Environmental problems caused by nitrogen compounds & nitrate fertilizers MCQs quiz, learn environmental problems caused by nitrogen compounds & nitrate fertilizers multiple choice questions answers, online chemistry quiz MCQs, which option is incorrect bloom of algae with answer.
Nitrogen trichloride is a chemical compound. It contains nitrogen in its -3 oxidation state. It contains nitrogen and chloride ions. Its chemical formula is NCl3. It is an explosive. It is made by reacting ammonium compounds with chlorine. It reacts with hot water to release hypochlorous acid and ammonia. ...
0008] Although it would be desirable to be able to vaporize the liquid chlorine stream containing a high concentration of nitrogen trichloride from the chlorine scrubber to avoid the use of a decomposer and organic solvents or the use of other chemicals that generate waste streams that must be handled, the chlorine vaporizers currently used in industry have shortcomings in vaporizing such streams. Industrial chlorine vaporizers are generally non-horizontal units, such as vertical bayonet style units, or horizontal vaporizer units, such as kettle reboiler style units. For convenience in the following discussion, non-horizontal units with a positive slope are referred to as "vertical" units, meaning units with an angle from the horizontal from 0.1 to 90 degrees. These horizontal and vertical chlorine vaporizers can be of two types, namely: pool boiling vaporizers and plug-flow vaporizers. In a pool boiling vaporizer, such as a vertical bayonet or kettle reboiler style vaporizer, liquid chlorine is ...
The efficiency of nitrogen use is a key determinant of the completion of alcoholic fermentation. We analyzed the kinetics of consumption of 18 nitrogen compounds by 14 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of various origins in a synthetic mediu
The present invention provides improved bioelectrochemical systems and methods for removing oxidised nitrogen compounds from water streams, preferably groundwater and wastewater. It comprises the next innovative aspects: 1.Its a new biological cell, environmentally friendly. 2.It works with many different type of waters: wastewater, groundwater. 3.It can be easily set up according to the location specifications 4.It can be easily produced 5.It can provide energy savings.
aluminium trichloride 7446-70-0 MSDS report, aluminium trichloride MSDS safety technical specifications search, aluminium trichloride safety information specifications ect.
Methanol is produced from an organic waste material such as sewage by a process wherein an arc heater or plasma jet performs novel process steps including: (1) partially vaporizing an organic sewage sludge (a semi-liquid material produced by bacterial digestion of the sewage); (2) reacting the gas products obtained by the sludge vaporization, together with a digester gas (obtained by digestion of the sewage), to form a synthesis gas comprising principally H2, CO, CO2, H2 O and CH4, and (3) optionally, driving a water shift reaction to convert a portion of the output gases to additional H2 and CO for use as a feed stream to the jet. The synthesis gas is converted to methanol in a subsequent process step.
0037]A feed solution was made up containing 1000 ppm v/v of a nitrogen-containing compound (pyridine or quinoline) in a hydrocarbon liquid (n-heptane or toluene). The feed composition is given in Table 1. The feed was pumped at atmospheric pressure and room temperature (about 20-25° C.) through a glass column (3.5 cm diameter) containing a 30 ml bed (8-9 grams) of a sulphonic acid functionalised polymer fibre absorbent (Smopex® 101, available from Johnson Matthey), having a 2.5 mmol/g loading of sulphonic acid groups on the styrene/polyethylene copolymer fibre. Smopex® 101 is a strongly cationic exchanger having 2.5 mmol/g of functional groups. The resin contained 10% water. The fibre lengths were 0.25 mm. The bed was supported by a short plug of glass wool at the top and bottom of the bed. The exit stream was collected in a receiving vessel and not recirculated. The liquid flow through the column was maintained at a LHSV of about 10 hr-1 (300 ml/hr). A sharp visible colour change was ...
... This study covers the - Market research report and industry analysis - 10697108
TRIVENI INTERCHEM PVT. LTD. - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Boron trichloride based in Vapi, India
H+ + Cl− + HClO. Chlorine is a respiratory irritant that attacks mucous membranes and burns the skin. As little as 3.53 ppm can be detected as an odor, and 1000 ppm is likely to be fatal after a few deep breaths. Exposure to chlorine has been limited to 0.5 ppm (8-hour time-weighted average-38-hour week) by OSHA in the U.S.[14]. Sodium hypochlorite and ammonia react to form a number of products, depending on the temperature, concentration, and how they are mixed.[15] The main reaction is chlorination of ammonia, first giving chloramine (NH2Cl), then dichloramine (NHCl2) and finally nitrogen trichloride (NCl3). These materials are very irritating to the eyes and lungs and are toxic above certain concentrations; nitrogen trichloride is also a very sensitive explosive.. NH3 + NaOCl → NaOH + NH2Cl. NH2Cl + NaOCl → NaOH + NHCl2. NHCl2 + NaOCl → NaOH + NCl3. Additional reactions produce hydrazine, in a variation of the Olin Raschig process.. NH3 + NH2Cl + NaOH → N2H4 + NaCl + H2O. The ...
My wife experiences this difference based on CYA when she uses an indoor community center pool with 2 ppm FC and no CYA in the winter. Every year, her swimsuits degrade (elasticity gets shot), her skin gets flaky and her hair frizzy. These problems do not occur in our own outdoor pool with 3-4 ppm FC and 30 ppm CYA even after 5+ swim seasons. The difference is due to the factor of 20 difference in active chlorine (hypochlorous acid) levels. In fact, indoor pools are over-chlorinated because they do not use CYA which moderates the active chlorine level and this may be part of the reason why virtually all respiratory and ocular problems associated with nitrogen trichloride are with indoor pools. It may not only be the poor air circulation and lack of sunlight, but the fact that nitrogen trichloride is produced 20 times faster and at 20 times higher endpoint concentrations when chlorine oxidizes ammonia (this is all predicted from the breakpoint chlorination models -- the only question is what ...
It was Hodges fifth day without food. The smell from the feasts, continually put in front of him every three hours, day and night, had driven him somewhat insane. He had almost succeeded in an act of cannibalism upon the Royal Institutions concierge, such was the extent of his hunger induced lunacy. During the journey to The Royal Institution, his wheelchair being dragged behind Ernest Glitchs handsome cab, he had worked one of his arms free of the sharkskin restraint strapping. He had then partially flayed the rather portly concierge, whilst being wheeled into the Royal Institutions grand entrance. His Master was furious about the savaging, until he realised that it was impossible for his assistant to have eaten, because his mouth was still blocked by the large diameter copper gastric extraction tube. Hodges talon-like fingernails had merely torn the skin off the mans midriff. No concierge meat or skin had been ingested, therefore Hodges body would continue producing the raw material for ...
8. In nitroalkanes - NO2 group is converted to - NH2 group by the reaction with / The - NO2 group in nitro-alkane is converted into - NH2 group by the reagent / The nitro group can be reduced to primary amino group by ...
AmQuel Plus safely detoxifies natural nitrogen compounds in the water including all forms of ammonia nitrites nitrates and toxic pheromones. AmQuel Plus detoxifies all chlorine and chloramines added to the water by public water utilities and toxic nitrogen compounds that can appear in aquarium and pond water over time thereby making water changes less necessary and providing a safer environment for fishes and aquatic life. AmQuel Plus has the ability to make the nitrogen cycletotally nontoxic in aquarium keeping without interfering with the cycles process or the beneficial bacteria that are involved with the cycle. AmQuel Plus reduces the problems with new tank syndrome which in great part are caused by the nitrifying bacteria in the water. AmQuel Plus makes biological filtration much safer by detoxifying its natural processes and remains totally nontoxic to aquatic life. AmQuel Plus should be used for setting up aquariums for water changes and in overcrowded aquariums. 16 oz bottles treats 960 ...
It has been found that the total productivity of bacteria and micromycetes in the 0- to 50-cm layer of homogeneous cryozems (Cryosols) on slopes of northern and southern exposures varies from 1.2 to...
The publishers Industrial reports provide a 360 degree view of an industry. The Industrial market report offers a comprehensive guide to the size and shape...
To improve wine quality today, winemakers need increasingly greater knowledge of the real ability of yeast strains to fulfil several technological requirements, mainly in terms of fermentation performance, aroma compound production, off-flavour minim
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You are OK so far. The only approach I can think off now is to use the information known at this stage (ie you know hydroxylamine is a reactant, you know how many electrons it looses) to write half reaction of hydroxylamine oxidation and then to take random stabs - trying to balance charge, hydrogen and oxygen with H2O, H+ and OH- and looking at possible products ...
NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research is an independent, nonprofit institution established in 1969.. NILU is ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 14001:2015 certified. Org. no. 941 705 561. ...
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PHOSPHORUS TRICHLORIDE | PCl3 or Cl3P | CID 24387 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
In this paper, Lie algebraic method is applied to study the stretching vibrational frequencies of Phosphorus Trichloride (PCl3). This method provides ..
... IUPAC name Trichloromethane Other names Chloroform, Formyl trichloride, Methane trichloride, Methyl trichloride, Methenyl trichloride,
United States Patent 3,338,952 PROCESS FOR THE CATALYTIC AMMOXIDATION 0F OLEFINS T0 NITRILES James L. Callahan, Bedford Heights, Robert K. Grasselli, Garfield Heights, and Warren R. Knipple, Bedford, Ohio, assignors to The Standard Oil Company, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio No Drawing. Filed Nov. 15, 1965, Ser. No. 507,716 4 Claims. (Cl. 260-4653) This is a continuation-impart of our copending US. patent application Serial No. 311,630, filed September 26, 1963, nowabandoned. This invention relates to the catalytic oxidation of olefins to aldehydes and conjugated dienes and to the catalytic ammoxidation of olefins to nitriles. The catalytic oxidation reactions of this invention are exemplified by the oxidation of propylene to acrolein, the oxidation of isobutylene to methacrolein, the oxydehydro-genation of an olefin having 4 to 8 carbons, such as the oxydehydrogenation of butene-l to butadiene-l,3- the ammoxidation of propylene to acrylonitrile and the ammoxidation of isobutylene to ...
Patented Sept. 21, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE NITROGENOUS COMPOUND HERBICIDES David T. Mowry and Arthur H. Schlesinger, Dayton, Ohio, assignors to Monsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis, Mo., a corporation of Dela- Ware No Drawing. Application September 26, 1951, Serial No. 248,461 The invention provides as new and valuable compositions a series of 2-(alkylmercapto)ethyl substituted-quaternary nitrogen compounds having the general formula: alkSOH2CHzll l OH2(IJHOH X Y z in which all: represents an alkyl radical of from 8 to 16 carbon atoms, X is selected from the class consisting of chlorine and bromine, Z is selected from the class consisting of hydrogen and the methyl radical, R is an alkyl radical of from 1 to l carbon atoms, and Y is selected from the class consisting of R and the radical The above general formula includes, e. g. [2- (alkylmercapto) ethyl] (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylammcnium chlorides, the [2-(alkylmercapto)- j ethyl] (Z-hydroxyethyl)diethylammonium chlorides, the ...
It is a natural cyclic process in the course of which atmospheric nitrogen enters the soil and becomes a part of living organisms before returning to the atmosphere. Nitrogen an essential part of the amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids is a basic element of life. Although 78% by volume of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas, but this gaseous nitrogen must be converted to some usable forms like nitrates and nitrites before it can be consumed by living organisms. This is accompanied through the nitrogen cycle. Certain bacteria found in the roots of legumes and blue green algae present in the soil fix nitrogen from atmosphere and convert it into inorganic nitrogen compounds. Such compounds are directly taken up by plants through their root-system. The nitrogen then passes through the food-chain from plants to herbivores and carnivores. When plants and animals die, bacteria and fungi present in the soil convert the nitrogenous wastes back into nitrogenous compounds (nitrates and nitrites) to be used ...
Nitrogen metabolism in prokaryotes involves the coordinated expression of a large number of enzymes concerned with both utilization of extracellular nitrogen sources and intracellular biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds. The control of this expression is determined by the availability of fixed nitrogen to the cell and is effected by complex regulatory networks involving regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. While the most detailed studies to date have been carried out with enteric bacteria, there is a considerable body of evidence to show that the nitrogen regulation (ntr) systems described in the enterics extend to many other genera. Furthermore, as the range of bacteria in which the phenomenon of nitrogen control is examined is being extended, new regulatory mechanisms are also being discovered. In this review, we have attempted to summarize recent research in prokaryotic nitrogen control; to show the ubiquity of the ntr system, at least in ...
Todays post marks a slight detour for the aroma chemistry series. So far, weve look mainly at pleasant aromas, but today we turn to a major malodour: that of toilets, and, more specifically, human waste. It might seem like something of a childish subject, but there are some interesting chemical compounds present in the materials we expel from our bodies. There are are also reasons to examine these compounds, as well discover.. First, we should briefly discuss what makes up faeces and urine. Both consist primarily of water, with the exact water content being variable. For faeces, the remainder is a mix of bacterial biomass from the gut, proteins and nitrogen-containing compounds, and other undigested matter. Urine contains a variety of dissolved organic solids, with urea being the major constituent of these, at over 50%. Urea is a colourless and odourless solid, which our body uses to dispose of ammonia, which is itself produced as a result of the metabolism of proteins.. What is it, then, ...
Background Glutamine is a major amino donor for the synthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other nitrogen-containing compounds in all organisms. In addition to its role in nutrition and...
Fresh scented natural odour neutraliser and odour control agent for use in hotels, restaurants, leisure, institutional, commercial and industrial environments. Active against sulphur and nitrogen-containing compounds that are usually associated with waste odour problems, including amines, ammonia, mercaptans, and hydrogen sulphide...
Scientists sample for microbial DNA and stable isotope ratios in nitrogen-containing compounds to learn about the relative contributions of different nitrogen cycling processes.
The present invention is directed to a method of preparing an organic-alkali metal-boron salt of the formula:wherein Z is an alkali metal selected from the group consisting of lithium and sodium, wherein B is boron, wherein Ar is an aromatic organic radical selected from a specified group of radicals, wherein R is an organic radical selected from methyl and ethyl, wherein Ar is an aromatic organic radical selected from the group consisting of specified divalent dicyclic radicals, wherein m is a numerical value such that 0.ltoreq.m.ltoreq.4, wherein n is a numerical value such that 0.ltoreq.n.ltoreq.2, and wherein x is a numerical value such that 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.2, subject to the provisio that the sum of m and n and x is such that the total valence of the organic radicals Ar, R and Ar equals four. The method involves the reaction of a nitrogen-containing compound of the formula:wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of specified nitrogen
The goal of this work was to develop a detailed understanding of carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bond-forming reactions of amines carried out in supercritical and expanded-liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) media. Key motivations behind this study were the importance of nitrogen-containing compounds in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries and a growing commercial interest in utilizing environmentally-friendly syntheses and processing with cost-efficient, green solvents. The thermodynamics and reaction engineering characteristics associated with the synthesis of several model C-N bond-forming reactions were examined both experimentally and theoretically. Operating conditions and engineering correlations were identified that will facilitate process scale-up and potential commercialization of these and other fundamentally-important CO2-based processes. Amine chemistry in CO2-based media was complicated by the facility of nucleophilic amines to react with carbon dioxide to form carbamic acids, which ...
This chapter discusses the catabolism of amino acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds. Aspartate is transported into B. subtilis by two systems, a high-affinity system energized by the proton motive force and a low-affinity system. The enzymes of the arginase degradative pathway are found in B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. In B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, the proline-degradative enzymes are induced by proline. In B. subtilis, this induction is inhibited if the growth medium also contains glucose and amino acids. Hut expression in B. subtilis is induced by histidine and repressed by rapidly metabolized carbon sources such as glucose. Growth in the presence of amino acids severely inhibits synthesis of the Hut enzymes. Dehydrogenase enzymes may play a role in the degradation of phenylalanine in Bacillus badius, of valine in Streptomyces spp, and of leucine in B. cereus. Nitrate reductase activity is found in B. subtilis cells growing in the presence of nitrate under semianaerobic conditions.
An example provided by one of our users is very interesting. The user logged a few foods he thought were contributing to odor. These were different odors according to the user - ranging from "Ammonia-like" to "Fishy", sharp, cloying and stale. Aurametrix, however, recognized that all these odors described by the user may be related to nitrogen-containing compounds. When these three data points were analyzed along with four foods that the user did not associate with any odors, Aurametrix displayed only one result: ...
Gene the structural unit of inheritance in living organisms. A gene is, in essence, a segment of DNA that has a particular purpose, i.e., that codes for (contains the chemical information necessary for the creation of) a specific enzyme or other protein. The strands of DNA on which the genes occur are organized into chromosomes The nucleus of each eukaryotic (nucleated) cell has a complete set of chromosomes and therefore a complete set of genes. Each gene provides a blueprint for the synthesis (via RNA) of enzymes and other proteins and specifies when these substances are to be made. Genes govern both the structure and metabolic functions of the cells, and thus of the entire organism and, when located in reproductive cells, they pass their information to the next generation. Chemically, each gene consists of a specific sequence of DNA building blocks called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of three subunits: a nitrogen-containing compound, a sugar, and phosphoric acid. Genes may vary in ...
Nitrogen cycle involves the movement of chemical substances between organisms and our surrounding.Nitrogen cycle needs to be made known to all people because nitrogen is very important to all living organisms. Nitrogen is the most abundant element on planet Earth. Nearly 78% of atmosphere is made up of nitrogen gas. In human, nitrogen can be found in amino acids, in nucleic acids, in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and in other compounds. Nitrogen is a necessary part of several cells and processes. Plants also need nitrogen to make chlorophyll so that they can get their own food. Atmospheric nitrogen cannot be used directly by plants and animals because it is so unreactive, so it needs to be converted first. However, plants can take nitrogen compound such as nitrates directly. Then, the animals will eat these plants, therefore providing them with nitrogen source. The conversion of nitrogen can perform in few ways. Some of the processes in nitrogen cycle are nitrogen fixation, nitrification, ...
Trifluoromethylbenzene / Nitrobenzene / Anilide / Phenoxy compound / Nitroaromatic compound / N-arylamide / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether / Fluorobenzene / HalobenzeneAryl fluoride / Aryl halide / Tertiary alcohol / Carboxamide group / Secondary carboxylic acid amide / C-nitro compound / Organic nitro compound / Carboxylic acid derivative / Ether / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Organic oxoazanium / Alkyl halide / Alkyl fluoride / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic nitrogen compound / Alcohol / Organic oxide / Carbonyl group / Organopnictogen compound / Organohalogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organofluoride / Organonitrogen compound / Organooxygen compound / Organic zwitterion / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound ...
Benzimidazole / Phenoxy compound / Nitroaromatic compound / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether / Monocyclic benzene moiety / N-substituted imidazole / Benzenoid / Azole / ImidazoleHeteroaromatic compound / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine / Organic nitro compound / C-nitro compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Azacycle / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Ether / Organic oxoazanium / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxide / Amine / Organonitrogen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Organooxygen compound / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound ...
The biological process of the nitrogen cycle is a complex interplay among many microorganisms catalyzing different reactions, where nitrogen is found in various oxidation states ranging from +5 in nitrate to -3 in ammonia. The core nitrogen cycle involves four reduction pathways and two oxidation pathways. Nitrogen fixation [MD:M00175] is the process of reducing atmospheric molecular nitrogen to ammonia, a biologically useful reduced form incorporated into amino acids and other vital compounds. The ability of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by the nitrogenase enzyme complex is present in restricted prokaryotes (diazotrophs). The other reduction pathways are assimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00531] and dissimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00530] both for conversion to ammonia, and denitrification [MD:M00529]. Denitrification is a respiration in which nitrate or nitrite is reduced as a terminal electron acceptor under low oxygen or anoxic conditions, producing gaseous nitrogen compounds (N2, NO and ...
The biological process of the nitrogen cycle is a complex interplay among many microorganisms catalyzing different reactions, where nitrogen is found in various oxidation states ranging from +5 in nitrate to -3 in ammonia. The core nitrogen cycle involves four reduction pathways and two oxidation pathways. Nitrogen fixation [MD:M00175] is the process of reducing atmospheric molecular nitrogen to ammonia, a biologically useful reduced form incorporated into amino acids and other vital compounds. The ability of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by the nitrogenase enzyme complex is present in restricted prokaryotes (diazotrophs). The other reduction pathways are assimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00531] and dissimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00530] both for conversion to ammonia, and denitrification [MD:M00529]. Denitrification is a respiration in which nitrate or nitrite is reduced as a terminal electron acceptor under low oxygen or anoxic conditions, producing gaseous nitrogen compounds (N2, NO and ...
Measurements of sulfur and nitrogen deposition by means of the throughfall method are compared with model estimates. The sulfur model appears to estimate deposition to deciduous forests very well, but underestimates deposition to conifers by 30 to 40%. The NH4-N deposition to forest is underestimated by the applied model. The model predictions of NO3-N deposition do not show any bias against observations, but are not better correlated with observations than NH4 calculations. Reduced nitrogen compounds are the dominant nitrogen form in throughfall in ammonia polluted areas and contribute up to 50% of the total nitrogen deposition in other areas. Deposition of alkaline material to forests is estimated by applying different methods. Basic cation deposition neutralizes about 31% of the acid sulfur deposition to forest, on the average. Because of the large spatial variability of base cation deposition, it is recommended to develop a model for atmospheric transport and deposition of calcium- and ...
This report discusses the reliability of environmental indicators obtained from calculations, used by RIVM in the composition of reports on the state of the environment. The considered calculation chain (for the Netherlands) starts at the emission of nitrogen compounds in 1992 and ends with forecasts of the nitrate concentration in untreated water in 2100. To this end the notion of reliability is specified in terms of a reliability factor and a confidence interval. The structure of the chain is depicted with flow diagrams. It is composed of measurement data, registration data, model operations and GIS operations. The primary data with respect to the nitrogen load are obtained from sources outside RIVM. They are based on registrated data, for example agricultural surveys. For the nitrogen emissions a reliability was postulated. The applied RIVM models are respectively OPS (atmospheric transport), DEADM (atmospheric deposition), NLOAD (nitrate leaching from agricultural soils), BOSMODEL (nitrate ...
This report discusses the reliability of environmental indicators obtained from calculations, used by RIVM in the composition of reports on the state of the environment. The considered calculation chain (for the Netherlands) starts at the emission of nitrogen compounds in 1992 and ends with forecasts of the nitrate concentration in untreated water in 2100. To this end the notion of reliability is specified in terms of a reliability factor and a confidence interval. The structure of the chain is depicted with flow diagrams. It is composed of measurement data, registration data, model operations and GIS operations. The primary data with respect to the nitrogen load are obtained from sources outside RIVM. They are based on registrated data, for example agricultural surveys. For the nitrogen emissions a reliability was postulated. The applied RIVM models are respectively OPS (atmospheric transport), DEADM (atmospheric deposition), NLOAD (nitrate leaching from agricultural soils), BOSMODEL (nitrate ...
Nitrogen compounds tend to be high energy density materials," says Goncharov. "Pure nitrogen can be a powerful fuel or explosive if one can figure out how to associate nitrogen atoms in a material other than as a triple-bonded diatomic molecule. Recent experiments have shown that nitrogen transforms to nonmolecular single-bonded phases at very high pressure. These could serve as high energy density materials if preserved on a return to ambient pressure. Our results will help show the way to synthesize these materials at less extreme conditions." Filling the gaps in nitrogens phase diagram has implications for the study of other critical materials, say Goncharov. "Nitrogen is an archetypal diatomic molecule. Knowledge of its phase diagram and other properties gives a hint about the behavior of other diatomics, among which is hydrogen. Many key transformations and other phenomena occur in nitrogen at much lower pressures than in hydrogen," he says. "Hydrogen is a fuel for the future. It is ...
A mathematical model of the simultaneous removal of organic substances and nitrogen compounds in a biofilm reactor was developed, taking account of the relationships between oxidation, nitrification, denitrification, and mass transport. The model consists of a set of simultaneous mass balance equations for organic substances, ammonium nitrogen, oxidized nitrogen, oxygen, and alkalinity within the biofilm, and another set of transport equations for these substances within diffusion layer of the biofilm. Synthetic dual and triple Monod-type kinetics describing, respectively, oxidation, and nitrification and denitrification were incorporated into the mass balance equations. The model was evaluated based on experimental data and the computer simulations. This model successfully explained the mechanism of simultaneous removal and the effects of bulk concentrations of organic substances, DO, ammonium nitrogen, and alkalinity on simultaneous removal in a submerged biofilm reactor. ...
2 intae uiseful compoonds, but at the same time causin release o lairge amoonts o eften uiseful energy when the compoonds burn, explode, or decay back intae nitrogen gas. Seenthetically-produced ammonie an nitrates are key industrial fertilizers an fertilizer nitrates are key pollutants in causin the eutrophication o watter seestems. Ootside thair major uises as fertilizers an energy-stores, nitrogen compounds are versatile organics. Nitrogen is pairt o materials as diverse as Kevlar fabric an cyanoacrylate "super" glue. Nitrogen is a constituent o molecules in every major pharmacological drog class, includin the antibiotics. Mony drugs are mimics or prodrugs o naitural nitrogen-containin signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin an nitroprusside control bluid pressur bi bein metabolized tae naitural nitric oxide. Plant alkaloids (eften defence chemicals) contain nitrogen bi defineetion, an sicweys mony notable nitrogen-containin drugs, sic as caffeine an morphine are ...