Recently, the structure of a Cu-containing nitrite reductase (NiR) from Hyphomicrobium denitrificans (HdNiR) has been reported, establishing the existence of a new family of Cu-NiR where an additional
The cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductases are enzymes that catalyse the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) in the bacterial energy conversion denitrification process. These enzymes contain two different redox centres: one covalently bound c-haem, which is reduced by external donors, and one peculiar d1-haem, where catalysis occurs. In the present paper, we summarize the current understanding of the reaction of nitrite reduction in the light of the most recent results on the enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and discuss the differences between enzymes from different organisms. We have evidence that release of NO from the ferrous d1-haem occurs rapidly enough to be fully compatible with the turnover, in contrast with previous hypotheses, and that the substrate nitrite is able to displace NO from the d1-haem iron. These results shed light on the mechanistic details of the activity of cd1 nitrite reductases and on the biological role of the d1-haem, whose presence in this class of enzymes has to ...
It is generally assumed that tethering enhances rates of electron harvesting and delivery to active sites in multidomain enzymes by proximity and sampling mechanisms. Here, we explore this idea in a tethered 3-domain, trimeric copper-containing nitrite reductase. By reverse engineering, we find that …
The coupled nitrification-denitrification process plays a pivotal role in cycling and removal of nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the communities of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in the sediments of 2 basins (Guozhenghu Basin and Tuanhu Basin) of a large urban eutrophic lake (Lake Donghu) were determined using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene and the nitrite reductase gene. At all sites of this study, the archaeal amoA gene predominated over the bacterial amoA gene, whereas the functional gene for denitrification nirK gene far outnumbered the nirS gene. Spatially, compared with the Tuanhu Basin, the Guozhenghu Basin showed a significantly greater abundance of the archaeal amoA gene but less abundance of the nirK and nirS genes, while there was no significant difference of bacterial amoA gene copy numbers between the 2 basins. Unlike the archaeal amoA gene, the nirK gene showed a significant difference in community structure between the 2 basins. Archaeal ...
To explain anaerobic nitrite/nitrate production at the expense of ammonium mediated by manganese oxide (Mn(IV)) in sediment, nitrate and manganese respirations were investigated in a strain (Shewanella algae C6G3) presenting these features. In contrast to S. oneidensis MR-1, a biotic transitory nitrite accumulation at the expense of ammonium was observed in S. algae during anaerobic growth with Mn(IV) under condition of limiting electron acceptor, concomitantly, with a higher electron donor stoichiometry than expected. This low and reproducible transitory accumulation is the result of production and consumption since the strain is able to dissimilative reduce nitrate into ammonium. Nitrite production in Mn(IV) condition is strengthened by comparative expression of the nitrate/nitrite reductase genes (napA, nrfA, nrfA-2), and rates of the nitrate/nitrite reductase activities under Mn(IV), nitrate or fumarate conditions. Compared with S. oneidensis MR-1, S. algae contains additional genes that encode
PCR detection of genes encoding nitrite reductase in denitrifying bacteria. Metabolic profiles and genetic diversity of denitrifying communities in activated sludge after addition of methanol or ethanol
1KBW: Crystal structure of the soluble domain of the major anaerobically induced outer membrane protein (AniA) from pathogenic Neisseria: a new class of copper-containing nitrite reductases.
ID NIRB_ECOLI Reviewed; 847 AA. AC P08201; Q2M731; DT 01-AUG-1988, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-NOV-1995, sequence version 4. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 161. DE RecName: Full=Nitrite reductase (NADH) large subunit; DE EC=1.7.1.15; GN Name=nirB; OrderedLocusNames=b3365, JW3328; OS Escherichia coli (strain K12). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Escherichia. OX NCBI_TaxID=83333; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=K12; RX PubMed=2543955; DOI=10.1093/nar/17.10.3865; RA Bell A.I., Gaston K.L., Cole J.A., Busby S.J.W.; RT "Cloning of binding sequences for the Escherichia coli transcription RT activators, FNR and CRP: location of bases involved in discrimination RT between FNR and CRP."; RL Nucleic Acids Res. 17:3865-3874(1989). RN [2] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=K12; RX PubMed=2200672; DOI=10.1111/j.1432-1033.1990.tb19125.x; RA Peakman T., Crouzet J., Mayaux J.F., Busby S.J.W., Mohan S., ...
Title: Cytochrome cd(1) structure: Unusual haem environments in a nitrite reductase and analysis of factors contributing to beta-propeller ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of tryptophan in the ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductase of spinach. AU - Tripathy, Jatindra N.. AU - Hirasawa, Masakazu. AU - Kim, Sung Kun. AU - Setterdahl, Aaron T.. AU - Allen, James P.. AU - Knaff, David B.. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - A system has been developed for expressing a His-tagged form of the ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductase of spinach in Escherichia coli. The catalytic and spectral properties of the His-tagged, recombinant enzyme are similar, but not identical, to those previously observed for nitrite reductase isolated directly from spinach leaf. A detailed comparison of the spectral, catalytic and fluorescence properties of nitrite reductase variants, in which each of the enzymes eight tryptophan residues has been replaced using site-directed mutagenesis by either aromatic or non-aromatic amino acids, has been used to examine possible roles for tryptophan residues in the reduction of nitrite to ammonia catalyzed by the enzyme.. AB - A ...
1ET7: Catalytic roles for two water bridged residues (Asp-98 and His-255) in the active site of copper-containing nitrite reductase.
1l9s: Directing the mode of nitrite binding to a copper-containing nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6: characterization of an active site isoleucine.
The ability of Neisseria meningitidis to utilize both oxygen and nitrogen oxides as respiratory substrates allows it to thrive in the diverse environment of the human host. Genome analysis highlighted genes encoding a cbb3 cytochrome oxidase, the aniA nitrite reductase gene and the norB nitric oxide reductase gene. In the present study, we used myxothiazol as an inhibitor of the bc1 complex in intact cells and demonstrated that electron flow to nitrite reductase and the cytochrome oxidase, but not NO reductase, passes via the cytochrome bc1 complex. UV-visible spectrophotometry of intact cells demonstrated that oxygen oxidizes c-type and b-type cytochromes. Oxidation of cytochromes by nitrite was only seen in microaerobically precultured whole cells, and the predominant oxidizable cytochromes were b-type. These are likely to be associated with the oxidation of a b-haem-containing nitric oxide reductase. Nitrite inhibits the oxidation of cytochromes by oxygen in a nitrite reductase-independent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of tryptophan in the ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductase of spinach. AU - Tripathy, Jatindra. AU - Hirasawa, Masakazu. AU - Kim, Sung-Kun. AU - Setterdahl, Aaron T.. AU - Allen, James P.. AU - Knaff, David. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. M3 - Article. SP - 1. EP - 12. JO - Photosynthesis Research. JF - Photosynthesis Research. SN - 0166-8595. ER - ...
Herein, we demonstrate that the BP-lowering effects of nitrite are enhanced in an experimental model of hypertension and that these effects of nitrite, at least in part, are because of the nitrite reductase activity of erythrocytic XOR. We translate these observations to the clinical setting by demonstration in a proof-of-principle study in hypertensive patients, of similar enhanced bioactivity of nitrite, achieved through dietary provision of inorganic nitrate, and involvement of erythrocytic XOR.. Nitrite caused dose-dependent decreases in BP in SHR, with significant decreases becoming first evident at circulating concentrations of nitrite of ≈1×10−6 mol/L. This concentration falls within the range of physiological levels of circulating nitrite, that is, 0.2 to 5.0×10−6 mol/L that have been reported in healthy humans.26,30-32 Crucially at this dose, nitrite had minimal effects on BP in the normotensive WKY control. In our studies, the potassium nitrite salt decreased BP in a ...
(a) Reduction of nitrite to ammonia is carried out by an enzyme called nitrite reductase. (b)This enzyme does not contain molybednum but requires copper and iron as activators. It requires reducing power, which is NADPH. …
This study provides a novel analysis of N-regulated gene networks conserved across two highly divergent species: rice (a monocot) and Arabidopsis (a dicot). Despite their large phylogenetic distance, our analysis revealed a set of N-regulated genes, TFs, and network modules conserved in rice and Arabidopsis exposed to the same N-treatment conditions. Our analysis shows a statistically significant overlap, indicating that rice and Arabidopsis respond very similarly to the N treatments. The list of genes regulated by N treatments in rice includes many of the known nitrate/ammonium-regulated genes previously identified in Arabidopsis, including genes known to respond to nitrate (Nitrate Reductase, Nitrite Reductase, Ferredoxin, Ferredoxin-Dependent NADPH Reductase, and G6PDH). These results are not surprising in hindsight, given that the former are important to reduce the plants risk of nitrite toxicity. Selected genes from the N-responsive lists were corroborated by RT-qPCR analysis. One of the ...
Probable electron donor to membrane cytochrome oxidase and to periplasmic nitrite reductase. Membrane-binding site participates in protein-protein interaction ...
This study focuses on the chemical reaction between Fe(II) and nitrite, which has been reported to produce high levels of the greenhouse gas N2O. We investigated the extent to which dead biomass and Fe(II) minerals might enhance this reaction. Here, nitrite reduction was highest when both additives were present but less pronounced if only Fe(II) minerals were added. Both reaction systems show distinct differences, rather low N2O levels, and indicated the abiotic production of N2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzymatic properties of the ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductase from chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Evidence for hydroxylamine as a late intermediate in ammonia production. AU - Hirasawa, Masakazu. AU - Tripathy, Jatindra N.. AU - Sommer, Frederik. AU - Somasundaram, Ramasamy. AU - Chung, Jung Sung. AU - Nestander, Matthew. AU - Kruthiventi, Mahima. AU - Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud. AU - Johnson, Michael K.. AU - Merchant, Sabeeha S.. AU - Allen, James Paul. AU - Knaff, David B.. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - The ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged recombinant protein, and purified to homogeneity. The spectra, kinetic properties and substrate-binding parameters of the C. reinhardtii enzyme are quite similar to those of the ferredoxin-dependent spinach chloroplast nitrite reductase. Computer modeling, based on the published structure of spinach nitrite reductase, predicts ...
UNLABELLED Nitrate reduction to nitrite in oil fields appears to be more thermophilic than the subsequent reduction of nitrite. Concentrated microbial consortia from oil fields reduced both nitrate and nitrite at 40 and 45°C but only nitrate at and above 50°C. The abundance of the nirS gene correlated with mesophilic nitrite reduction activity. Thauera and Pseudomonas were the dominant mesophilic nitrate-reducing bacteria (mNRB), whereas Petrobacter and Geobacillus were the dominant thermophilic NRB (tNRB) in these consortia. The mNRB Thauera sp. strain TK001, isolated in this study, reduced nitrate and nitrite at 40 and 45°C but not at 50°C, whereas the tNRB Petrobacter sp. strain TK002 and Geobacillus sp. strain TK003 reduced nitrate to nitrite but did not reduce nitrite further from 50 to 70°C. Testing of 12 deposited pure cultures of tNRB with 4 electron donors indicated reduction of nitrate in 40 of 48 and reduction of nitrite in only 9 of 48 incubations. Nitrate is injected into high
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Modified tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll, heme, siroheme, vitamin B(12), coenzyme F(430), and heme d(1) underpin a wide range of essential biological functions in all domains of life, and it is therefore surprising that the syntheses of many of these life pigments remain poorly understood. It is known that the construction of the central molecular framework of modified tetrapyrroles is mediated via a common, core pathway. Herein a further branch of the modified tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway is described in denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as the Archaea. This process entails the hijacking of siroheme, the prosthetic group of sulfite and nitrite reductase, and its processing into heme and d(1) heme. The initial step in these transformations involves the decarboxylation of siroheme to give didecarboxysiroheme. For d(1) heme synthesis this intermediate has to undergo the replacement of two propionate side chains with oxygen functionalities and the introduction of a double bond into
50 parameters and over 100 measurement ranges agents Reduction Ammonium Cadmium Nitrate Lead Phosphate Copper Nitrite Zinc Surfactants TNb units Bitter in the laboratory via Ethernet 3 The reference sample is analysed at the laboratory using a cuvette test and the photometer ...
Nitrites are abused mainly by older adolescents and adults. Typically, individuals who abuse nitrites are seeking to enhance sexual function and pleasure. Research shows that abuse of these drugs in this context is associated with unsafe sexual practices that greatly increase the risk of contracting and spreading infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis.. Animal research raises the possibility that there may also be a link between abuse of nitrites and the development and progression of infectious diseases and tumors. The research indicates that inhaling nitrites depletes many cells in the immune system and impairs mechanisms that fight infectious diseases. A study found that even a relatively small number of exposures to butyl nitrite can produce dramatic increases in tumor incidence and growth rate in animals.. ...
A new five-year award from the U.S. Department of Educations Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services will enable FPG to build on the work of its seminal center on State Implementation and Scaling Up of Evidence Based Practices (SISEP). Over the last decade, the SISEP Center has supported state and local education agencies as they have worked toward building their capacity for obtaining improved outcomes for students with disabilities, their families, and educators.. "Were thrilled to continue and to expand upon the past ten years of work of the SISEP Center," said Caryn Ward, the centers current co-principal investigator, who will head the project through its next grant. "SISEP has strengthened our education systems by supporting our educators in making a difference for students and families.". Ward said that as a longtime cornerstone in FPGs National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) portfolio, SISEP has informed the sciences of implementation, improvement, and ...
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Sodium nitrite is a chemical compound used to keep processed foods fresh and brightly colored. Though studies show that it may...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersFolic acidmethylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (TIGR00677; EC 1.5.1.20; HMM-score: 68.3) ...
The denitrifying bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans can grow aerobically or anaerobically using nitrate or nitrite as the sole nitrogen source. The biochemical pathway responsible is expressed from a gene cluster comprising a nitrate/nitrite transporter (NasA), nitrite transporter (NasH), nitrite reductase (NasB), ferredoxin (NasG) and nitrate reductase (NasC). NasB and NasG are essential for growth with nitrate or nitrite as the nitrogen source. NADH serves as the electron donor for nitrate and nitrite reduction, but only NasB has a NADH-oxidizing domain. Nitrate and nitrite reductase activities show the same Km for NADH and can be separated by anion-exchange chromatography, but only fractions containing NasB retain the ability to oxidize NADH. This implies that NasG mediates electron flux from the NADH-oxidizing site in NasB to the sites of nitrate and nitrite reduction in NasC and NasB respectively. Delivery of extracellular nitrate to NasBGC is mediated by NasA, but both NasA and NasH ...
Colonization by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in children with cystic fibrosis: a retrospective clinical study conducted by means of molecular epidemiological investigation
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We examined the effects of nitrite repletion on mitochondrial function, reperfusion ROS generation, organ function, and survival in a 12-minute mouse cardiac arrest model. Cardiac arrest results in systemic nitrite depletion, and low-dose nitrite replacement (therapy with 50 nmol) at CPR initiation restores these levels to near baseline and increases cardiac S-nitrosothiols. Therapeutic nitrite repletion and S-nitrosation in heart are associated with transient, reversible inhibition of complex I, reducing mitochondrial reperfusion, ROS generation, and oxidative injury. Nitrite improved pulmonary gas exchange, cardiac contractility, and survival with a suggestion of neuroprotection.. Moderate NO reperfusion therapy is known to be protective,29 but NO formation is limited by the dependence of NO synthase on oxygen and reduced substrates.30 Nitrite acts as a reservoir for NO during ischemia, and nitrite reduction generates NO through NOS-independent pathways.6,31,32 We demonstrate that global ...
We examined the effects of nitrite repletion on mitochondrial function, reperfusion ROS generation, organ function, and survival in a 12-minute mouse cardiac arrest model. Cardiac arrest results in systemic nitrite depletion, and low-dose nitrite replacement (therapy with 50 nmol) at CPR initiation restores these levels to near baseline and increases cardiac S-nitrosothiols. Therapeutic nitrite repletion and S-nitrosation in heart are associated with transient, reversible inhibition of complex I, reducing mitochondrial reperfusion, ROS generation, and oxidative injury. Nitrite improved pulmonary gas exchange, cardiac contractility, and survival with a suggestion of neuroprotection.. Moderate NO reperfusion therapy is known to be protective,29 but NO formation is limited by the dependence of NO synthase on oxygen and reduced substrates.30 Nitrite acts as a reservoir for NO during ischemia, and nitrite reduction generates NO through NOS-independent pathways.6,31,32 We demonstrate that global ...
Nitrite poisoning is also known by aquarists as Brown Blood Disease. Nitrite damages the nervous system, liver, spleen, and kidneys of fish and other aquatic animals. Even low concentrations of 0.5mg/l over extended periods can cause long term damage. Nitrite binds the oxygen carrying hemoglobin in blood therefore fish can suffocate even if the oxygen in the tank is sufficient. Given time (normally 3-4 weeks) in a normal process of a new tank cycling, nitrites are converted into the much less toxic nitrates by the nitrifying bacteria. However if the levels of nitrites do not come down, then the nitrites will cause the animals to struggle for oxygen as the nitrites damage the gills of fish and will cause long term damage to their immune systems and stress them greatly. ...
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dietary nitrate/nitrite could be a compensatory fuel for a disrupted nitrate/nitrite/NO pathway and related disorders in diabetes
A sequence of equations is proposed for the decomposition events of alkyl nitrates, based on the observation that nitrites are produced in substantial amounts. Studies were made of the reactions of ethoxyl radicals (produced by the decomposition of diethyl peroxide at 181 deg C) with ethyl nitrite and NO. The reaction rate between the ethoxyl radicals and NO was much greater than that between the radicals the nitrite.
Its now day 8 since I started dosing my 15Gl tank with pure ammonia. I managed to get the level of ammonia to about 3ppm and for the last couple of days the numbers have been dropping. Today I read the result as 0.5. Im using the api liquid test kit and have double checked and asked other peoples advice on the readings. The strips that I was using indicated that there was no nitrites present in my tank and I figured the strips were simply wrong, however today I tested for nitrites with an
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Once the pair nitrate-nitrite--in quantity respectively set by the ingestion level or transformation level by intestinal bacteria--has entered through the intestinal mucosa, it may react with active biochemical groups. Nitrite, owing to its high oxido-reduction potential, may induce the oxidation of a large number of compounds, as for example the Fe++ heme-Fe+++ hemine system, reduced cytochromes-oxidized cytochromes system, etc. If the presence of nitrite in blood is not clearly established, this is due to the nitrite high chemical reactivity. Moreover, a transformation by the tissues of nitrates into nitrites after a nitro-reduction is quite possible.
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