According to a recently published report, the Global Nitric Acid Market is expected to grow at the CAGR of 10.11% during 2015-2022 and it estimated to be US $ 14.90 billion by 2022. The Global Nitric Acid market is segmented on the basis of by applications and by geography. The report on Global Nitric Acid market forecast 2015-2022 provides detailed overview and predictive analysis of the market.. The Global Nitric Acid market is expected to grow significantly due to factors such as the increasing demand for ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer in the agricultural industry, as reported by, Occams Business research. The Growth of the global fertilizer industry is mainly driving the nitric acid market. As Nitric acid is used in the production of calcium ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate, which are used in fertilizers. Ammonium nitrate can further be used to produce urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), which is used in explosives and fertilizer solutions.. For More Information, List of Figure, Tables And ...
Process for the production of a nitric acid having a concentration of 75 to 99.9% from a more diluted, optionally impure nitric acid, wherein a nitric acid of a concentration of about 45 to 70% is rectified at a pressure from 100 mbar absolute to 5 bar absolute by contacting it with a liquid extraction medium for preventing the formation of a nitric acid-water azeotropic mixture, the vapors of the concentrated nitric acid is obtained, and wherein, additionally, the extraction medium is recovered by re concentration at a pressure in the range from 50 mbar absolute to 4 bar absolute and returned to the extractive rectification, characterized in partially or substantially utilizing the heat contents of the available process streams of the entire process and feeding the nitric acid to be concentrated in the form of a boiling liquid or partially vaporized or separated into vapor and liquid into the extractive rectification, utilizing the heat contents available in the entire process (Wl, W2, W5), and ...
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Results are presented of the effect of various physicochemical and hydrodynamic factors on the process rate of absorption of nitrogen oxides by nitric acid solutions in a foam apparatus. With an increase in the initial nitrosity of the gas, the degree of conversion of nitrogen oxides into HNO3 increases. The degree of conversion of nitrogen oxides into HNO3 is reduced with an increase in nitric acid concentration, while efficiency remains practically constant right up to 45 percent nitric acid with the same concentration of nitrogen oxides. In the case of counterflow the efficiency increases with a growth in the concentration of nitrogen oxides and nitric acid. With a certain motivating force of the absorption process, it is necessary to take into account the equilibrium pressure of the nitrogen oxides over the liquid phase. With an increase in temperature from 20 to 50 degrees C, the coefficient of the degree of achievement of equilibrium between the nitrogen oxides and the acid, or efficiency, is
https://www.hexaresearch.com/research-report/nitric-acid-industry. Asia Pacific is likely to experience high growth with CAGR of 2.8% from 2015 to 2022. Ammonium nitrate contributes being the largest application segment over the years and also in upcoming years owing the increasing demand in agricultural field and lack of rule and regulations of the use of nitrate fertilizer in India and China. Central and Eastern Europe has dominated the Nitric acid industry globally with market demand over 20 million tons in 2014.. Hexa Research also stated that, Adipic acid, key application of Nitric acid is contributing for 2,280 Kilo tons in global market. Nitric acid consumed for ammonium nitrate production is used as a intermediate for manufacturing of fertilizers or 80% of it is used a fertilizer. Nitric acid industry is stated by its major Players including Dow Chemical Company and BASF SE. Koch Nitrogen Company and Agrium are involved in manufacturing ammonium nitrate and ammonia which is nitrogen ...
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The U.S. Nitric Acid Market is estimated to be valued at USD 7.60 billion by 2025, propelled by its prevalent use in chemical and fertilizer industries. The need for high crop yield to meet the growing demand for food in tandem with the increasing population has elicited the use of synthetic fertilizers over the past few years and the trend is likely to continue. Thus, market is anticipated to grow at revenue CAGR of 8% over the projected period.. Fertilizers dominated the U.S. nitric acid market contributing to USD 3.3 billion in 2016. The rising need for organic fertilizers is expected to adversely impact the demand for chemical fertilizers which in turn is expected to hamper the growth of the market. Moreover, presence of stringent regulations regarding the use of nitrate fertilizers is expected to further impact the penetration of nitric acid in these products over the projected period.. Keeping these trends in mind, companies are focusing on R&D to expand the utilization of nitric acid in ...
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The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied. By graphical and numerical analysis, the compositions of indium-D2EHPA complexes in organic phase and stoichiometry of the extraction reaction were examined. Nitric acid solutions with various indium concentrations at 25 °C were used to obtain the equilibrium constant of InR3 in the organic phase. The experimental results showed that the extraction distribution ratios of indium(III) between the organic phase and the aqueous solution increased when either the pH value of the aqueous solution and/or the concentration of the organic phase extractant increased. Finally, the recovery efficiency of indium(III) in nitric acid was measured.
The corrosion of various metals that could be used to contain nitric acid solutions of Pu-238 has been studied. Tantalum and tantalum/2.5% tungsten resisted the test solvent better than 304L stainless steel and several INCONEL alloys. The solvent used to imitate nitric acid solutions of Pu-238 contained 70% nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonium hexanitratocerate.
Spill Response Guide: Corrosive Acids. or calcium carbonate.Carbonate Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Carbonate Casein Wood Flour.. In addition to the natural processes that form small amounts of nitric acid. acid (the primary acid component of acid rain). calcium carbonate and sulfuric acid.Reaction of aqueous solutions of nitric acid with. calcium carbonate reacts with.HORMEEL aquilegia vulgaris and origanum majorana whole and nitric acid and nutmeg and oyster shell calcium carbonate, crude and cypripedium parvifolum root and conyza ...
Nitric acid is a key starting material for the production of fertilizers, helping to boost arability and yield of farmland. Nitric acid is made in three stages. The first step is the oxidation of ammonia gas with air to form nitric oxide. In order to achieve high conversion efficiency, this is normally carried out at pressure over a platinum-rhodium catalyst. The nitric oxide is cooled and further oxidised to form nitrogen oxide, which is then absorbed in water to nitric acid.. Non-fertilizer uses include the production of: explosive-grade ammonium nitrate; adipic acid for making nylon, and toluene diisocyanate for manufacturing polyurethane.. Acetic acid is produced from methanol and carbon monoxide in the Cativa process which relies upon an iridium-ruthenium catalyst to activate methanol carbonylation. There is a huge demand for acetic acid which has a very wide range of applications including cleaning, photography, fumigation, packaging, paints, adhesives and artificial fibres.. ...
The present invention relates to a process for obtaining nitric acid of a concentration higher than the azeotropic concentration by means of the absorption of nitrogen oxides in water or diluted nitric acid and the partial pressure of the nitrogen oxides before absorption is raised partly by compression of the gases that contain the nitrous gases and partly by means of a cycle of diluted nitric acid which is decomposed by the action of the NO contained in the gases, enriching them in NO.sub.2 and which subsequently reform by absorption of NO.sub.2 in water when the partial pressure of the nitrogen oxides is low.
It is usually used with an inhibitor (with various, sometimes secret, substances, including hydrogen fluoride;[2] any such combination is called inhibited RFNA, IRFNA) because nitric acid attacks most container materials. It can also be a component of a monopropellant; with substances like amine nitrates dissolved in it, it can be used as the sole fuel in a rocket. It is not normally used this way however. During World War II, the German military used RFNA in some rockets. The mixtures used were called S-Stoff (96% nitric acid with 4% ferric chloride as an ignition catalyst[3]) and SV-Stoff (94% nitric acid with 6% dinitrogen tetroxide) and nicknamed Salbei (sage). Inhibited RFNA was the oxidizer of the worlds most-launched light orbital rocket, the Kosmos-3M. Other uses for RFNA include fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and pharmaceutic aid as acidifier. It can also be used as a laboratory reagent in photoengraving and metal etching.[4]. ...
Solution for question: Concentrated nitric acid used in laboratory work is 68% nitric acid by mass in aqueous solution concept: Expressing Concentration of Solutions. For the courses CBSE (Arts), CBSE (Commerce), CBSE (Science), PUC Karnataka Science
Concentrated nitric acid used in laboratory work is 68% nitric acid by mass in aqueous solution. What should be the molarity of such a sample of the acid if the density of the solution is $1.504 g mL^{−1}$? ...
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Nitric Acid 65% NITRIC ACID, RED FUMING is a pale yellow to reddish brown Liquid Nitric Acid generating red-brown fumes and having a suffocating odor. Very toxic by inhalation. Corrosive to metals or tissue. It has many purity,such as Nitric Acid 55%,Nitric Acid 60%,Nitric Acid 65%,Nitric Acid 68%.Prolonged exposure ...
The new Downtown San Bernardino Passenger Rail is expected to provide a cost-effective, alternate travel option for families in eastern San Bernardino Valley while improving transit mobility, travel times and safety around town.. Tuesday, city leaders and San Bernardino County Transportation Authority officials gathered at the citys transit center to mark the extension of Metrolink services from the transportation hub to the nearby Santa Fe Depot.. The $123 million project bridges the mile between the two facilities. Now, eastern San Bernardino Valley commuters can link up with the citys sbX rapid transit line, Metrolink locomotives and Omnitrans buses.. "Were excited that this project is bringing the rail together with our hub at the San Bernardino Transit Center," said Wendy Williams, an Omnitrans spokeswoman. "Its really going to help customers by providing more seamless travel between modes of transportation.". Nydia Gonzalez, an SBCTA spokeswoman, said the extension paves the way for a ...
... Colloidal gold as a colouring principle in minerals by j n wton frie d, collective bargaining union dsc the mineral in dilute hydrochloric acid and oxidizing any iron with a drop of nitric acid, the.
Austenitic stainless steels suffer intergranular attack in boiling nitric acid with oxidants. The intergranular corrosion is mainly caused by the segregation of impurities to grain. An extra high purity austenitic stainless steel (EHP alloys) was developed with conducting the new multiple refined melting technique in order to suppress the total harmful impurities less than 100ppm. The basically corrosion behavior of type 310 EHP alloy with respect to nitric acid solution with highly oxidizing ions was investigated. The straining, aging and recrystallizing (SAR) treated type 310 EHP alloy showed superior corrosion resistance for intergranular attack. The segregated boron along the grain boundaries was one of main factor of intergranular corrosion from fission track etching results. The SAR treatment was effective to restrain the intergranular attack for type 310 EHP alloy with B less than 7ppm.. Copyright © 2008 by ASME ...
Nitric acid HNO3. The molecular weight is 63.01. The melting point is -50o F. The boiling point is anywhere between 181-245o F. Nitric acid is in a liquid state at room temperature.. It is molecular.. The molecular geometry is a triganal planar.. Some uses of this molecule is. ...
I was a second year graduate student when this happened. I was well aware of what nitric acid does to organics and thought I had taken the proper precautions. Had I capped the bottle tightly, I doubt I would have had any warning that it was about to blow. Later, we managed to find the mangled wreck that was the top of the bottle and the cap was about half way on. I think that gives some idea as to how violently and quickly the reaction proceeded. Looking back, part of the problem was at the time, the safety training on handling nitric acid waste consisted of dont mix it with organics. That was it. 1st week of graduate school. Between moving across the country, starting school, teaching, class, etc etc its not surprising that things like this happen. I knew HNO3 would react with ethanol, but I didnt know the specifics. I didnt know there was an incubation time to this reaction. I also trusted EH&S to do their job and give us cleaned and empty waste bottles. Luckily no one was hurt and this ...
Abstract: The production of nitric acid is one of the main industrial sources of nitrous oxide entering the atmosphere, which is an ozone-depleting gas with a potential 310 times higher than that of CO2. The review considers the catalytic systems and high- and low-temperature one-pot methods to reduce nitrous oxide emissions in the production of nitric acid. The existing catalysts provide 80-90% decomposition of nitrous oxide. For further increase in the degree of decomposition, it is required to develop more active and stable catalysts ...
Industrial Catalysis Manufacture of nitric acid. The manufacture of nitric acid is a three-stage process. The first stage is the oxidation of ammonia and it uses a platinum/rhodium catalyst.. Summary of conditions and catalyst for ammonia oxidation. ...
It is no wonder Nitric acid is of use in syphilis, for it has all the blood changes, the aspect of the face, the ulceration, falling hair, throat symptoms, bone affections and exostoses. It antidotes Mercury and is closely related to Hepar. It is anti- syphilitic and anti-sycotic. It has fig warts about the genitals and anus, which bleed easily, are soft and pulpy. Seed warts about the hands. As a warty medicine it is closely related to Calcarea. Warts anywhere that are pulpy and bleed easily. It is very closely related to Calcarea in many ways. I have seen patients act this way. A psoric patient, big, fat, flabby, easily tired out, with Calcarea symptoms, will be relieved by Calcarea for months, building him up; but all at once he takes a turn and a bronchitis comes on, difficult breathing, ulceration of the throat, soft, flabby, feeble muscles, waxy countenance, and suddenly about the anus and genitals a crop of warts breaks out. I at once ask: Had you ever gonorrhoea? O, yes, he says, ...
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See dictionary definition of nitric acid at Funkandwagnalls.com. On our website you can check the various meanings of nitric acid with usage examples!
A veteran San Bernardino police officer died Thursday of complications after surgery to repair an injury suffered during a foot pursuit early this year.. Officer Daniel Clark marked his 20th anniversary with the San Bernardino department on Oct. 7, the day he underwent surgery for an ankle injury that had not properly healed, said Lt. Gwendolyn Waters, spokeswoman for the department, in a news release.. Officer Clark hurt his ankle Jan. 18, when he joined a foot pursuit of two suspects, Waters said. "The injury failed to heal on its own," she said.. His death was attributed to a pulmonary embolism caused by blood clots resulting from the surgery, she said.. He is the eighth officer to die in the line of duty in the history of the San Bernardino Police Department.. He joined the department Oct. 7, 1991, after spending five years with the Garden Grove Police Department in Orange County.. During his years on the San Bernardino force, he gained a noted reputation as a drug-recognition expert and ...
Nitramines are one of the more expensive and often the more plentiful ingredients found in energetic materials, such as solid rocket motor propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics. By treating aluminized energetic material with an aqueous nitric acid solution containing not more than 55% by weight aqueous nitric acid at a weight ratio of aqueous nitric acid to energetic material of about 4:1 to about 6:1, most constituents of conventional aluminized energetic materials are digested into solution, with the exception of nitramines, which remain substantially insoluble in the aqueous nitric acid and can be recovered without requiring recrystallization of the nitramines. A mineral acid other than nitric acid, preferably hydrochloric acid, may be added to increase the rate of aluminum digestion. Treatment of the energetic material can be performed without volatile organic solvents, thus obviating ecological, cost, and safety concerns raised by the use of volatile organic solvents.
The EPA is proposing revisions to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for nitric acid plants. Nitric acid plants include one or more nitric acid production units. These proposed revisions include a change to the nitrogen oxides (NOX) emission limit, which applies to each nitric acid...
Victorville lies at the heart of Southern California attractions, from beautiful beaches on the Pacific coast to hiking, camping and skiing in the San Bernardino Mountains. Outdoor activity is a mainstay in weather-friendly Victorville. Year-round moderate temperatures make it perfect for swimming, golf, team sports and childrens activities. With 20 city parks, including the 52-acre Rockview Nature Park, discovering outdoor fun is easy in Victorville. Other area attractions include the Route 66 Museum and the San Bernardino County Fair held each spring.. Victorvilles location allows for an easy drive to Southern Californias beaches, ski resorts in the nearby San Bernardino Mountains and hiking, camping and off-road adventures.. ...
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Calcium carbonate (CaCO) is a reactive component of mineral dust aerosol as well as buildings, statues and monuments. In this study, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to study the uptake of water, sulfur dioxide and nitric acid on CaCO p
The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) onboard the ENVISAT satellite provides profiles of temperature and various trace-gases from limb-viewing mid-infrared emission measurements. The stratospheric nitric acid (HNO(3)) from September 2002 to March 2004 was retrieved from the MIPAS observations using the science-oriented data processor developed at the Institut fur Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK), which is complemented by the component of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) treatment from the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA). The IMK-IAA research product, different from the ESA operational product, is validated in this paper by comparison with a number of reference data sets. Individual HNO3 profiles of the IMK-IAA MIPAS show good agreement with those of the balloon-borne version of MIPAS (MIPAS-B) and the infrared spectrometer MkIV, with small differences of less than 0.5 ppbv throughout the entire altitude range up to about 38 km, and below 0.2
0072] The O 1s core level spectrum of the same batch of treated carbon fibres is shown in FIG. 2(c). The two main contributions are shown by the dotted lines and are assigned respectively to the oxygen atoms (C═O) doubly bonded to carbon in quinones, ketones or aldehydes at 531.5 eV and to the oxygen atoms (C--O) singly bonded to carbon in ethers, hydroxyl groups or phenols at 533.2 eV (Bubert, H. et al., Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 374:1237-41 (2002); Zhang, J. et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 107:3712-8 (2003)). As both singly and doubly carbon-bonded oxygen atoms occur in esters, carboxyl groups, anhydrides or pyrans, both oxygen atoms of these groups contribute to the two O 1s signals. In the O 1s spectra it is clear that at relatively low treatment temperatures the main signal is dominated by the C--O single bond, which is presumably attributable to the preferred formation of hydroxyl groups at low temperatures. As the temperature increases, the formation of C═O double bonds rises sharply. For the ...
Approximately 1.0 104 gal nitric acid was spilled. Assume that the acid was an aqueous solution containing 75.0% HNO3 by mass with a density of 1.42 g/cm3. How much sodium carbonate was required for complete neutralization of the spill? (Hf° for NaNO3(aq) = -467 kJ/mol ...
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b) Requirements An owner/operator of a nitric acid production unit shall not discharge into the atmosphere any gases which contain oxides of nitrogen expressed as NO2 in excess of: ...
Read "Kinetics of benzene nitration by nitric acid, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Nitric acid is a notoriously strong and chemically destructive compound found in water on earth and in our atmosphere. However, a team of researchers have found that its punch is much weaker when it sits on the top of a water surface.
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Nitric acid is a key ingredient in N-based fertilizers. As a raw material, it also is used for the production of adipic acid (another important N2O source -
Recent Advances in Catalyst Technology Used in Nitric Acid Production, Stephane Marret, Louis Du Chatelier, Louis du Chatelier books
Using concentrated nitric acid as the solvent, and water as the non-solvent, one-dimensional (1D) organic nanowires can be synthesized in a simple, one-pot process with high yield. The method has broad validity to a wide range of aromatic molecules for the synthesis of derivatized organic wires. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry ...
Industries, Chemical Industry, Ammonia and Fertilizer Plants, Concentration and Mass Flow Measurement of Concentrated Nitric Acid