As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS) such as Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project, which is the LSS project of the European Space Agency. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi), the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve these oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Furthermore, both groups also use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems, and consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. Due to the necessity of modeling accurately conversion yields and transformation rates to ...
We provide several lines of evidence that the Fur homolog encoded by N. europaea gene NE0616 is the Fe-sensing Fur protein. First, we have shown that NE0616 shares all eight of the metal binding amino acid residues of P. aeruginosa Fur (Figure 1) [19] and that the Fur homolog encoded by NE0616 is clustered with Fe-sensing Fur proteins from other bacteria (Figure 2). An E. coli Fur titration assay (FURTA) system for Fur analysis was utilized as a second method to confirm that the cloned NE0616 fur encodes a functional protein. The H1780 (pFur616) strain carrying NE0616 fur homolog on a plasmid was evaluated for its ability to utilize lactose as described by Hantke et al., [40]. Utilization of lactose by H1780 (pFur616) strain was detected by color change of colonies from white to red on McConkey lactose plates indicating the formation of lactic acid. Lactose utilization was not detected when H1780 strain carrying plasmids pFur616-kanC, pFur730, pFur1722 were plated on McConkey lactose plates ...
The growth modes of self-assembled mesocrystals and ordered arrays from dispersions of iron oxide nanocubes with a mean edge length of 9.6 nm during controlled solvent removal have been investigated with a combination of visible light video microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Mesocrystals with translational and orientational order of sizes up to 10 μm are formed spontaneously during the final, diffusion-controlled, drop-casting stage when the liquid film is very thin and the particle concentration is high. Convection-driven deposition of ordered nanocube arrays at the edge of the drying droplet is a manifestation of the so called coffee-ring effect. Dendritic growth or fingering of rapidly growing arrays of ordered nanocubes could also be observed in a transition regime as the growth front moves from the initial three-phase contact line towards the centre of the original droplet.. ...
In situ growth of DyBa2Cu3O7-x thin films by molecular beam epitaxy. Johnson, B. R.; Beauchamp, K. M.; Wang, T.; Liu, J-X.; McGreer, K. A.; Wan, J-C.; Tuominen, M.; Zhang, Y-J.; Mecartney, M. L.; Goldman, A. M. // Applied Physics Letters;5/7/1990, Vol. 56 Issue 19, p1911 Films of DyBa2Cu3O7-x with transition temperatures as high as 89 K and with nominal thicknesses down to 35 Ã… have been grown in situ using molecular beam epitaxy employing ozone as a source of reactive oxygen. The process has been successful with a variety of substrates including... ...
In the following, we report investigations of the dependencies of the structural, optical and electrical characteristics of InN thin films grown by MOCVD on the growth temperature. The layer thicknesses range from 70 to 400 nm. Their carrier concentrations range from 7 x 10 18 to 4 x 10(19) cm(-3). Hall mobility values from 150 to 1300 cm(2)/V/s were determined in these films. The variation of the growth temperature and V/III ratio brought about different growth modes and rates. Using TEM, in addition to measuring layer thickness, we also determined the growth mode along with the structural quality of the InN layers. The surface roughness was obtained from AFM measurements. The layer crystalline quality was also investigated by means of X-ray diffraction in the rocking mode. Photoluminescence measurements performed at room temperature and at 7 K gave emission at around 0.7 eV. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. Keywords: III-NITRIDES. ...
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A topographic map of a portion of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation depicting the circulation of surface currents (solid curves) and deep currents (dashed curves). Colors of curves indicate approximate temperatures.. R. Curry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution/Science/USGCRP. The AMOC has been weakening for the past 150 years and is currently at its weakest point of the past 1,500 years. This has spurred researchers to assess the currents future. Concerns over a complete failure of the AMOC inspired the 2004 film The Day After Tomorrow - although the events that took place in that film are clearly hyperbole.. Wubs and colleagues calculated that the possibility of a temporary shutdown of AMOC stood at 15 percent over the next 100 years, a one-in-six chance. Fortunately, however, the same model predicted that there was virtually no chance of a complete shutdown over the next 1,000 years.. For North America and Europe, this would mean colder winters, as well as hotter summers in ...
The ammonia oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea was grown either (a) with added bicarbonate in the absence of added CO2(bubbled through the culture), (b) with added bicarbonate plus low added...
The growth mechanisms conditioning the structural, optical and electrical properties of SnO2 films grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) was studied in this work. MBE proved to be an extraordinary technique for producing high purity, single crystalline SnO2 thin films, with a precise control over the growth process as evidenced by the atomically abrupt interfaces routinely obtained during this work. The interplay between the arrival rate of the atoms and their diffusion once adsorbed onto the surface of the substrate was shown to be the key aspect in determining the growth mode and the crystalline quality of the films. This was evidenced by the transitions between polycrystalline, Volmer - Weber and Frank - van der Merwe growth modes observed in RHEED studies on the surface crystallinity of the films and by the AFM and SEM analysis of their surface morphology. XRD investigations evidenced and improvement in the spacing of the atomic planes with increasing substrate temperature and decreasing ...
You are OK so far. The only approach I can think off now is to use the information known at this stage (ie you know hydroxylamine is a reactant, you know how many electrons it looses) to write half reaction of hydroxylamine oxidation and then to take random stabs - trying to balance charge, hydrogen and oxygen with H2O, H+ and OH- and looking at possible products ...
Structural and analytical characterization related to the formation mechanism of Au-Pt heterodimers from polyhedral Pt nanocrystals is reported. The observation of specific lattice strain effects and the emergence of misfit dislocations point to the relevance of the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode as a means
Met with Wei Zhang to discuss biofilm growth. Decided flow cells would not be the most cost effective and useful way to grow our E.Coli biofilm. Plan on using normal agar plates. Discovered that BacLight Live/Dead assay can be used on bacteria grown on a plate rather than bacteria growth in broth. We were told to add the BacLight dye to the lawn of bacteria and allow for it to diffuse before washing with ...
Nitrification is the process within the global Nitrogen Cycle where ammonia (NH3) is oxidized to nitrate (NO₃⁻) and can be carried out by two distinct groups of bacteria. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) first oxidize NH₃ to nitrite (NO₂⁻), and second, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) oxidize NO₂⁻ to NO₃⁻. In aerobic conditions, in either natural or engineered systems, nitrifying bacteria often compete for oxygen (O₂). In nitrification, low O₂ environments can cause the accumulation of NH₃, NO₂⁻ and the greenhouse gases NO and N₂O, compounds that can be detrimental to the environment. This work examined the effects of O₂ limitation on the AOB Nitrosomonas europaea and the NOB Nitrobacter hamburgensis, and determined their transcriptome responses under replete and limiting O₂. When grown in co-culture with replete O₂, both N. europaea and N. hamburgensis were capable of consuming ~99% of the available NH₃, or NO₂⁻, accordingly, and grew to 0.35 ...
Ammonia-oxidising bacteria are poor competitors for limiting amounts of ammonium. Hence, starvation for ammonium seems to be the regular condition for these bacteria in natural environments. Long-term survival in the absence of ammonium will be dependent on the ability to maintain large population sizes at the expense of endogenous energy sources and ... read more on the preservation of a relatively large capacity for ammonium oxidation. The effect of freshly added ammonium on the performance of ammonia-oxidising bacteria was studied in ammonium-enriched slurries consisting of samples taken from non-watersaturated soil and sand columns inoculated with Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi and continuously percolated with mineral medium containing ammonium. Immediately after introduction of the nitrifying bacteria to the columns, ammonium oxidation started and nitrate leached from the columns. After 6 weeks of incubation of the columns, 94% of the ammonium supplied was recovered as ...
Cometabolic biodegradation processes are potentially useful for the bioremediation of hazardous waste sites. In this study the potential application of phenol-oxidizing and nitrifying bacteria as "priming biocatalysts" was examined in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers, and aromatic ethers. We observed that a phenol-oxidizing Pseudomonas strain cometabolically degrades a range of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to overcome the competitive effects between two substrates and the SBR was evaluated as a alternative technology to treat mixed contaminants including phenol and PAHs. We also have demonstrated that the nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea can cometabolically degrade a wide range polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers and aromatic ethers including naphthalene, acenaphthene, diphenyl ether, dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and anisole. Our results indicated that all the compounds are transformed by N. ...
To assess safety, ovine frontal sinuses were flushed twice daily for 14 days. In each sheep, 1 sinus was flushed with a panel of MGO concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 7.2 mg/mL alone and flushed with a panel of with 16.5% wt/vol MH enriched with MGO at the same range of concentrations (0.5-7.2 mg/mL; designated MH/MGO). Contralateral sinuses were flushed with saline control. Tissue morphology was assessed histologically and with scanning electron microscopy. Efficacy was tested by developing Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in sheep sinuses. Twice-daily irrigation for 5 days was commenced with either saline, MGO (0.5-3.6 mg/mL) alone, or MH/MGO (with 0.5-3.6 mg/mL MGO). Biofilm biomass was compared between the groups (n = 4) using LIVE/DEAD BacLight staining and confocal scanning laser microscopy ...
Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are participants in both the C and N cycles and together carry out the process of nitrification. Nitrification can influence both biogeochemical cycles through its effect on N availability to organisms. Nitrification influences the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by production of NO and N2O and by influencing consumption of CO2. Most molecular investigations of these bacteria have focused on single genes and enzymes involved in the oxidation of ammonia or nitrite. However, with the sequencing of the genomes of representative nitrifiers, it is possible to examine the entire complement of genes involved in assimilating CO2 and oxidizing NH3 or NO2- and the coordination of their expression. We are exploiting the whole genome sequence information of Nitrosomonas europaea using genomic technology to understand its genetic structure and molecular regulatory mechanisms. The availability of complete genome sequences for ...
Nitrification. . Ammonia (NH ). . Nitrobacterwinogradskyi. Nitrosomonaseuropaea. . 3. Nitrite (NO2-). . Nitrate (NO3-). Lots of Assumptions. . Same bacteria in freshwater and saltwater systems Nitrosomonas europaea was the AOB Nitrobacter winogradskyi was the NOB Spotte 1971 Slideshow 149037 by...
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Johannessen, O.M., mfl. Acoustic Monitoring of Ocean Climate in the Arctic (AMOC). Referee paper in "Operational oceanography - Implementation at the european and regional scales. proceedings of the 2nd EuroGOOS International Conference, Rome, 11-13 March, 1999. Elsevier Oceanography Series (2002). ...
the Hao lab at UCSD: Our research focuses on decoding signal dynamics, building biological networks, and probing metabolic control
Visit Docality for information on Dr. Liming Hao Md. Find Phone & Address information, ratings, reviews, medical practice history and more.
|p|Lincontrollato impatto delle attività umane sta provocando cambiamenti profondi e forse irreversibili negli oceani di tutto il mondo.|/p|
Techinical Report ZM-Net: Real-time Zero-shot Image Manipulation Network[PDF]Hao Wang, Xiaodan Liang, Hao Zhang, Dit-Yan Yeung, Eric P. Xing. 2017. Proposal-free Network for Instance-level Object Se
Drinking water chloramine use may promote ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) growth because of naturally occurring ammonia, residual ammonia remaining from chloramine formation, and ammonia released from chloramine decay and demand. A rapid chloramine residual loss is often associated with the onset of nitrification that may result in noncompliance with existing regulations; therefore, understanding nitrification and its control in drinking water is of practical importance. For biological ammonia oxidation (1st nitrification step), AOB use two enzymes in two consecutive reactions: (1) ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) catalyzes ammonia oxidation to hydroxylamine and (2) hydroxylamine oxidoreductase catalyzes hydroxylamine oxidation to nitrite, supplying electrons back to AMO for ammonia oxidation. Chloramine also inactivates AOB but rates vary, depending on inactivation criterion (metabolic activity, culturability, cell membrane integrity). One mechanism for the fastest inactivation (metabolic activity ...
Stress response of a marine ammonia-oxidizing archaeon informs physiological status of environmental populations. Qin W. et al. ISME J. 2017 Oct 20. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2017.186.. Acyl-homoserine lactone production in nitrifying bacteria of the genera Nitrosospira, Nitrobacter, and Nitrospira identified via a survey of putative quorum sensing genes. Mellbye B.L. et al. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. doi:10.1128/AEM.01540-17.. Draft Genome Sequence of Nitrobacter vulgaris Strain Ab1, a Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterium. Mellbye B.L. et al. Genome Announc. May 5 2017 vol. 5 no. 18.. Quorum Quenching of Nitrobacter winogradskyi Suggests that Quorum Sensing Regulates Fluxes of Nitrogen Oxide(s) during Nitrification. Mellbye B.L. et al. mBi0 2016 October 01753-16.. Steady state growth under inorganic carbon limitation increases energy consumption for maintenance and enhances nitrous oxide production in Nitrosomonas europaea. Mellbye B.L. et al. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 March 25.. Identifying potential ...
Caldanaerovirga acetigignens gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic xylanolytic, alkalithermophilic bacterium isolated from Trego Hot Spring, Nevada, USA.. PubMed. Wagner, Isaac D; Ahmed, Sibtain; Zhao, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Romanek, Christopher S; Rohde, Manfred; Wiegel, Juergen. 2009-11-01. An anaerobic thermophilic bacterium, designated strain JW/SA-NV4(T), was isolated from a xylan-supplemented enrichment culture from Trego hot spring located within the Black Rock Desert (NV, USA). Cells were generally straight or slightly bent rod-shaped, 0.4-0.8 microm in width and 3-6 microm in length during exponential growth. Cells from stationary phase were variable in size and shape, showing curved or bent morphology. Motility was not seen and flagella were not observed in electron micrographs. Sporulation was not observed. Strain JW/SA-NV4(T) stained Gram-negative but is phylogenetically Gram-type positive. Growth occurred at pH(25 degrees C) 6.8-8.8, with optimum growth at pH 8.4; no growth ...
1M1R: Crystal structures at atomic resolution reveal the novel concept of electron-harvesting as a role for the small tetraheme cytochrome c
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Eberhard Schatz is the head of an Amsterdam-based harm reduction NGO, AMOC, which operates a drop-in and consumption room for injecting drug users with foreign nationality. According to the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction, consumption rooms can successfully reduce drug related harms, especially drug overdoses and HIV infections.. ...
BioTek Anwendungshinweise, 04-Nov-14, Automated Hemocytometer-Based Live/Dead Cell Counting using Phase Contrast and Color Brightfield Imaging
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid quantification and in situ detection of nitrifying bacteria in biofilms by monoclonal antibody method. AU - Noda, N.. AU - Ikuta, H.. AU - Ebie, Y.. AU - Hirata, A.. AU - Tsuneda, Satoshi. AU - Matsumura, M.. AU - Sumino, T.. AU - Inamori, Y.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Fluorescent antibody technique by the monoclonal antibody method is very useful and helpful for the rapid quantification and in situ detection of the specific bacteria like nitrifiers in a mixed bacterial habitat such as a biofilm. In this study, twelve monoclonal antibodies against Nitrosomonas europaea (IFO 14298) and sixteen against Nitrobacter winogradskyi (IFO 14297) were raised from splenocytes of mice (BALB/c). It was found that these antibodies exhibited little cross reactivity against various kinds of heterotrophic bacteria. The direct cell count method using monoclonal antibodies could exactly detect and rapidly quantify N. europaea and N. winogradskyi. Moreover, the distribution of N. europaea and ...
In this study, we have begun to examine the complex interactions between two common environmental microorganisms, P.a. and A.t., in planktonic and biofilm growth modes. During exponential growth in dispersed, liquid culture, P.a. dominated A.t. because of a higher growth rate. Within biofilms grown on glass surfaces in the same defined medium, P.a. was also found to numerically dominate the population and to cover adherent A.t., a process requiring motility via flagella and type IV pili. Quorum-sensing mutants displayed an impaired competition phenotype in both liquid and flow-cell biofilm cultures. Motility was found to be important for both species in coculture biofilms. Although A.t. was outnumbered after the rapid-growth phase in both growth formats, its population remained viable, leading to a period of coexistence of these two microbes.. Quorum sensing appears to allow P.a. to achieve a slightly higher growth yield in liquid cocultures. Several quorum-sensing-regulated secreted functions ...
Ni Hao 你好! So you thought youd seen the last of my China photographs, eh? Me too, until I watched The Last Emperor on dvd last weekend. Much of it was filmed in the Forbidden City which prompted me to look through the shots Id taken there last December. I really like this shot of an…
Buy HAO2 recombinant protein, Hydroxyacid oxidase 2 (HAO2) Recombinant Protein-NP_001005783.1 (MBS1421752) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins
Davis, who is now deceased, was an African American from the Midwest who had worked as a columnist for the Chicago Star, the communist newspaper of Chicago, a city that had one of the largest CPUSA affiliates, and, in fact, hosted the September 1919 convention that launched the American Communist Party. Though Davis always tried to conceal any communist associations -- ironically, Obama supporters have picked up that torch -- theres no question that Davis was a communist, as is immediately evident upon reading his columns, examining his background, or consulting with people in the party (to this day) who confirm he was a communist. The fact that he was at least a lower case c communist is obvious. It takes a little more digging to find evidence of his membership in CPUSA -- but not much. Among the sources that reveal his membership are Davis himself, notably in a letter he wrote to a friend, published posthumously by his biographer, Professor John Edgar Tidwell. I have recently joined the ...
Regulating nitrification could be a key strategy in improving nitrogen (N) recovery and agronomic N-use efficiency in situations where the loss of N following nitrification is significant. A highly sensitive bioassay using recombinant luminescent Nitrosomonas europaea, has been developed that can detect and quantify the amount of nitrification inhibitors produced by plants (hereafter referred to as BNI activity). A number of species including tropical and temperate pastures, cereals and legumes were tested for BNI in their root exudate. There was a wide range in BNI capacity among the 18 species tested; specific BNI (AT units activity g?1 root dry wt) ranged from 0 (i.e. no detectable activity) to 18.3 AT units. Among the tested cereal and legume crops, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)], pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.], and groundnut [Arachis hypogaea (L.)] showed detectable BNI in root exudate. Among pasture grasses, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, B. decumbens Stapf showed ...
Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous microorganism widely distributed in aquatic environments and can cause Legionellosis in humans. A promising approach to detect viable cells in water samples involves the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in combination with photoactivatable DNA intercalator propidium monoazide (PMA). However, the PMA efficiency could be different depending on the experimental conditions used. The aim of this study was to compare two PMA exposure protocols: (A) directly on the membrane filter or (B) in liquid after filter washing. The overall PMA-induced qPCR means reductions in heat-killed L. pneumophila cells were 2.42 and 1.91 log units for exposure protocols A and B, respectively. A comparison between the results obtained reveals that filter exposure allows a higher PMA-qPCR signal reduction to be reached, mainly at low concentrations (p < 0.05). This confirms the potential use of this method to quantify L. pneumophila in water with low contamination.
Modifies, by uridylylation and deuridylylation, the PII regulatory proteins (GlnB and homologs), in response to the nitrogen status of the cell that GlnD senses through the glutamine level. Under low glutamine levels, catalyzes the conversion of the PII proteins and UTP to PII-UMP and PPi, while under higher glutamine levels, GlnD hydrolyzes PII-UMP to PII and UMP (deuridylylation). Thus, controls uridylylation state and activity of the PII proteins, and plays an important role in the regulation of nitrogen assimilation and metabolism.
Susceptibility of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria to nitrification inhibitors.: Activity of nitrification inhibitors to several typical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is
Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria AOB Definition - Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (the Nitrosomonas genus) play an important role in the nitrification process. Their...
Uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean declined rapidly between 1990 and 2006. This reduction in carbon dioxide uptake was related to warming at the sea surface, which-according to model simulations-coincided with a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The extent to which the slowdown of this circulation system-which transports warm surface waters to the northern high latitudes, and cool deep waters south-contributed to the reduction in carbon uptake has remained uncertain. Here, we use data on the oceanic transport of volume, heat and carbon dioxide to track carbon dioxide uptake in the subtropical and subpolar regions of the North Atlantic Ocean over the past two decades. We separate anthropogenic carbon from natural carbon by assuming that the latter corresponds to a pre-industrial atmosphere, whereas the remaining is anthropogenic. We find that the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide-released by human activities-occurred almost ...
Description. Started life in Kuala Lumpur being purchased by Dr B V Hassan who headed up the Malaria Eradication Pilot Project in the 1960s, before being brought back to the UK when it was given the 1965 registration number GJJ940C. The original build sheet comes with the bundle of paperwork on the car, as does a current V5C. It was completely restored in the 70s and remained a road car before being converted into a Lightweight DB4. This is a very famous car within AMOC racing circles being the 2003 Championship winning car in the hands of Andy Jenkinson who campaigned the car for several years. In 2004 it passed from Andy to Peter Wheeler the owner of TVR who carried out an improvement programme to the car spending many thousands in the process. Due to Peters untimely death in 2008 the car was purchased by Sean Brown who raced it regularly up until 2013 with great success. The current owner purchased the car in 2013 and has continued the no expense spared routine that the three previous ...
Hao Bujing is Vice President at Beijing Lier High-Temperature Materials Co Ltd. See Hao Bujings compensation, career history, education, & memberships.
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Oxalobacteraceae; Herbaspirillum; Herbaspirillum ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Mengchen Hao Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
This HAO portal is a project of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology in conjuction with Morphbank and the International Society of Hymenopterists and was initially funded in part by NSF grants BDI-0446224, EF-0337220, and DEB-0328922. Current funding is from DBI-0850223; ideas and opinions expressed here are those of the authors and not the NSF ...
Hao Dong is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Using Laser Doppler Imaging and Monitoring to Analyze Spinal Cord Microcirculation in Rat
Examples and Help. Example queries: hello, nihao, ni3hao3, 你好, rest*, zei*, *zei*, *茶, 英*公司, chinese *文, "to rest", bill -gates Pinyin words should be entered without spaces, either with or without tone numbers: ni3hao3 or nihao. The character ü can be entered as v instead. ...
Examples and Help. Example queries: hello, nihao, ni3hao3, 你好, rest*, zei*, *zei*, *茶, 英*公司, chinese *文, "to rest", bill -gates Pinyin words should be entered without spaces, either with or without tone numbers: ni3hao3 or nihao. The character ü can be entered as v instead. ...