nodaviridae and was designated HzNV. HzNV possesses a RNA genome that contains two segments. RNA1 is 3038 nt long and encodes a 110 kDa viral protein termed protein A. The 1404 nt long RNA2 encodes a 44 kDa protein, which exhibits a high homology with coat protein precursors of other alphanodaviruses. HzNV virions were located in the cytoplasm, in association with cytoplasmic membrane
Viruses in Betanodavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and segmented, bipartite, around 21.4kb in length.[8]. The crystal structure of a betanodavirus- T=3 Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV)-like particle has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i) the N-terminal arm, an inter-subunit extension at the inner surface; (ii) the shell domain (S-domain), a jelly-roll structure; and (iii) the protrusion domain (P-domain) formed by three-fold trimeric protrusions. [10]. ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 4rft.1. T=1 subviral particle of Grouper nervous necrosis virus capsid protein deletion mutant (delta 1-34 & 218-338)
1NOV: Resolution of space-group ambiguity and structure determination of nodamura virus to 3.3 A resolution from pseudo-R32 (monoclinic) crystals.
A protein unlike any other appears to be partially responsible for upsetting the stomachs of the most common animal on the planet.. Results of a Rice University study of the Orsay virus unique to nematodes, the worms that make up 80 percent of living creatures on Earth, have revealed the molecular structure of a fusion protein that forms unusual fibers and attaches the virus to cells and infects them.. The researchers led by structural biologist Yizhi Jane Tao and geneticist Weiwei Zhong said the protein is the first pentameric fiber with potential antiviral applications. They hope it will guide bioengineers as they develop synthetic variations of the virus that can infect new worm hosts, including the parasitic ones that infect humans and animals.. Their research is detailed in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens.. The Orsay virus, the first known to infect Caenorhabditis elegans, was discovered in France in 2011. It doesnt kill the worm, but infects its digestive tract. Three years ago, ...
The ab initio method with NCSA and phase extension has been successfully implemented to determine the structure of the T = 3 GNNV icosahedral VLP. The key to success was the similarity of the mask (or the envelope) to the target structure. Despite significant variations in the main chains of the CP between FHV and GNNV, the envelopes of these T = 3 capsids are somewhat similar to each other, especially in the spatial position of the P-domain at the quasi-threefold axis. Considering that the P-domain of FHV is much smaller than that of GNNV, the radius of the mask was typically increased to 13 Å to cover the entire structure of GNNV. Other trials using the large spherical-shell mask, which was cut by the bisector planes between neighbouring virus particles, were not successful in phasing. On inspection of this spherical-shell mask, we found that it was so small, covering only half of the P-domain, as to result in a negative effect on the phasing. Tests investigating the simulation trials using ...
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Molecular Immunology ; Volume 54. p. 443-452. 2013. Krasnov, Aleksei; Kileng, Øyvind; Skugor, Stanko; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Afanasyev, Sergey; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Sommer, Ann-Inger; Jensen, Ingvill. ...
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In the present study, we evaluated four commonly used housekeeping genes, viz., actin-β, elongation factor-1α (EF1α), acidic ribosomal protein (ARP), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as internal references for quantitative analysis of immune genes in nervous necrosis virus (NNV)-infected seven-band grouper, Hyporthodus septemfasciatus. Expression profiles of the four genes were estimated in 12 tissues of healthy and infected seven-band grouper. Expression stability of the genes was calculated using the delta Ct method, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and geNorm algorithms. Consensus ranking was performed using RefFinder, and statistical analysis was done using GraphpadPrism 5.0. Tissue-specific variations were observed in the four tested housekeeping genes of healthy and NNV-infected seven-band grouper. Fold change calculation for interferon-1 and Mx expression using the four housekeeping genes as internal references presented varied profiles for each tissue. EF1α and actin-β was the
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POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS IN VIRAL RNA REPLICATION, GENE EXPRESSION AND VIRUS-HOST INTERACTIONS Creative, highly motivated researchers are sought for postdoctoral positions studying the functions and interactions of viral and host factors in RNA replication, gene expression, and related events in positive-strand RNA viruses. Unique opportunities to identify and study relevant host factors are available through our demonstration that bromovirus and nodavirus RNA replicons can replicate and express foreign genes in yeast, allowing the use of powerful yeast genetics to identify pertinent host genes and to greatly facilitate other experiments (Janda and Ahlquist [1993] Cell 72:961-970; Quadt et al. [1995] PNAS 92:4892-4896; Price et al. (1996) PNAS 93:9465-9470). Bromoviruses and nodaviruses are well-studied viruses with excellent genetic and biochemical resources for in vivo and in vitro studies of fundamental replication mechanisms. Significant opportunities are available in several areas of ...
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With the flock house virus (FHV) capsid protein as a vector (FHV RNA 2),the epitopes corresponding to the cleavage regions of rotavirus SA11 Vp4 primed broadly cross reactive neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. The epitopes of SA11 Vp4:REA(223~242aa),REB(243~262aa),REC(234~251aa),and their combination REA+REB+REC were expressed on the chimeric protein surface in the recombinant pET FHV RE system,and used to immunize guinea pigs to prepare antisera. The antisera were proven to have strong cross recognizing and cross neutralizing activities to homologous SA11 virus and heterologous Wa,S2,DS 1,Ito Sty 3, St. Thomase, Gottfried, UK, and B223 virus strains. The results suggested that the amino acid sequences of rotavirus Vp4 cleavage region have important immunological functions,and when displayed in the proper positions on the FHV RNA 2 protein vector, these epitopes could be prospective as a new type of epitope based subunit vaccines.
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Getting drugs into the brain has proved to be a nanoscale puzzle: Anything bigger than 64 nanometers - about the size of a small virus - gets stuck in the space between brain cells once it gets through the blood-brain barrier. Justin Hanes of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and colleagues got around this rule by coating particles destined for brain cells in a dense layer of a polymer called polyethylene glycol.
A genomic analysis of "Klosneuviruses" suggests that they evolved from small viruses that accumulated genetic material over time, but not all virologists are convinced. 0 Comments. ...
A genomic analysis of "Klosneuviruses" suggests that they evolved from small viruses that accumulated genetic material over time, but not all virologists are convinced. 0 Comments. ...
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The photo compartment itself can take small to medium cameras such as the prosumer Konica-Minolta A2, or Leica rangefinders, or one DSLR with dimensions of a EOS 10D with a standard zoom lens attached and one extra small sized zoom lens like a 28-135, or two small DSLRs like EOS 400D/XTi, 350D/XT, each mounted with a small zoom lens (i.e. 10-22 + 28-135, or 17-40 + 70-300 DO, the latter WITHOUT lenshood attached). In the pockets on both outer sides a flash unit and a storage device can be taken along. Inside the small extra compartment on top, just under the front flap, various items can be put there, but I seldom prefer not to put a thin jacket or raincoat in there, a safety against some unpredictable weather such as here in the Netherlands where I live. Also that compartment is wide enough to take lunch etc. but NEVER put liquids/drinks/beverages in there. If it leaks you can say goodbye to the whole photographic gear situated just below it ...
Because the mouse features 45° angles, you do not need to place your hand completely flat on the CHERRY MW 4500. This results in a more natural hand position, which allows you to work without fatigue and with fewer problems with your wrist and tendons. The resolution can be adjusted to one of 3 levels, with a maximum resolution of 1200 dpi, allowing precise navigation, and is easy to adapt to your preferences. Two additional thumb buttons allow you to jump to the next page or previous page in your Internet browser by touching a button. The extra small nano receiver can remain in your laptop without problems, or will find space in the bottom of the mouse. An all-rounder for the office or for home use! Further information ...
In Fall 2016, Loki seemed to gain weight sufficiently. His dietary food was, one at a time, taken off the schedule. His doctor decided to stop it altogether and see what happened. And Loki did and does well. He still needs a few extra small meals to ensure plenty calorie intake, but he does it all with regular food! In addition, increasingly we look at him and wonder how he finished his plate without us asking to take a bite, and another and another. And then yesterday (April 7th, 2017) something huge happened: Loki took his last 1 millilitre of motilium. Completely against all odds and expectations, after trying many times before, we were able to phase out that medicine. Somehow, at the age of 8,5, his stomach decided to start doing what it never was able to do: empty without the support of medicine. This moment is the inspiration to write a post. We want to share how in awe we are with this amazing boy ...
In Fall 2016, Loki seemed to gain weight sufficiently. His dietary food was, one at a time, taken off the schedule. His doctor decided to stop it altogether and see what happened. And Loki did and does well. He still needs a few extra small meals to ensure plenty calorie intake, but he does it all with regular food! In addition, increasingly we look at him and wonder how he finished his plate without us asking to take a bite, and another and another. And then yesterday (April 7th, 2017) something huge happened: Loki took his last 1 millilitre of motilium. Completely against all odds and expectations, after trying many times before, we were able to phase out that medicine. Somehow, at the age of 8,5, his stomach decided to start doing what it never was able to do: empty without the support of medicine. This moment is the inspiration to write a post. We want to share how in awe we are with this amazing boy ...
First of all, let me start off buy telling you the that the word teacup is not referring to a new breed. Its just a name given by a breeder to describe an extra small dog. Each breeder seems to have their own idea of what a teacup should weigh,...
This Is The Corona Virus Novel Form Or Corona Virus Causes Wuhan PneumoniaThe Corona virus first infected humans around the middle of the 1960s. This virus is called the Corona virus because the top surface resembles a crown, has the zoonotic natu...
On January 9, the World Health Organization notified the public of a flu-like outbreak in China: a cluster of pneumonia cases had been reported in Wuhan, possibly from vendors exposure to live animals at the Huanan Seafood Market. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had gotten the ...
Whether you are looking for something to do with the family or with kids, or just for a good day trip, Wuhan has a lot of furry (or scaly) attractions. These are three of the best places to if you are an animal lover, or if you know someone who is.
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Kevin McGoff gave a talk at Orsay on his work on the theory of entropy srtuctures and symbolic extensions. This theory was founded by Mike Boyle and Tomasz Downarowicz, among others. This theory relates the continuity properties of the measure-theoretic entropy function with the existence of symbolic topological extensions with measure-theoretic entropies as close as…
A hotpot dinner in Kwun Tong on the Kowloon peninsula two weeks ago has spurred debate on whether aerosols - or the warm vapor of the hotpot - are linked
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Immunocytochemical Study on Blood and Organ Suspension of Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) Infected with Field Isolate of Viral Nervous Necrosis
Nodavirus is one of the most important diseases in farming of sea bass in the Mediterranean and causes viral nervous necrosis (VNN). VNN affects all production stages and causes a significant financial impact due to the high mortality rates and reduction of growth performance. The new vaccine, Alpha Ject micro 1 Noda, has been available as an emergency vaccine* in some Mediterranean countries since 2014. The results from commercial scale use have so far been promising.. Pharmaq president Morten Nordstad, said: "Alpha Ject micro 1 Noda has been developed in response to fish farmers needs in the Mediterranean to fight against the most common viral disease affecting farmed sea bass in the Mediterranean. Pharmaq is committed to the continuous development and supply of innovative health solutions for fish farmers globally.". ...
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Dan Xu, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; Benjian Zhang, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; Jie Ping, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; Gai Liang, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; Fang Liu, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; Hao Kou, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; Xiao-jun Li, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; You-ying Lei, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; Hui Wang, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China ...
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