TY - JOUR. T1 - A membrane inlet mass spectrometry system for noble gases at natural abundances in gas and water samples. AU - Visser, Ate. AU - Singleton, Michael J.. AU - Hillegonds, Darren J.. AU - Velsko, Carol A.. AU - Moran, Jean E.. AU - Esser, Bradley K.. PY - 2013/11/15. Y1 - 2013/11/15. N2 - Rationale Noble gases dissolved in groundwater can reveal paleotemperatures, recharge conditions, and precise travel times. The collection and analysis of noble gas samples are cumbersome, involving noble gas purification, cryogenic separation and static mass spectrometry. A quicker and more efficient sample analysis method is required for introduced tracer studies and laboratory experiments. Methods A Noble Gas Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (NG-MIMS) system was developed to measure noble gases at natural abundances in gas and water samples. The NG-MIMS system consists of a membrane inlet, a dry-ice water trap, a carbon-dioxide trap, two getters, a gate valve, a turbomolecular pump and a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Elevated pulmonary artery systolic storage volume associated with improved ventilation-to-perfusion ratios in acute respiratory failure. AU - Her, C.. AU - Kosse, A.. AU - Lees, D. E.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The possibility that an elevated pulmonary artery systolic storage volume (PASSV) correlates with improved overall ratios of ventilation-to-perfusion and hence benefits gas exchange in acute respiratory failure was examined. We examined this by assessing the correlation between PASSV and both the physiologic dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) and intrapulmonary shunt fraction (Qsp/Qt). The VD/VT and Qsp/Qt were used as an index of distribution of ventilation-to-perfusion as well as efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange. Twenty-eight patients suffering from acute respiratory failure were included. All required mechanical ventilation. PASSV was calculated from the pulmonary artery (PA) compliance and mean PA systolic distending pressure. Pulmonary arteriolar ...
A breath-by-breath inert gas washout method for assessment of the volume of trapped gas in the lungs (V(TG)) in sedated sleeping infants is described. It is based on washin using a gas mixture containing 4% sulfur hexafluoride (V(TG,SF6)) and washout with air. A mass spectrometer was used for contin …
An inert gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions. The noble gases often do not react with many substances, and were historically referred to as the inert gases. Inert gases are used generally to avoid unwanted chemical reactions degrading a sample. These undesirable chemical reactions are often oxidation and hydrolysis reactions with the oxygen and moisture in air. The term inert gas is context-dependent because several of the noble gases can be made to react under certain conditions. Purified argon and nitrogen gases are most commonly used as inert gases due to their high natural abundance (78% N2, 1% Ar in air) and low relative cost. Unlike noble gases, an inert gas is not necessarily elemental and is often a compound gas. Like the noble gases the tendency for non-reactivity is due to the valence, the outermost electron shell, being complete in all the inert gases. This is a tendency, not a rule, as noble gases and other inert gases can react to ...
Ramakant R. Mahajan. Earth, Moon, and Planets (2020). LINK. Noble gas and nitrogen isotopic compositions of Karimati ordinary (L5) chondrite are presented. Aliquots of the meteorite were studied in two noble gas mass spectrometers. Its cosmic ray exposure (CRE) history, trapped noble gases and nitrogen isotopic systematic are examined. The compositions of Ne and Kr in this meteorite indicate presence of mixture of solar wind and Q trapped components. In addition to the primordial components, radiogenic 129Xe (from the decay of short-lived radioactive 129I) is observed in the two aliquots (129Xe/132Xe ranges between 1.054 and 1.311). The U/Th-4He and K-40Ar ages are discordant. U/Th-4He ages are younger than the K-40Ar ages, indicating loss of helium. The trapped N component is isotopically light analogous to Q gas/solar wind. The cosmic-ray exposure ages of the two aliquots are 16.1 ± 2.7 Ma and 16.6 ± 2.0 Ma based on the cosmogenic 21Nec and 38Arc concentrations.. ...
The abundance and isotopic composition of the noble gases were measured in three Spring-field specimens identified by the Denver Museum of Natural History with numbers 7029, 379.13 and 6040. The latter specimen contains more cosmogenic noble gas isotopes than the other two specimens and the abundance pattern of trapped noble gases in specimen 6040 is distinct from that in the other two specimens. Specimen 7029 contains about seven times as much radiogenic 40Ar and about four times as much radiogenic 129Xe as does specimen 379.13. These results indicate that the three specimens did not come from a single meteoroid. ...
There is no rule of thumb when to use noble gas configuration or not. Its simply preference and generally you write in noble gas configuration to make things simple. However, it will vary between the questions asked: sometimes they will asked for the complete configuration written out while other questions will ask for short hand or noble gas configuration ...
More than any other chronic respiratory disease, asthma is characterized by functional and clinical variability: expiratory flow obstruction, dyspnoea and wheezing may be absent, mild, or severe. Moreover, pulmonary gas exchange often does not closely relate to measured airway obstruction. Accordingly, the correlation between arterial oxygen tension and airflow (Pa,O2) rate indices of obstruction is poor, both in a single patient over time, and within groups of clinically similar patients. Here, these concepts are extended by examining relationships between airflow obstruction and gas exchange across the clinical spectrum of asthma (from asymptomatic to acute severe). Six individual studies encompassing 86 patients are analysed together, focusing on: 1) airways obstruction; 2) arterial blood gas data; and 3) the distribution of alveolar ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) ratios, measured by the multiple inert gas elimination technique. VA/Q mismatching was greater than normal even when forced ...
B) S2- because 2- means negative charge, which means you add 2 extra electrons. For the Cu+ ion we remove one electron from 4s1 leaving us with: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10. Now, the zinc ion is {eq}\rm Zn^{2+} See the answer. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Relevance. 9. Sodiums noble gas configuration becomes $$\left[ \ce{Ne} \right] 3s^1$$. The noble gas electron configuration is a type of shortcut to writing out the full electron configuration of an element. Therefore the Magnesium electron configuration will be 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2. Correct Electron Configuration for Copper (Cu) Half-filled and fully filled subshell have got extra stability. Draw an orbital diagram and use it to derive the electron configuration of phosphorus, Z = 15. Course Hero, Inc. The basis of any reaction taking place between chemicals is due to their impulsive behavior of achieving a complete electronic configuration and reaching a level of stability. © copyright 2003-2021 ...
Noble Gases - Facts about Noble Gases by Cassie Dixson | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
The CTBTO offers journalists a unique opportunity to witness a key element of an on-site inspection - the noble gas detection technique. Experts from more than 15 States will participate in this experiment only an hour away from Vienna, Austria, in nearby Slovakia, in October. The field test focuses on all aspects of noble gas detection during an inspection. It will involve atmospheric gas sampling, borehole preparations for underground gas sampling as well as testing of sampling and analysis equipment. Realistic conditions The experiment provides an insight in how such highly specialized inspection activities are carried out under realistic field conditions. Participants in the field test will not only conduct all steps required for noble gas detection, but will also observe all prescribed precautions such as wearing contamination protection suits. First tested at exercise in Kazakhstan During the Comprehensive Integrated Field Exercise 2008 or IFE08, noble gas sampling and analysis were ...
This study aimed to determine the sensitivity of spirometry and MBW for detecting bronchiectasis and other structural lung changes as measured by HRCT scanning in children and teenagers with CF, and to compare the correlations between LCI and spirometry and structural lung abnormalities. The hypothesis was that the LCI would be a more sensitive test for detecting structural lung disease than FEV1 or FEF75, and that LCI would correlate better than spirometry with structural lung changes.. It was shown that LCI was markedly more sensitive than either FEV1 or FEF75 with respect to structural lung abnormalities (bronchiectasis, air trapping and combined abnormalities). The sensitivity of LCI ranged between 85% and 94%. Of 27 patients with abnormal HRCT scores, 25 had elevated LCI and 22/26 patients with evidence of bronchiectasis had abnormal LCI, which suggests that a normal LCI in a subject with CF almost excludes structural lung damage. The specificity of LCI was modest, however, because LCI was ...
Deposition systems such as ion beam sputtering and rf sputtering are very common in industry and usually use noble gases for film deposition as well as for sputter-cleaning surfaces and depth profiling process. Usually some small concentration of noble gas is unintentionally implanted into the host structure. In this work, we report the influence of the structure of an amorphous carbon matrix on the core level electrons of implanted noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) used in the sputtering deposition process. The films were prepared in an ion-beam-assisted deposition chamber (IBAD) including two Kauffman ion sources. Some fractional noble gas is trapped in the film during the assisted deposition process and is subjected to the highly strained environment of the carbon matrix. The stress of a-C:H films can be as high as 10 GPa, which is an extremely high stress. Thus, the carbon matrix provides an interesting environment for observing the effect of pressure on the electron wave function of noble ...
Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate trends in noble gas (Ar, Kr, Xe) diffusion in the metal-organic frameworks HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. Diffusion occurs primarily through inter-cage jump events, with much greater diffusion of guest atoms in HKUST-1 compared to ZIF-8 due to the larger cage and window sizes in the former. We compare diffusion coefficients calculated for both rigid and flexible frameworks. For rigid framework simulations, in which the framework atoms were held at their crystallographic or geometry optimized coordinates, sometimes dramatic differences in guest diffusion were seen depending on the initial framework structure or the choice of framework force field parameters. When framework flexibility effects were included, argon and krypton diffusion increased significantly compared to rigid-framework simulations using general force field parameters. Additionally, for argon and krypton in ZIF-8, guest diffusion increased with loading, demonstrating that guest-guest ...
This 603 word essay is about Chemical elements, Noble gases, Industrial gases, Xenon, Krypton, Rubidium, Xenon dichloride. Read the full essay now!
A set of experiments investigating diffusion of alkali atoms in the noble gases is reported. A cesium gradient in the cell was induced by electrodeless pulse discharge. In the transient signal of absorption, corresponding to the ^2S_{1/2}-n^2P_J transitions, five diffusion modes were observed. The diffusion coefficient D of cesium in helium and argon has been measured in a spherical cell filled with a buffer gas of 2.5 to 30 hPa and for temperatures in the range from 275 K to 400 K ...
Noble Gas | Uses | Property | Argon | Light bulbs | Doesnt react with the metal filament | Helium | Used with O2 for deep sea dives | Low solubility of
email protected]. The integration of precise geochemical analyses with quantitative engineering modeling into an interactive GIS system allows for a sophisticated and efficient method of reservoir engineering and characterization. The Mahala field within the Los Angeles basin is a mature oil field having reached maximum production over 50 years ago, with strong proven reserves still remaining in place the field stands as a perfect candidate for mature oil field restoration and a prolific transformation. Noble gas geochemistry is an innovative and effectively proven method of analysis to determine the physical/chemical conditions, geologic processes and dynamic interactions of earth system reservoirs; specifically the analysis being conducted will determine: the source (origin and maturity of the hydrocarbons), the extent/style of fluid migration (field connectivity/continuity and directionality), the movement/presence of the oil and gas (pay zones) as well as additional reservoir characteristics ...
A new material can trap noble gases, as well as one mirror image of certain molecules but not the other, making it potentially useful for recycling nuclear fuel, cleaning up hazardous gases and producing pharmaceuticals.
The Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute (BHSAI) of the Department of Defense (DoD) is studying airflow in the lungs using computational fluid dynamics in order to characterize disease-specific airflow patterns and provide useful information for medical applications. To validate these models, they are seeking to obtain experimental data of airflow in human lungs, both healthy and diseased. An assessment of airflow can be obtained by using hyperpolarized noble gas (HNG) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or, more specifically, hyperpolarized helium-3 (HHe) MRI in conjunction with flow-encoding schemes that are well-established in conventional proton MRI. Four chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and four healthy subjects will undergo pulmonary function tests (PFTs), computed tomography (CT) scan covering the mouth, neck, and chest, and hyperpolarized helium 3 MRI. Before and after the MRI scans, three spirometry readings will be taken while the ...
David Johnson of The Open University uses balloons to demonstrate the difference between the noble gases in this extract from the BBC/OU programme Elements ...
the global noble gases market was estimated to be 179.2 billion liters in 2012 and is expected to reach 202.2 billion liters by 2019, growing at a CAGR of 1.74% from 2013 to 2019.
A recent article on research into hyperpolarized noble gas MRI stressed the importance of collaboration, an idea that dovetails nicely with the upcoming RSNA annual meeting in Chicago.
The Chemical Reactivity of elements in the p-block increments as we move towards right in a period. Be that as it may, as we move down in a group the chemical reactivity of elements declines down the group.. i) Reactivity of Noble Gases: All the orbitals of the noble gasses are totally filled by electrons and it is exceptionally hard to break their stability in any way whether it is the removal of electrons or addition of electrons. Hence the noble gasses show low compound reactivity. In light of their low reactivity noble gasses, are regularly utilized when a nonreactive climate is required, for example, in welding.. Going before the noble gas family there are two chemically essential groups of non-metals. They are the halogens (Group 17) and the chalcogens (Group 16). These two groups of elements have high electron gain enthalpies and can promptly include one to two electrons framing an anion to achieve the steady noble gas configuration in this way indicating great chemical ...
Using noble gas isotopes to track gas fluid interactions in the crust.. Geological storage of carbon-dioxide.. Noble gas fingerprinting of industrial gas emissions.. Hydrocarbon exploration.. Development of noble gas mass spectrometers. ...
Aluminium combines characteristics of pre- and post-transition metals. Since it has few available electrons for metallic bonding, like its heavier group 13 congeners, it has the characteristic physical properties of a post-transition metal, with longer-than-expected interatomic distances.[20] Furthermore, as Al3+ is a small and highly charged cation, it is strongly polarizing and aluminium compounds tend towards covalency;[25] this behaviour is similar to that of beryllium (Be2+), an example of a diagonal relationship.[26] However, unlike all other post-transition metals, the underlying core under aluminiums valence shell is that of the preceding noble gas, whereas for gallium and indium it is that of the preceding noble gas plus a filled d-subshell, and for thallium and nihonium it is that of the preceding noble gas plus filled d- and f-subshells. Hence, aluminium does not suffer the effects of incomplete shielding of valence electrons by inner electrons from the nucleus that its heavier ...
Correct me if Im wrong but Im inferring you determine the charge based on how many electrons it needs to take out/it needs to add in order to attain a noble gas electron configuration? So for example for Mg, since it is in the 3rd period s-block, it is easier for it to take out 2 electrons (and thus have a positive charge) in order to attain a noble gas configuration of [Ne]. Arsenic, on the other hand, is at n=4 p-block, which means it only needs to add 3 more electrons (thus a negative charge) to attain a noble gas configuration of [Ar ...
Inert gas is produced on board crude oil carriers (above 8,000 tonnes)(from Jan 1, 2016) by using either a flue gas system or by burning kerosene in a dedicated inert gas generator. The inert gas system is used to prevent the atmosphere in cargo tanks or bunkers from coming into the explosive range.[6] Inert gases keep the oxygen content of the tank atmosphere below 5% (on crude carriers, less for product carriers and gas tankers), thus making any air/hydrocarbon gas mixture in the tank too rich (too high a fuel to oxygen ratio) to ignite. Inert gases are most important during discharging and during the ballast voyage when more hydrocarbon vapor is likely to be present in the tank atmosphere. Inert gas can also be used to purge the tank of the volatile atmosphere in preparation for gas freeing - replacing the atmosphere with breathable air - or vice versa. The flue gas system uses the boiler exhaust as its source, so it is important that the fuel/air ratio in the boiler burners is properly ...
My main interests are the physiology and pathophysiology of respiration and mechanical ventilation, especially within the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or injured lung. Furthermore, I`m focussing on the complex and fascinating cross-talk between injured organs (i.e. lung and brain) in the development of multiple organ failure, and novel therapeutic interventions or organoprotective strategies. The centre of my laboratory is an experimental, but translational approach, which we create by use of clinical-like porcine models.. Key techniques: Large animal models, ARDS, sepsis, multiple inert gas elimination, electrical impedance tomography, respiratory and real-time monitoring. Research system/organism: Pig (sus scrofa domestica). ...
Helium Name Meaning. Dec 28, Helium gets its name from the Greek word helios, which means sun. It was discovered by Sir William Ramsay in Helium has some special properties that make it useful for many applications. Since it is an inert gas, it is used to shield objects from the regular atmosphere, such as in welding, and other corrosive environments. helium (n.) , coined from Greek helios sun (from PIE root *sawel-the sun), because the element was detected in the solar spectrum during the eclipse of Aug. 18, , by English astronomer Sir Joseph N. Lockyer () and English chemist Sir Edward Frankland (). It was not actually obtained until ; before then it was assumed to be an alkali metal, hence the ending in.. Helium is an element on the periodic table with an atomic number of 2. Helium is a noble gas, and it is the lightest in the entire group of noble gases. Helium is the second most common element heliuj the universe. Helium gets un name from the Greek word helios, which means sun. It was ...
Tampere University of Technology is at the leading edge of technology development and a sought-after collaboration partner among the scientific and business communities. The University produces competent graduates who enter careers in the different sectors of society.. ...
Computationally:. It depends on the material but in general $10^2 - 10^4$ atoms/molecules is a representative range. I learned this concept as the thermodynamic limit; i.e. the number of particles in a system at which increasing particle number does not change density significantly. For obvious reasons its also called the macroscopic limit. In Statistical Mechanics we bridge the gap between small countable systems and macroscopic mole-quantity systems with the thermodynamic limit. Our lab develops and applies models for small molecules like $\ce{H2, CO2}$, noble gases, hydrocarbons etc. for use in computer simulation. The usual method is to parametrize a model such that phase transitions (i.e. density changes as a function of temperature or pressure) are accurately mapped, and intermolecular potentials are comparable to highly accurate QM calculations (CCS(D/T/Q) methods).. One can reproduce accurate phase diagrams of noble gases using just 40-100 atoms by putting the system in a ...
Noble gas suggests a group of elements that is too far above other elements to react with them. Xenon is a noble gas. If you measure the temperature of a chunk of ice, you may find it to be -5° Celsius or so. Solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture. The molecular formula tells you the number of atoms of each element in the molecule, a sort of summary formula, but it tells you nothing about how the atoms are arranged and … The panels are performed on a blood sample. Note that the general formula for a cycloalkane composed of n carbons is C n H 2n , and not C n H 2n+2 as for alkanes. Of course, the strive to improve the semiconductor devices still further is ongoing, and the possibility of introducing group III-V element compounds into the transistor structure, such as GaAs, InP and InAs, is a possibility that could allow electron mobility to improve, and in turn allow semiconductors to become smaller still. If you take temperature readings while heating the ice in a pot on your ...
Using a supersonic nozzle and a dc discharge, He*n, and Ar*n, clusters were formed, and their spectra radiated at VUV/XUV wavelengths. A theoretical analysis of stimulated radiation of clusters is given. The possible gain under our experimental conditions is 70% cm-1 ...
https://www.stevespanglerscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/steve-spangler-science-logo-435.png 0 0 stevespanglerscience https://www.stevespanglerscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/steve-spangler-science-logo-435.png stevespanglerscience2010-05-12 21:54:222010-05-12 21:54:22My High School Chemistry Videos Never Looked Like This! Chemistry Parties Are So Reactive ...
Textbook solution for Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation 9th Edition Steven S. Zumdahl Chapter 11 Problem 113AP. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts!
Norwegian oil and gas giant Equinor has awarded a contract worth around \$51 million to Noble Drilling Norway for the use of its Noble Lloyd Noble drilling rig for a three-well campaign at the Valemon field in the Norwegian North Sea. The contract for which work will begin from 2021 summer includes an option for
Omaha, Neb. Streck announced the promotion of John Noble to the position of Vice President of Operations, effective August 1, 2015. In this new role, Noble will lead the company s manufacturing, quality, and distribution operations. He is responsible for all processes from the procurement of raw materials to the fulfillment of customer orders.. Noble joined Streck in 2001 as Production Manager. He was promoted to Director of Manufacturing in 2003 and to Director of Operations in 2013. His emphasis on quality throughout the manufacturing process has helped sustain Streck s position as an industry leader.. Prior to joining Streck, Noble was production manager with Intervet. He earned a bachelor s degree in biology from Kearney State.. About Streck, Inc. ...
Heather,. Yes, Ive had experience with NAET. A little over a year ago, I was as desparate as you sound. It seemed I was reacting to everything I ate (headaches, asthma, GI symptoms as well as a host of other things). I had been tested several times for food sensitivities (Alcat and Immunolabs) and had been following all kinds of rotating diets without success. Interestingly, I have always tested negative for gluten sensitivity by antibody tests and small bowel biopsy. When I saw the NAET practitioner, I was limited to Metagenics medical foods and a few vegetables (alas, the medical food is all rice-based!). I tried NAET on the recommendation of a friend who had had some success although it didnt last for her.. When I first saw the NAET practitioner, I noticed that my stomach was calmer, but not much else. I was, however, able to reintroduce a wide variety of foods as long as I continued to be treated. I never was symptom-free, though. I continued with asthma symptoms and headaches. I ...
While most people simply believe helium sole use is for balloons and blimps, its importance in science, medicine and manufacturing far exceeds its use as a lifting medium.. Helium has the lowest boiling point of any element and will not solidify under normal conditions even at temperatures approaching absolute zero. These properties make helium useful as a coolant for superconducting magnets like those used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines and super-colliders such as CERNs Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which use enormous amounts of helium. Its low temperature and inert properties also make it the only gas that can pressurize and purge liquid rocket engines. Its use in MRI machines as a liquid coolant for the superconducting magnets, however, represents the largest single use for helium.. As a noble gas, helium is completely inert and will not react with any other element. This property makes it useful as a shielding agent in arc welding (to prevent contamination with the oxygen in ...
Lithium sits near the extreme upper left corner of the Periodic Table, directly beneath hydrogen.* Lithium follows helium in sequential order, but the two elements couldnt be more different. Explaining why helium and the other noble gases are so chemically stable requires a plunge into quantum mechanics (at least at the level of an elementary text book); suffice it to say that when moving from helium to lithium, the third electron that elemental lithium requires cannot share the same space as its first two electrons and must be held at a greater distance, i.e., be more weakly bound. The third electron is said to be a valence electron. The concept of valency comes from a Latin word meaning combining power of an element and refers to an elements ability to gain, lose or share electrons ...
Helium Vola is a German Darkwave or Electro-Medieval band founded in 2001 by Ernst Horn, who was also one of the founding members of Qntal. In the contract with Chrom Records Horn insisted on Helium Vola not being seen as a successor of Qntal nor being marketed as such. The bands name is Latin meaning Fly, Helium - a reference to the noble gas Helium which is used to fill balloons. Helium Vola interpret medieval lyrics in Old High German, Middle High German, Latin, Provencal and Middle French language in a modern, electronic scape of sound. Thereby danceable songs like their last single In Lichter Farbe Steht Der Wald as well as pieces that are strongly based on samples (e.g ...
My research focuses on the interaction of glacial and sea-ice meltwater with the upper ocean. I am interested in how the addition of freshwater can affect submesoscale processes in the mixed layer and interaction of the upper ocean with the atmosphere. Part of this research involves improving our current identification of meltwater, using standard hydrographic measurements (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen) in addition to noble gas concentrations. In addition to ship-borne measurements, I use glider and seal-borne data, and complement these oceanic observations with the use of a one-dimensional ocean model.
Although helium may be the second most abundant element in the universe, here on earth this noble gas is rare and precious. In the pharmaceutical industry helium is used for cryogenic cooling of magnets used for MRI and in gas chromatography
An atomic particle with positive charge is called a proton. Each element has some, bundled together with neutral particles called neutrons. As electromagnetic theory suggests, a protons positive charge will attract an opposite charge. These take the form of electrons, which are found in rings or shells around the nucleus. An elements atomic number has a direct effect on the number of electrons, which can be attracted. Helium is special for another reason: it is what is known as a noble gas. Because it has both two protons and two electrons, it is in a perfectly neutral electrical state. This means helium is inert, which means it is unlikely to form chemical compounds with other elements. [2] [3] ...