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Nitrogen (N) generally limits plant growth and controls biosphere responses to climate change. We introduce a new mathematical model of plant N acquisition, called Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN), based on active and passive soil N uptake, leaf N retranslocation, and biological N fixation. This model is unified under the theoretical framework of carbon (C) cost economics, or resource optimization. FUN specifies C allocated to N acquisition as well as remaining C for growth, or N-limitation to growth. We test the model with data from a wide range of sites (observed versus predicted N uptake r2 is 0.89, and RMSE is 0.003 kg N m−2·yr−1). Four model tests are performed: (1) fixers versus nonfixers under primary succession; (2) response to N fertilization; (3) response to CO2 fertilization; and (4) changes in vegetation C from potential soil N trajectories for five DGVMs (HYLAND, LPJ, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and TRIFFID) under four IPCC scenarios. Nonfixers surpass the productivity of fixers ...
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Looking for nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)? Find out information about nonprotein nitrogen (NPN). gaseous chemical element; symbol N; at. no. 7; interval in which at. wt. ranges 14.00643-14.00728; m.p. −209.86°C;; b.p. −195.8°C;; density 1.25 grams... Explanation of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)
A functional explanation for the regulation of grain nitrogen (N) accumulation in cereal by environmental and genetic factors remains elusive. Here, new mechanistic hypotheses of grain N accumulation are proposed and tested for wheat (Triticum aestivum). First, we tested experimentally the hypothesis that grain N accumulation is mostly source regulated. Four contrasting cultivars, in terms of their grain N concentrations and yield potentials, were grown with non-limiting N supply. Grain number per ear was reduced by removing the top part of the ear at anthesis. Reduction in grain number gave a significant increase in N content per grain for all cultivars, showing that grain N accumulation was source regulated. However, on a per ear basis, cultivars with a high grain number fully compensated their N accumulation for reduced grain number at anthesis. Cultivars with a lower grain number did not compensate completely, and grain N per ear was decreased by 16%. Second, new mechanistic hypotheses of ...
The permeability or crossover characteristics of a typical polymeric perfluorosulfonic acid membrane are used for the temporal and spatial estimation of nitrogen concentration along the anode channels of a fuel cell stack. The predicted nitrogen accumulation is then used to estimate the impact of local fuel starvation on stack voltage through the notion of apparent current density. Despite simplifying assumptions on membrane hydration levels, the calibrated model reasonably predicts the response of a 20-cell stack whenever there is no significant liquid water accumulation in the dead-ended anode. Specifically, the predicted voltage decay and estimated anode outlet gas composition are experimentally validated using stack-averaged voltage and a mass spectrometer. This work shows that the crossover of nitrogen and its accumulation in the anode can cause a considerable stack voltage decay and should be considered under high hydrogen utilization conditions. ...
Potential Breeding for High Nitrogen Fixation in Pisum sativum L.: Germplasm Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Investigation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
To assess the relationship between nitrogen concentrations in mosses and wet bulk nitrogen deposition or concentrations in precipitation, moss tissue and deposition were sampled within a distance of 1 km of each other in seven European countries. Relationships for various forms of nitrogen appeared to be asymptotic, with data for different countries being positioned at different locations along the asymptotic relationship and saturation occurring at a wet bulk nitrogen deposition of ca. 20 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). The asymptotic behaviour was more pronounced for ammonium-N than nitrate-N, with high ammonium deposition at German sites being most influential in providing evidence of the asymptotic behaviour. Within countries, relationships were only significant for Finland and Switzerland and were more or less linear. The results confirm previous relationships described for modelled total deposition. Nitrogen concentration in mosses can be applied to identify areas at risk of high nitrogen deposition ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Comparison of Energy Absorption Properties of High Nitrogen Austenitic Steel and Cast Alloy Determined Using Low Velocity Perforation Test - Archives of Metallurgy and Materials
TY - JOUR AU - Hadži-Tašković-Šukalović, Vesna AU - Vučinić, Željko AU - Vuletić, Mirjana AU - Marković, Ksenija AU - Kravić, Natalija PY - 2016 UR - http://rik.mrizp.rs/handle/123456789/618 AB - Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic ...
30mg low nitrogen condensing hot water boiler6 tph low nitrogen condensing boiler project in Uruguay ... Last month 6 tph low nitrogen condensing boiler pr
Increasing nutrient use efficiency is an important aspect in sustainable plant production in order to optimize the use of resources and minimize environmental pollution. Our investigations aim at the identification of genotypic differences which will allow analyzing specific components of nitrogen use efficiency in potato. In addition to characterizing a set of cultivars under field and greenhouse conditions an in vitro culture system with four different nitrogen levels was established in order to investigate if specific components of nitrogen use efficiency can be assessed under such conditions. For this purpose shoot tips were grown fixed in perforated stainless steel plates in 500 ml glas vessels with 50 ml liquid culture medium. The nitrogen levels of the media corresponded to full, 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 of the original MS concentration, i.e., 60, 30, 15 and 7.5 mmol/L. Specific morphological parameters were recorded within three weeks of culture and nitrogen uptake and assimilation was analyzed. ...
Nitrogen (N) plays a vital role in photosynthesis and crop productivity. Maize plants may be able to increase physiological N utilization efficiency (NUtE) under low-N stress by increasing photosynthetic rate (Pn) per unit leaf N, that is, photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between PNUE and N allocation in maize ear-leaves during the grain-filling stage under low N (no N application) and high N (180 kg N ha−1) in a 2-year field experiment. Under low N, grain yield decreased while NUtE increased. Low-N treatment reduced the specific N content of ear leaves by 38% without significant influencing Pn, thereby increasing PNUE by 54%. Under low-N stress, maize plants tended to invest relatively more N into bioenergetics to sustain electron transport. In contrast, N allocated to chlorophyll and light-harvesting proteins was reduced to control excess electron production. Soluble proteins were reduced to shrink the N storage reservoir. We conclude that
Demand for low-input nitrogen sustainable rice is increasing to meet the need for environmentally friendly agriculture and thus development of rice with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a major o
Figure 5: Relationship of Nitrogen Use Efficiency with the Activities of Enzymes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation of Finger Millet Genotypes Grown under Different Nitrogen Inputs
MOLECULAR SINGLE SOURCE PRECURSORS FOR SYNTHESIS OF NITROGEN-RICH CARBON NITRIDE MATERIALS , MOLECULAR SINGLE SOURCE PRECURSORS FOR SYNTHESIS OF NITROGEN-RICH CARBON NITRIDE MATERIALS , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی خوراسگان
article{d0da78cd-840d-4f3d-b593-3ed125f8bb1e, abstract = {The effect of three different nitrogen sources on the growth of external ectomycorrhizal mycelium was studied in Perspex micorocosms. Nonsterile peat was used as substrate. Five different fungal isolates growing in symbiosis with pine seedlings were investigated: two isolates of Paxillus involutus, one of Suillus bovinus and two unidentified ectomycorrhizal fungi isolated from ectomycorrhizal root tips. Three different nitrogen sources were used: ammonium as (NH4)2SO4, nitrate as NaNO3 and a complete nutrient solution (Ingestad 1979), and three different nitrogen concentrations, 1, 2 or 4 mg N/g dry wt. of peat. The mycelial growth of all fungi was found to be negatively affected by the nitrogen amendments, although the sensitivity to nitrogen varied between the isolates. One of the unidentified isolates was extremely sensitive and growth was completely inhibited by all nitrogen treatments. In contrast, the growth of one of the P. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On extreme atmospheric and marine nitrogen fluxes and chlorophyll-a levels in the Kattegat Strait. AU - Hasager, C.B.. AU - Carstensen, J.. AU - Ellermann, T.. AU - Gustafson, B.G.. AU - Hertel, O.. AU - Johnsson, M.. AU - Markager, S.. AU - Skjøth, C.A.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - A retrospective analysis is carried out to investigate the importance of the vertical fluxes of nitrogen to the marine sea surface layer in which high chlorophyll a levels may cause blooms of harmful algae and subsequent turn over and oxygen depletion at the bottom of the sea. Typically nitrogen is the limiting factor for phytoplankton in the Kattegat Strait during summer periods ( May to August) and the major nitrogen inputs come from the atmosphere and deep-water entrainment. The extreme reoccurrence values of nitrogen from atmospheric wet and dry deposition and deep-water flux entrainments are calculated by the periodic maximum method and the results are successfully compared to a map of ...
p,,strong,Aim: ,/strong,Evaluation of tillage practices and nitrogen sources on nitrogen availability in soil and nitrogen uptake of rice,/p, ,p,,strong,Study design: ,/strong,The experiment was laid out in strip-plot design with different tillage practices in horizontal strip and different nitrogen sources in vertical strip and was replicated thrice.,/p, ,p,,strong,Place and duration of study: ,/strong,The field experiment was conducted during the ,em,kharif ,/em,season of 2019 and 2020 at the Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla, ANGRAU, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh.,/p, ,p,,strong,Methodology: ,/strong,The experiment was performed with twenty treatments in strip-plot design. The horizontal strip comprised four different tillage practices and vertical strip with five different nitrogen sources. Rice variety BPT-5204 was taken as the test variety. Observations of the crop and soil during the experimentation were recorded at regular intervals. The significance of the treatment impact was examined ...
High nitrogen effluents from mine sites is an environmental issue which has received relatively little attention historically. In recent years a number of studies have showed the environmental effects of high nitrogen discharge to natural water bodies, which include local eutrophication, high risk of acute reducing conditions and changed species composition in the receiving waters. Apart from the direct environmental effects of high nitrogen discharge some forms of nitrogen can be directly toxic- ammonia and nitric gas for instance, and some can be indirectly toxic, for instance nitrate which causes methemoglobinemia in infants if ingested.. This thesis shows how the developed nitrogen tracing methods can be applied in complex water transport systems such as in a mining environment. Two main study sites were used in this thesis, the LKAB iron mine at Kiruna and the Aitik copper mine at Gallivare operated by Boliden Mineral AB. The nitrogen tracing methods used in this study are stable isotope ...
article{1858168, abstract = {Energy-positive sewage treatment can, in principle, be obtained by maximizing energy recovery from concentrated organics and by minimizing energy consumption for concentration and residual nitrogen removal in the main stream. To test the feasibility of the latter, sewage-like nitrogen influent concentrations were treated with oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) in a lab-scale rotating biological contactor at 25 degrees C. At influent ammonium concentrations of 66 and 29 mg N L(-1) and a volumetric loading rate of 840 mg N L(-1)day(-1) yielding hydraulic residence times (HRT) of 2.0 and 1.0 h, respectively, relatively high nitrogen removal rates of 444 and 383 mg N L(-1) day(-1) were obtained, respectively. At low nitrogen levels, adapted nitritation and anammox communities were established. The decrease in nitrogen removal was due to decreased anammox and increased nitratation, with Nitrospira representing 6\% of the biofilm. The latter ...
The N-use efficiency for photosynthesis was higher in a C4 plant, maize, than in a C3 plant, rice, including rbcS antisense rice with optimal ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) content for CO2-saturated photosynthesis, even when photosynthesis was measured under saturating CO2 conditions. The N cost for the C4 cycle enzymes in maize was not large, and the lower amount of Rubisco allowed a greater N investment in the thylakoid components. This greater content of the thylakoid components as well as the CO2 concentrating mechanism may support higher N-use efficiency for photosynthesis in maize.. ...
Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is widely cultivated in the Mediterranean area where plants generally suffer from water stress during grain-filling period. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of N levels and water regimes on N translocation and nitrogen use efficiency for protein (NUEP) in durum wheat grown under Mediterranean conditions. A 2-yr experiment was performed in southern Italy using four cultivars, two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed) and three N levels (0, 60, and 120 kg ha−1). Among the cultivars under study, Simeto showed the highest N translocation in both years and, together with Ofanto, also the highest NUEP values, especially in rainfed condition. This highlights their good adaptability to dry southern Italy environment. Nitrogen fertilization caused a general decrease of NUEP and its components in both growing seasons; this was more evident in the first drier year, mainly due to a decrease in N uptake. Under water stress the higher N level caused a ...
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This article was first published in gasworld in September 2012.. Everybodys heard of the hydrogen economy, with its promise of limitless low carbon energy. But after decades of R&D, the dream seems scarcely any closer. Apparently still confounded by major technical challenges, the hydrogen economy remains an elusive mirage - always just 10 years away.. But perhaps the hydrogen enthusiasts have simply picked the wrong element? A growing band of companies and independent experts now argue that some of the long-awaited promise of hydrogen could soon be delivered by a different gas - and at a fraction of the cost.. Hydrogen could bankrupt the country, says Professor Yulong Ding, Director of the Institute of Particle Science & Engineering at the University of Leeds, theres a much greater chance well see a nitrogen economy.. Read the full article here.. Full disclosure: this article was sponsored by Highview Power Storage and the Dearman Engine Company. They have established the Liquid Air ...
Nitrogen deficiency occurs if the nitrogen content of the growing medium is not topped up. Heavy rainfall can cause the minerals to be washed away. Compost has the nutrients in it to last for the first months of a plants life[1], but plants will become deficient in nutrients if they are not potted on.
For some reason, reactor1 gets heated up once Tepco stops nitrogen gas injection.. In order to purge hydrogen gas that may cause hydrogen gas explosion, Tepco is injecting nitrogen gas into reactor1.. However, it also causes radioactive material to leak out of the vessel, so Tepco decreased the nitrogen gas volume to inject to reactor1 RPV by 20% on 10/9/2013 as an attempt.. 26 hours later, they observed the temperature rise by approx. 8℃. Having this increase, they increased the nitrogen gas volume to inject to PCV by 4%, but its still stably high.. Tepco announced they are not injecting liquid nitrogen as air-cooling, but the relationship between nitrogen gas injection and reactor temperature hasnt been identified.. http://www.tepco.co.jp/nu/fukushima-np/handouts/2013/images/handouts_131011_11-j.pdf. http://www.tepco.co.jp/nu/fukushima-np/f1/pla/2013/images/data_1u_g-j.pdf. ...
Alfalfa is a high quality forage and also provides a nitrogen (N) benefit to following nonlegume crops. This study examined growth habit and harvest schedule effects on in vitro digestibility of forage; yield and N accumulation of forage, stubble, crowns, and roots; and structural polysaccharide composition and in vitro digestibility of leaves and stems;Six cultivars varying in growth habit were harvested each time they reached the bud, first-flower, mid-flower, or early-pod stage of development. With winter-dormant cultivars, greatest 2-year forage, root, crown, and in vitro digestible dry matter yields were obtained by using the mid-flower cutting schedule. Greatest 2-year N yields of forage, crowns, and roots were also obtained under the mid-flower management. Differences among cultivars for these traits were also observed;Nonwinter-dormant alfalfa, treated as an annual crop, approached the root, crown, and stubble N yields of 2-year-old winter-dormant cultivars. Seasonal forage yields were about
The Effect of Nitrogen Deficiency on the Behavior of the Complete-Mixing Activated Sludge Process M. HAMDY BECHIR, Lecturer JAMES M. SYMONS, Assistant Professor of Sanitary Engineering Civil Engineering Department Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts INTRODUCTION The process of biological removal of pollution from waste waters is accomplished primarily by bacteria which use the organic matter as a source of nutrition. Pollutants are often organic carbon which must be oxidized or removed through a synthesis reaction to eliminate their harmful effects on tne receiving body of water. The bacteria, in order to keep living, have to reproduce or synthesize new cells and increase both in mass and in number. The bacteria in pursuing their natural course of life use the organic carbon available in the waste for energy and new cells, and since the waste is the bacterial food it has to be balanced nutritionally if unhindered growth is to be obtained. The general equation for ...
Could this be extreme nitrogen deficiency which I read can cause older leaves to die off very quickly in extreme cases? Cheers Sam
Newton, Philip P; Lampitt, Richard Stephen (2004): Carbon and nitrogen flux of sediment trap DI181_11834#1. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.206555, In: Lowry, Roy K; Machin, P (2016): Compilation of the results of EU-project BOFS. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.859221
Author: Smith, Sarah R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019; Title: Evolution and regulation of nitrogen flux through compartmentalized|br/| metabolic networks in a marine diatom
West Falmouth residents have watched the health of their harbor worsen over the past few decades due to nitrogen pollution from wastewater. Nitrogen fuels the growth of algae that makes the water cloudy and covers beaches and boats with slimy green muck. Because of nitrogen pollution, the harbors underwater eelgrass beds have died and fish and shellfish populations have slowly disappeared.. In 2008, the U.S. EPA approved a federal pollution limit called a TMDL for West Falmouth Harbor. At that time, the largest source of nitrogen to the harbor was the towns wastewater treatment facility, which was upgraded a few years later after the state set a strict limit on the amount of nitrogen that it could discharge into the harbor.. But even with this upgrade, the harbors nitrogen limit wont be met without reducing nitrogen from septic systems, which today make up the largest source of this harmful type of pollution. All of the homes that line West Falmouth Harbor use on-site septic systems or ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
(2016) Choudhary et al. Science of the Total Environment. Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fa...
The focus of energetic materials is on searching for a high-energy, high-density, insensitive material. Previous investigations have shown that 3D energetic metal-organic frameworks (E-MOFs) have great potential and advantages in this field. A nitrogen-rich E-MOF, Pb(bta)·2H2O [N% = 31.98%, H2bta = N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-amine], was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal reaction in this study. Its crystal structure was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complex has high heat denotation (16.142 kJ·cm−3), high density (3.250 g·cm−3), and good thermostability (Tdec = 614.9 K, 5 K·min−1). The detonation pressure and velocity obtained through theoretical calculations were 43.47 GPa and 8.963 km·s−1, respectively. The sensitivity test showed that the complex is an impact-insensitive material (IS > 40 J). The thermal decomposition process and kinetic parameters of the complex were also investigated
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved non-coding small RNAs involved in regulating plant growth and development, as well as plant responses, to diverse environmental signaling cues. In this study, the expression patterns of 38 wheat microRNAs (TaMIRs) were investigated under normal N and low N stress. Under normal N conditions, the TaMIRs exhibited four expression patterns: high, moderate, low, and undetectable expression. Seven TaMIRs (TaMIR156, TaMIR399, TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, TaMIR1129, TaMIR1133, and TaMIR1136) showed varied expression levels under N deprivation. TaMIR156, TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, TaMIR1129, and TaMIR1136 were upregulated, whereas TaMIR399 and TaMIR1133 were downregulated. The expression patterns of TaMIR444, TaMIR1118, and TaMIR1129 were further analyzed under various low N concentrations and then returned to normal N. The aforementioned TaMIRs exhibited ever higher expression at lower N concentrations and whose expressions returned to those before low N stress after they were restored
Gigout, Anne et Ruiz, Juan-Carlos et Wertheimer, Michael R. et Jolicoeur, Mario et Lerouge, Sophie. 2011. « Nitrogen-rich plasma-polymerized coatings on PET and PTFE surfaces improve endothelial cell attachment and resistance to shear flow ». Macromolecular Bioscience, vol. 11, nº 8. p. 1110-1119 ...
Nitrogen gas springs use compressed nitrogen gas to exert force. Housed within a cylinder, our Nitrogen gas springs meet a wide variety of specifications, with variations on tonnage, stroke lengths, and mounting capabilities. They are used in automobile struts and hatchback doors, office chairs, press tooling, medical and aerospace applications, and other industrial manufacturing. At Precision Punch & Tooling we offer a full-line of nitrogen gas springs, from standard and fixed height cylinders to auto-return cylinders with height adjustment. The structural components of Special Springs gas springs are designed and built to withstand a minimum of 2,000,000 complete cycles at maximum pressure, temperature and for all types of fixings. We also offer a full line of Wire Die Springs.. ...
The BD50s and BD28s Programmable Digestion Block Systems perform acid (Kjeldahl) digestion of large numbers of samples under controlled conditions. If you are looking to automate your Kjeldahl digestions, the BD50s and BD28s offers enhanced productivity, better quality digestions and increased safety. Prepare Samples for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) and Total Kjeldahl Phosphorus (TKP).
One of the hallmark metabolic responses to stress (i.e. injury, sepsis, surgery) is catabolism. Generally speaking, the degree of catabolism is proportional to the degree of stress. Catabolism is caused by increased breakdown of skeletal muscle. The subsequent release of amino acids provides some of the substrate for increased hepatic gluconeogenesis.. During periods of stress, the overall nitrogen balance is negative. However, there is conflicting data regarding the degree of skeletal muscle protein synthetic activity. Studies have reported reduced skeletal muscle protein synthesis after open cholecystectomy, decreased hepatic protein synthesis that becomes directly proportional to the duration of surgery, and a reduction in the protein synthesis within tissues that have rapidly replicating cells. Other studies postulate that the negative nitrogen balance is the result of protein breakdown that exceeds the increased protein synthetic rate.. Stress hormones like cortisol and cytokines such as ...
Characteristic symptoms of N deficiency are reduced vigor, smaller leaves and a pale green or yellowish leaf color. The symptoms first become visible on the old leaves which turn yellow and wither at progressing deficiency. Necrosis starts on the leaf tip and progresses toward the leaf base. Extreme N deficiency causes early senescence and diminished ear size. Reasons ...
Balance studies were conducted on three groups of young, healthy adults between the ages of 18-24 years. After control studies, Group I was taken to 4300 meters gradually, Group II was taken to 4300 meters abruptly, and Group III remained at sea level during the entire study. One-half of each group were physically conditioned. No significant differences were observed in nitrogen, and fluid balances between a the groups that were taken to altitude gradually or abruptly, or b between the groups that were physically conditioned, and those who did not exercise. As a result, the respective groups were combined for comparative purposes. Three factors were prominent during the 28 day high altitude exposure to 4300 meters that included a a decrease in food intake which is probably due to anorexia caused by the clinical symptoms b a negative nitrogen balance which may be due to the decreased nutrient intake and the increased requirement for energy and c a negative fluid balance due to involuntary
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Dont worry; analyzing your soil isnt complicated, and you dont need a lab coat. Plant roots and animal guts have evolved specialized cells layers to control mineral nutrient homeostasis that must tolerate the resident microbiota while keeping homeostatic integrity. Grain testing is also available to determine their nutrient content, nutrient removal from the farming system, and the quality of seed before planting. Grain testing is also available to determine their nutrient content, nutrient removal from the farming system, and the quality of seed before planting. PREDICTIVE NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS, INC. (PNS) is a soil and plant health optimization company that provides premium products that effectively blend Predictive Soil Testing Technologies with Intuitive Software for DIY, Professional Landscape and Controlled Environment Agriculture. Plant nutrient testing equipment is primarily used for determining the amount of nutrients present in the plant. Soil as a medium for plant growth can be ...
1,5 à 2 g par jour, soit 3 à 4 comprimés par jour en deux prises matin et soir. Being the fourth most concentrated amino acid in body tissue. General Side Effects. Possible side effects of supplementation with BCAAs include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach bloating, fatigue and loss of coordination. Leucine can be found in a variety of foods, including soy, nuts, oats, beans, lentils, corn and rice. like any active substance, this medicine may cause more or less unpleasant effects in certain people. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Growth in all cells is a major contributory role that l-leucine plays in the body. L-leucine is generally considered safe when taken in normal doses, such as those found in food and most dietary supplements. Using a single amino acid supplement may lead to negative nitrogen balance. Ingesting too much leucine may cause some side effects. Consuming l-leucine through regular foods in your diet is generally considered safe. This can ...
Properties:White Granular Solubility: soluble in water Inspection Item Standard Nitrogen Nitrate 13%Min Calcium+Magnesium 15%Min Appearance White granular Inspection Item Standard Nitrogen Nitrate 13%Min Calcium+Magnesium 15%Min Appearance White...
Nitrogen Use Efficiency,Nitrogen Fertilizers,RAMP,N Rich Strip,N deficiency,nitrogen algorithms,Nitrogen Management,Wheat Nitrogen Fertilization,Maize,Corn Nitrogen Fertilization, pocket sensor, Greenseeder Hand Planter
http://www.qymarketresearch.com/report/118371#inquiry-for-buying. D] Global Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer sales and Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market share by type [2011 to 2017].. E] Worldwide Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer revenue and growth rate [2011 to 2021].. F] Global Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer [Volume and Value] by Regions - USA Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , China Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , Europe Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , Japan Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer (Volume, Value and Sales Price).. The report also produce extensively details about the description, definitions which are associated to the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer industry and also highlights the modification and changes made to ease the productivity. These company chain and government permission applicable to the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market are also included in the report.. The characteristics of the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer industry are evaluated in a qualitative and quantitative way to compare the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market ...
Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) and increased nitrogen (N) fertilization significantly change the nutritional quality of plants and influence the growth and development of insects. However, little is known about plant metabolism and plant-insect interactions under eCO2 and increased N fertilization, especially C4 plants. Thus, the combined effects of eCO2 and increased N fertilization on maize-Ostrinia furnacalis interactions were tested in this study. Our data demonstrated that both eCO2 and increased N fertilization increased starch content, while increased N fertilization promoted the N content in maize. The combined effects of eCO2 and increased N fertilization did not influence the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC):N ratio in maize. The jasmonic acid level of maize was enhanced by increased N fertilization and O. furnacalis infestation. The total phenolics content and defensive enzyme activities of maize increased under eCO2, increased N fertilization and O. furnacalis infestation.
Different sources of nitrogen pose diverse effects to algal community, but the mechanism of inhibitory effects of nitrogen sources on freshwater diatoms is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to compare biomass, photosynthetic activity, and morphological structure of three common freshwater diatoms (Cyclotella meneghiniana, Nitzschia sp., and Gomphonema parvulum) under different nitrogen sources (NO3 − or NH4 +). The sorption characteristic of each diatom was investigated, and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content and oxygen evolution rate were analyzed to investigate stress of different nitrogen sources on each diatom in the batch experiments. Ammonium lowered the growth rate of C. meneghiniana and Nitzschia sp. when it was supplied in addition to growth-saturating nitrate concentrations, suggesting a combined effect of inhibition of nitrate uptake and direct ammonium stress. Oxygen evolution rate of Nitzschia sp. showed that the direct ammonium stress on the photosynthetic activity can be
Nitrogen availability often restricts primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous symbionts of terrestrial plants and can improve plant nitrogen acquisition, but have a limited ability to access organic nitrogen. Although other soil biota mineralize organic nitrogen into bioavailable forms, they may simultaneously compete for nitrogen, with unknown consequences for plant nutrition. Here, we show that synergies between the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and soil microbial communities have a highly non-additive effect on nitrogen acquisition by the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. These multipartite microbial synergies result in a doubling of the nitrogen that mycorrhizal plants acquire from organic matter and a tenfold increase in nitrogen acquisition compared to non-mycorrhizal plants grown in the absence of soil microbial communities. This previously unquantified multipartite relationship may contribute to more than 70 Tg of ...
Thinning alters litter quality and microclimate under forests. Both of these two changes after thinning induce alterations of litter decomposition rates and nutrient cycling. However, a possible interaction between these two changes remains unclear. We placed two types of litter (LN, low N concentration litter; HN, high N concentration litter) in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carrière) plantation under four thinning treatments to test the impacts of litter quality, thinning or their combination on decomposition rate and N cycling. In our study, N was accumulated to approach an underlying critical acid-unhydrolyzable residue to nitrogen ratio (approximately 57-69) in litter. Moreover, an interaction between litter quality and thinning on decomposition rates, N accumulation and net release did exist. On one hand, one year decomposition rate of LN was elevated after thinning while that of HN remained the same or even lower (under light thinning); N accumulation of LN declined with light ...
CELAYA-MICHEL, Hernán e CASTELLANOS-VILLEGAS, Alejandro E.. Nitrogen Mineralization on Arid and Semi-Arid Land Soil. Terra Latinoam [online]. 2011, vol.29, n.3, pp.343-356. ISSN 2395-8030.. Arid and semi-arid lands soils have low soil organic matter content because of small plant cover and limited primary productivity. Scarce nitrogen content in arid and semi-arid soil organic matter is transformed to inorganic forms through mineralization, making it available to plants, is known as a major limitation to plant productivity in these ecosystems. Nitrogen transformation through decomposition and mineralization is carried on by soil microorganisms, although in arid land environments, optimal temperature and soil moisture growing conditions are not always present, only after rainfall pulses. Nitrogen availability has been difficult to measure because different methods can result in soil disturbance, removal of roots, and limit air and water exchange. Nitrogen mineralization in arid and semi-arid ...
Multiday Exposure of Men to High Nitrogen Pressure and Increased Airway Resistance at Natural Expired Oxygen Tension: A 14-day Continuous Exposure to 5.2 Per Cent O 2 in N 2 at 4.0 Atmospheres Absolute Pressure
High nitrogen materials are sought as a potentially dense, powerful but insensitive explosive and propellant ingredients. Elucidation of the structure and chemistry of dibenzo-1 ,3a,4,6a-tetraazapentalenes has continued, with particular attention to a putative C12N12O12 derivative initially prepared at the University of New Orleans. This research contributed substantially to identification of the actual o-quinone hydrate structure, and explanation of the apparently anomalous explosive insensitivity of the material. Synthesis of the novel 5,7-dinitrobenzo-1 ,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide has been repeated, its structure has been confirmed, and preliminary evaluation of its explosive sensitivity has been completed.*NITROGEN
Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all life forms. The emergence of cells able to transport, catabolize and synthesize a wide variety of nitrogenous compounds has thus been favored by evolutionary selective pressure [1]. As a consequence, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use almost 30 distinct nitrogen-containing compounds [1].. Like most unicellular organisms, yeast transports and catabolizes good nitrogen sources in preference to poor ones. Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) refers to this selection mechanism [1, 2]. More specifically, NCR inhibits the transcriptional activation systems of genes needed to degrade poor nitrogen sources [2]. All known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators (Gln3, Gat1, Dal80, and Deh1) [3]. The ultimate goal is to infer the complete nitrogen catabolite pathways.. In this context, bioinformatics approaches offer the possibility to identify a relatively small number of putative NCR genes [1, 2, 4]. Hence, biologists need only to ...
Isoflavone content of soybean [ Glycine max (L). Merr.] cultivars with different nitrogen sources and growing season under dry land conditions
Of the different sources of nitrogen used for the yield of oxalic acid by parent and X-ray mutated strains ofSclerotium rolfsii, organic nitrogen sources gave better results than inorganic nitrogen sources. Cysteine is the best nitrogen source for the parent and one mutant strain while phenylalanine is for the second one.
Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient required for plant growth and development. In this study, watermelon plants were grown under hydroponic conditions at 0.2 mM N, 4.5 mM N, and 9 mM N for 14 days. Dry weight and photosynthetic assimilation at low N (0.2 mM) was reduced by 29 and 74% compared with high N (9 mM). The photochemical activity (Fv/Fm) was also reduced from 0.78 at high N to 0.71 at low N. The N concentration in the leaf, stem, and root of watermelon under low N conditions was reduced by 68, 104, and 108%, respectively compared with 9 mM N treatment after 14 days of N treatment. In the leaf tissues of watermelon grown under low N conditions, 9598 genes were differentially expressed, out of which 4533 genes (47.22%) were up-regulated whereas, 5065 genes (52.78%) were down-regulated compared with high N. Similarly in the root tissues, 3956 genes were differentially expressed, out of which 1605 genes were up-regulated (40.57%) and 2351 genes were down-regulated (59.43%), compared with high N.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of sprinkling irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on effectiveness of nitrogen fertilization of spring triticum durum. The experiment was carried out at the Złotniki Experimental Station belonging to Poznań University of Life Sciences on a sandy loam soil classified as Albic Luvisols in 2005-2006. Treatment included two water variants (irrigation and the control treatment with natural precipitation), and four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg·ha-1). Sprinkling irrigation increased grain yield, as well as agronomic efficiency of N fertilization. Under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions agronomic efficiency decreased due to increasing of nitrogen doses. Irrigation increased grain yield of 63.1% in 2005-2006.
Paper III of this series reports on effects of ley treatments on the results of procedures for assessing soil nitrogen availability and the relationship between the estimates obtained for various availability procedures and test crop yield. Nitrogen availability procedures investigated included the nitrogen mineralisation potential (No) and the rapid procedures waterlogged incubation (WL), extraction with hot 2 M KCl and extraction with a phosphate-borate buffer (PBB). Values for No on a composite soil sample were 27 mg N kg-1 using the standard nutrient solution and 53 mg N kg-1 using a modified nutrient solution (k values were also significantly different). Values of No using the modified nutrient solution for 0-5 cm soil after the legume treatments showed strong treatment effects with values ranging from 44 to 99 mg N kg-1 for the fertilized plots and lower values for the unfertilized plots. After two test crops values were reduced but in the fertilized legume plots were still higher than for ...
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in maize (Zea mays L.) is an important trait to optimize yield with minimal input of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP) Act-certified germplasm may be an important genetic resource for public breeding sectors. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic variation of N-use traits and to characterize maize ex-PVP inbreds that are adapted to the U.S. Corn Belt for NUE performance. Eighty-nine ex-PVP inbreds (36 stiff stalk synthetic (SSS), and 53 non-stiff stalk synthetic (NSSS)) were genotyped using 26,769 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, then 263 single-cross maize hybrids derived from these inbreds were grown in eight environments from 2011 to 2015 at two N fertilizer rates (0 and 252 kg N ha−1) and three replications. Genetic utilization of inherent soil nitrogen and the yield response to N fertilizer were stable across environments and were highly correlated with yield under low and high N conditions, respectively.
Nitrogen use world crop production. World nitrogen situation-trends, outlook, and requirements. Function and transformation of nitrogen in higher Plants. Ammonium versus nitrate nutrition of higher plantes. Nutrient balance and nitrogen use nitrogen toxicity in plants. Dinitrogen fixation in Leguminous crop plants. Enhancing biological Dinitrogem Fixation in crop plants. Potential for nosymbiotic and assosiative dinitrogen fixation. Uptake of organic nitrogen forms by roots and leaves. Plant use of soil nitrogen. Conventional nitrogen fertilizers. Slow-Release nitrogen fertilizers. Use of nitrogen from agricultural, indistrial, and municipal wastes. Use of nitrogen from manue. Diagnosis of nitrogen deficiency in plants. Nitrogen and yield potential. Efficient use of nitrogen in croppig systems. Crop rotations for efficient nitrogen use. Nitrogen or water stress: their interrelationships. Nitrogen use and nitratite leaching in irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen Use in flooded rice soils. Plant ...
Nitrogen-containing few-walled carbon nanotubes (N-FWCNTs) with very low nitrogen content (0.56 at.%) were obtained by a process involving the coating of acid functionalized FWCNTs with polyaniline (PANI) followed by pyrolysis at high temperatures. The resulting N-FWCNTs exhibited a remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), despite significantly lower nitrogen content than previously reported in literature. The N-FWCNTs performed on par or better than Pt-C in the cathode of an alkaline direct methanol fuel cell, corroborating the ORR activity observed in the electrochemical cell and exhibiting a higher methanol tolerance. Interestingly, N-FWCNTs showed a high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction and for the hydrogen peroxide decomposition, suggesting that the active sites involved in ORR can simultaneously catalyze other reactions. This unprecedentedly high activity for such a low Ncontent can be explained by the exceptional accessibility for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term N fertilization imbalances potential N acquisition and transformations by soil microbes. AU - Huang, L.. AU - Riggins, C. W.. AU - Rodríguez-Zas, S.. AU - Zabaloy, M. C.. AU - Villamil, M. B.. PY - 2019/11/15. Y1 - 2019/11/15. N2 - Nitrogen (N) fertilization in agricultural soils has been receiving worldwide attention due to its detrimental effects on ecosystem services, particularly on microbial N transformation. However, few studies provide a complete picture of N-fertilization effects on the N transformation cycle within a single agricultural ecosystem. Here, we explored the main steps of the microbial N cycle, using targeted gene abundances as proxies, in relation to soil properties, following 35 years of N-fertilization at increasing rates (0, 202 and 269 kg N/ha) in continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations. We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the quantification of phylogenetic groups and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Postprandial changes in the content and composition of nonprotein nitrogen in human milk. AU - Donovan, S. M.. AU - Ereman, R. R.. AU - Dewey, K. G.. AU - Lonnerdal, B.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The effect of a meal on human milk (HM) total nitrogen (TN) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) content and composition was examined. Two studies were performed in which milk and blood samples were collected 2-3 h after subjects consumed either a test breakfast or lunch. To monitor the rate of transfer of plasma urea into milk, two women were given [15N]2-urea with the meal. Milk TN concentrations were not significantly different from premeal values. However, concentrations of milk NPN, urea nitrogen, and alanine were increased by ≥ 20% over premeal values. [15N]2-Urea appeared in plasma and milk within 15 min and reached maximum enrichments of 10% and 5.5% in plasma and milk, respectively. Several HM NPN components increase in concentration postprandially; however, these concentrations ...
Growth at elevated CO2 and temperature often leads to decreased Rubisco activity. We investigated the effects of increased CO2, temperature and nitrogen on the diurnal changes in the control of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Spring wheat was grown at ambient and 700 μmol mol-1 CO2, under ambient and 4 ºC warmer temperatures, and with two levels of nitrogen supply in field tunnels in a Mediterranean environment. At ear emergence, elevated CO2 increased Rubisco activation, but decreased Rubisco protein and, with high nitrogen, Rubisco specific activity, and had no effect on the rbcS transcript. Warmer temperatures tended to decrease the rbcS mRNA level and Rubisco protein, although the effect on Rubisco activity was small. High nitrogen decreased Rubisco activation or specific activity, depending on the CO2 concentration. It increased Rubisco protein at the end of the night, but accelerated its diurnal loss. The main changes ...
Scientists from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have found a gene that plays an important role in helping rice adapt to low soil nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilizer has an indispensable role in increasing crop yields, but on the other hand, it creates a severe threat to ecosystems. For this reason, breeding new crop varieties with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a high priority for both agricultural production and environmental protection.. Using a diversified rice population from different regions, the scientists carefully evaluated how various agronomic traits responded to nitrogen in fields with different nitrogen supply conditions. They further performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS), with one very significant GWAS signal identified. The detailed mechanisms of how OsTCP19 works in regulating rice tillering were also characterized.. The researchers found that OsTCP19-H, the high NUE allele, was highly preserved in rice ...
Keywords: : Nitrogen, N-use efficiency, NUE, N recovery, soil P, soil K, soil organic matter, soil structure.. The increased use of nitrogen (N) fertilisers in agriculture in the last five decades is justified by the increased yield potential of the crops grown and the judicious use of agrochemicals to control weeds, pests and diseases to protect that potential. Nitrogen use-efficiency can be assessed in a number of ways, discussed here with examples, but is usually determined as percent recovery of added N in the harvested product when calculated by the difference method. Assessed in this way, N-use efficiency is frequently only about 50%. But N-use efficiency of applied N should include that taken up by roots to produce the above-ground plant, where N plays a vital role in photosynthesis, the fixation of carbon dioxide to produce sugars, and the root system, which takes up nutrients and water. The fate of this N after harvest is important, but the total amount in the crop should be included in ...
Keywords: : Nitrogen, N-use efficiency, NUE, N recovery, soil P, soil K, soil organic matter, soil structure.. The increased use of nitrogen (N) fertilisers in agriculture in the last five decades is justified by the increased yield potential of the crops grown and the judicious use of agrochemicals to control weeds, pests and diseases to protect that potential. Nitrogen use-efficiency can be assessed in a number of ways, discussed here with examples, but is usually determined as percent recovery of added N in the harvested product when calculated by the difference method. Assessed in this way, N-use efficiency is frequently only about 50%. But N-use efficiency of applied N should include that taken up by roots to produce the above-ground plant, where N plays a vital role in photosynthesis, the fixation of carbon dioxide to produce sugars, and the root system, which takes up nutrients and water. The fate of this N after harvest is important, but the total amount in the crop should be included in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Topographic Influence on Plant Nitrogen and Phosphorus Stoichiometry in a Temperate Forested Watershed. AU - Chiwa, Masaaki. AU - Ikezaki, Shoko. AU - Katayama, Ayumi. AU - Enoki, Tsutomu. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Plant stoichiometry has been used to diagnose phosphorus (P) limitation caused by increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Spatial variability of N/P stoichiometry within a forested watershed has not yet been evaluated. This study conducted synoptic sampling of leaf matter in 27 plots within a temperate forested watershed on low P availability rock (serpentine bedrock) with a moderately high atmospheric N deposition (16 kg N ha-1 year-1) to assess the effects of spatial topographic variation on N/P stoichiometry. Leaf N and P concentrations and N/P ratios of Japanese cypress were assessed, and their spatial variations were evaluated across a catchment. Average leaf P concentration was low (0.66 ± 0.16 mg g-1) across the sites, while leaf N concentration ...
Expert Panel (EUNEP) which took place on 6 and 7 May 2019 in Budapest. EUNEP gathers scientists from all over Europe with the aim of improving the management of nitrogen in the environment.. During the meeting, EUNEP members welcomed the fact that the NUE indicator - as developed by the Panel members in 2015 - has now been taken up by scientists and stakeholders, such as Laura Cardenas in a recent paper on Nitrogen Use Efficiency and nitrous oxide emissions from five UK fertilized grasslands. In addition, the momentum around joined-up nitrogen actions is growing at international level. For instance, the Resolution on Sustainable Nitrogen Management, recently adopted at the 11-15 March 2019 meeting of the UN Environment Assembly (UNEA) in Nairobi, calls for coherent evidence-based, global policy coordination to address negative impacts of reactive nitrogen stemming from multiple sources. This is also the mission of the EUNEP. In this context, the International Fertilizer Association (IFA) in a ...
Moderate fertilization levels are required. Fertilize the crop weekly with 100-150 ppm nitrogen, using complete balanced fertilizer. Avoid high ammonium and high nitrogen levels, but high nitrogen levels results in soft stems. Stems that are too soft will break underneath the flower. Prevent magnesium deficiency by applying magnesium sulphate (0,05 %) 1-2 times and in case of iron deficiency apply iron-chelate for 1-2 times. The roots are sensitive to high salt levels in substrates. Field: N min soil value: approximately 120 g N/m².. ...
We tested the reliability of fecal nitrogen (FN) to predict dietary nitrogen (DN) in two sika deer Cervus nippon Heude, 1884 populations with greatly differing habitats. One was near the village of Nishiokoppe (area A) and the other was on Nakanoshima Island (area B) in Hokkaido, Japan. To estimate FN, we washed feces through a sieve, and diet was identified based on rumen-content analysis. The diet in area A was mostly composed of grass and legumes of agricultural origin, with browse being only a minor component. In contrast, browse such as deciduous foliage was the main component of the diet in area B. Dietary nitrogen was significantly regressed by FN within specific areas. On the other hand, the DN-FN-relationship had a similar slope but significantly different intercepts between areas. DN-FN-relationships differed between diets with and without an agricultural component, irrespective of browse. Thus, the difference in the DN-FN-relationship between areas was explained by differences in ...
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This factorial split-plot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the application of time and level of nitrogen on yield, grain content, remobilization efficiency, and nitrogen consumption of quinoa cultivars. The present work has a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2018 and 2019 in Khuzestan, Iran. The experimental factors herein included four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (no fertilizer application, 100, 200, and 300 kg/ha) and different administrations: (1) 50% at base stage + 50% at six-leaf stage, (2) 50% at base stage + 25% at six-leaf stage + 25% at mid-flowering stage, (3) 25% at base stage + 50% at six-leaf stage + 25% at mid-flowering stage, and (4) 25% base stage + 25% six-leaf stage + 50% mid-flowering stage. Furthermore, quinoa cultivars Gizat, Q26, and Titicaca were selected as the sub-plots. Comparing the two-year averages, we found that with the increase in the nitrogen fertilizer, grain yield, biological yield, remobilization (R), current ...
Author(s): Ros, Gerard H.; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Hoffland, Ellis | Abstract: Strong relationships between Extractable Organic N (EON) and N mineralization suggest that they can be used to assess the N mineralization potential of soils. EON is often used to proxy Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), which is assumed to play an intermediate role in N mineralization. We tested whether EON relates to N mineralization and how this relation is affected by the extraction methodology used. We synthesized results from 171 papers on correlation coefficients between EON and N mineralization using meta-analysis. EON was positively related to N mineralization, and its size explained 14-65% of the variation in N mineralization. Best results were obtained with hot CaCl2 and acid KMnO4 as extractants. EON extracted with alkali solutions explained less of the variation in N mineralization than the other soil tests. There was no direct relationship between the intensity of extraction and the performance of EON as
The relationship between total and metabolically active soil microbial communities can provide insight into how these communities are impacted by environmental change, which may impact the flow of energy and cycling of nutrients in the future. For example, the anthropogenic release of biologically available N has dramatically increased over the last 150 years, which can alter the processes controlling C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, nearly 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. A microbial mechanism underlies this response, as compositional changes in the soil microbial community have been concomitantly documented with these biogeochemical changes. Here, we co-extracted DNA and RNA from decaying leaf litter to determine if experimental atmospheric N deposition has lowered the diversity and altered the composition of the whole communities of ...
Climate change is expected to have strong impacts on permafrost and the frequency of landscape disturbances are expected to increase in response to warming temperatures and overall permafrost change. These disturbances can increase the export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from High Arctic catchments, having important effects on downstream aquatic ecosystems, thus motivating the need to better understand the impact of permafrost change on nitrogen exports. This study examined fluxes of DIN (ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-)) from paired catchments at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory, Nunavut. Water samples were collected from the outlet of the rivers during the melt season from 2003 to 2016. A range of surface water draining different landscape types were also sampled during the 2016 season to identify how specific locations in the catchments control downstream DIN concentrations. Both physical disturbances, including active layer detachments (ALDs), and thermal perturbations ...
The objective of this study was to assess live weight gain, animal behaviour and N excretion in the urine of dairy heifers fed herbs during autumn and spring. Sixty heifers were allocated into five dietary treatments: 100% ryegrass-white clove pasture (100RG/WC); 50% RG/WC + 50% chicory (50CH); 75% RG/WC + 25% chicory (25CH); 75% RG/WC + 25% plantain (25PL); and 50% RG/WC + 50% plantain (50PL). The 100RG/WC had the highest (5.0 times/6 h) and lowest (2.5 times/6 h) urination frequency compared with other treatments in autumn (averaged 3.5 times/6 h) and spring (averaged 4.5 times/6 h), respec ...
Provided by Healio. Yamada K. Nutr J. 2013;doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-79.. June 24, 2013. Patients treated for hepatocellular carcinoma who had a lower dietary fat intake experienced slower recovery from invasive therapies in a recent study.. Researchers assessed the dietary intake of 35 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before and after hospitalization. Nitrogen balance and nonprotein respiratory quotient (npRQ) were measured upon admission and four days later.. Patients mean dietary intake at admission was 1,977 ± 513 kcal/day, with a negative nitrogen balance (-2.1 ± 4.5 g/dL) and an npRQ of 0.83 ± 0.061. While at the hospital, mean intake was 1,834 ± 290 kcal/day (P=.061 for difference), with a similar nitrogen balance (-3.0 ± 2.8 g/dL; P=.31). The npRQ after 4 days in-hospital was 0.86 ± 0.075 (P=.0032).. Five patients experienced minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), and investigators observed a trend toward lower npRQ among them compared with patients without MHE (0.78 ± ...
Liu, Mengyun, David A.N. Ussiri and Rattan Lal. 2016. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen fractions under different land uses and tillage practices. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 47(12):1528-1541.. ...
Rhizoboxes were developed in order to analyse root system and corresponding protease activity in the rhizosphere of young tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker). The activity of proteases exuded by tomato roots applying in situ zymography was detected along the entire root system. The corresponding root architecture as well as root and shoot biomasses was determined to correlate protease activity with plant growth parameters under varying nitrogen supplies. With higher nitrate fertilisation, the proteases in the rhizosphere were more active than nitrogen-deficient plants. This may indicate that exuded proteases were not solely a plant response to nitrogen deficiency with the aim to increase nitrogen availability. Instead, they may have different roles, e.g. in root development.
As we approach spring and the coming growing season, corn farmers facing tight margins or operating losses with their corn crop are looking for ways to be as economical as possible. One input that always seems to need constant monitoring and fine-tuning is the nitrogen input schedule. Two Purdue experts have recently completed an updated report to a 10-year field-level study of nitrogen rates.. Applying more than enough nitrogen is no longer the cheap insurance it once was many years ago, said Jim Camberato, soil fertility specialist and co-author of Nitrogen Management Guidelines for Corn in Indiana. High nitrogen fertilizer costs and environmental impacts should encourage growers to critically evaluate their nitrogen management program, including application rate, fertilizer material and timing.. Nitrogen is the most expensive nutrient used in corn production. If applied properly, it makes individual plants stronger and increases yield.. Beyond some level of applied nitrogen, grain yield ...
Researchers in China studied the co-application of manures and chemical nitrogen fertilizers in high-input greenhouses. They said the environmental risks may outweigh the benefits.
Nitrogen-doped carbon nanomaterials are known to be excellent electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. In this study, we used a new and simple post-doping synthesis method to prepare nitrogen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by reacting fluorina
The Harland-Ashworth test for measuring undenatured whey protein nitrogen in nonfat dry milk was modified to measure undenatured whey protein nitrogen in dried whey. The new test was designed to measure absorbance in Harland-Ashworth filtrates at 280 nm to eliminate difficulties associated with turbidimetric measurements. One gram dried whey was reconstituted in 25 ml pH 6.7 phosphate buffer (.lM) in a 25 x 150 mm test tube. Ten grams sodium chloride were added. The test tubes were incubated for 30 min in a water bath at 37C and shaken 8-10 times in the first 15 min. The tubes were removed from the water bath and cooled to room temperature. The contents of the tubes were filtered through S & S 602 filter paper. One milliliter of filtrate was diluted with 10 ml H2o and the total absorbance was measured against a blank of 1 ml phosphate buffer saturated with sodium chloride, then diluted with 10 ml H2o. One milliliter of filtrate was mixed with 10 ml 13.2% trichloroacetic acid and filtered through Whatman
Contractile activity is an important determinant of the size, rate of protein turnover and phenotypic properties of muscle. Animal models that decrease muscle activity invariably accelerate the rate of protein degradation, usually complementing decreases in the rate of protein synthesis. The net effect is muscle atrophy. By contrast, increased activity and/or passive stretch enhance the synthesis of new proteins, whilst protein catabolism may be either decreased or increased. Muscle hypertrophy results. Endurance activities in man and animals usually induce cardiac hypertrophy, and increased fatigue resistance in skeletal muscle. During exercise the whole body and its skeletal musculature exhibit a negative nitrogen balance, and there is general agreement that rates of protein synthesis are decreased. Changes in protein degradation are, however, much less clearly defined. Resistance exercises induce the opposite changes, with the size of the heart remaining unchanged whilst the bulk and strength ...
Metabolic responses during a very-low-calorie diet, composed of 50 per cent glucose and 50 per cent protein, were studied in 18 grossly obese subjects (relative weights 131-205 per cent) for 28 d. During the last 14 d (period 2) eight subjects (Gp B) served as controls, while the other ten subjects (Gp A) in the low T₃ state were treated with triiodothyronine supplementation (50 micrograms, 3 times daily). During the first 14 d (period 1) a low T₃-high rT₃ state developed; there was an inverse relationship between the absolute fall of the plasma T₃ concentrations and the cumulative negative nitrogen balance as well as the beta-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) acid concentrations during the semi-starvation period, pointing to a protein and fuel sparing effect of the low T₃ state. Weight loss in the semi-starvation period was equal in both groups; during T₃ treatment the rate of weight loss was statistically significant (Gp A 6.1 +/- 0.3 kg vs Gp B 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg, P less than 0.001). In the ...
Author: Rubin, G. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009; Open Access; Keywords: affinity nitrate transporter|br/|sucrose-specific induction|br/|knox gene-expression|br/|lob domain protein|br/|p-i starvation|br/|enzyme-activities|br/|phenylpropanoid biosynthesis|br/|flavonoid biosynthesis|br/|environmental nitrate|br/|secondary metabolism; Title: Members of the LBD Family of Transcription Factors Repress Anthocyanin Synthesis and Affect Additional Nitrogen Responses in Arabidopsis
Research on hydroponically grown mums showed that nitrogen (N) levels applied can be reduced when adequate sulfur (S) is also applied. However, changes in stem length, leaf area, and time-to-fl ower can be affected. Our goal was to evaluate whether reduced N levels in combination with S would affect commercial production and post-harvest longevity of pot mums. `White Diamond was grown in a peat:perlite:vermiculite medium following a commercial production schedule. N levels applied were 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/L. S levels were 0, 5, 10, 20, and 80 mg/L. The treatment design was a complete factorial 4 × 5 with 20 treatment combinations. The experimental design was a split-plot with N levels as the whole-plot and S levels as the split-plot factor. Variables measured were plant height, leaf area, days to bud set, days to first color, and days to flower opening. Plants were ship to the Univ. of Florida for postharvest evaluation. Data were analyzed using SAS PROC MIXED AND PROC REG. N and S ...
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The collection of atmospheric deposition by technical samplers and validated deposition modelling using chemical transport models is spatially complemented by using mosses as bioindicator: since 1990, the European moss survey has been providing data on element concentrations in moss every 5 years at up to 7300 sampling sites. In the moss specimens, heavy metals (since 1990), nitrogen (since 2005) and persistent organic pollutants (since 2010) were determined. Germany participated in all surveys with the exception of that in 2010. In this study, the spatial structures of element concentrations in moss collected in Germany between 1990 and 2015 were comparatively investigated by using Morans I statistics and Variogram analysis and mapped by use of Kriging interpolation. This is the precondition to spatially join the moss survey data with data collected at other locations within different environmental networks and to validate spatial patterns of atmospheric deposition as derived by technical sampling and