The pathogenesis of megaesophagus in chronic Chagas disease, which is caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is compelling. Individuals with megaesophagus often present achalasia and disturbances of peristalsis and neuronal loss. Esophageal samples were obtained from 6 T. cruzi infected individuals with megaesophagus, 6 T. cruzi infected individuals without megaesophagus, and 6 noninfected individuals who underwent necropsy procedures.
Aging is a significant risk factor for gastrointestinal dysmotility, but aging-associated differences between different organs and the exact time to start degenerating have remained obscure. Here we evaluated alterations of interstitial cells of Cajal, enteric neurons and connexin43 expression in the stomach, jejunum and colon in 2-, 12-, 16-, 20- and 24-month-old mice, as well as in aged human colon. Interstitial cells of Cajal, cholinergic and nitrergic neurons within the whole digestive tract were reduced over time, but their loss first appeared in stomach, then in intestine, helping to understand that gastric function was first impaired during aging. The decrease of connexin43 expression occurred before interstitial cells of Cajal and neurons loss, suggesting that connexin43 might be the major target influenced during senescence. Furthermore, changes in expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6) and apoptosis-related proteins (B-cell
TY - JOUR. T1 - Noradrenergic neurons in the rat solitary nucleus participate in the esophageal-gastric relaxation reflex. AU - Rogers, R. C.. AU - Travagli, R. A.. AU - Hermann, G. E.. PY - 2003/8/1. Y1 - 2003/8/1. N2 - Activation of esophageal mechanosensors excites neurons in and near the central nucleus of the solitary tract (NSTc). In turn, NSTc neurons coordinate the relaxation of the stomach [i.e., the receptive relaxation reflex (RRR)] by modulating the output of vagal efferent neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMN). The NSTc area contains neurons with diverse neurochemical phenotypes, including a large population of catecholaminergic and nitrergic neurons. The aim of the present study was to determine whether either one of these prominent neuronal phenotypes was involved in the RRR. Immunohistochemical techniques revealed that repetitive esophageal distension caused 53% of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons to colocalize c-Fos in the NSTc. No nitric ...
We investigated whether exogenous nitric oxide (NO) donors have a prejunctional and/or postjunctional inhibitory effect on the nitrergic responses and whether this inhibitory effect was mediated by NO itself and in part, by cyclic GMP in mouse duodenal strips. N-omega-nitro-L-arginine inhibited relaxations induced by electrical field stimulation of nitrergic nerves, but not those with acidified NaNO2. Furthermore, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) inhibited both types of relaxations while 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine (AMT) and N-ethylmaleimide were ineffective. NO donors, nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside, inhibited relaxations induced by nitrergic nerve stimulation, but not those with acidified NaNO2. Hemoglobin, exogenous Cu2+/Zn2+ superoxide dismutase, diethyldithiocarbamic acid and pyrogallol did not influence the relaxation with nitrergic nerve stimulation. However, hemoglobin, diethyldithiocarbamic acid, pyrogallol and diethyldithiocarbamic acid plus ...
To investigate the distribution of nitrergic and cholinergic innervation in rabbit, pig, and human upper urinary tract, (UUT) whole-mount preparations and frozen sections were stained with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. NADPH-diaphorase and AChE staining demonstrated two neuronal plexuses in the submucous and muscular layer of the UUT in all three species. The presence of nitrergic and cholinergic neuronal networks in the normal UUT suggests that autonomic innervation may play an important role in the transmission of ureteral peristalsis.. ...
A capillary gate mechanism regulates flow resistance efficiently, because pressures, flows, and turbulence are minimal in capillaries, and capillary surface area is greater than that of all larger vessels combined.(1-5) Sympathetic nervous activity releases von Willebrand Factor (VWF) from the capillary endothelium; VWF increases factor VIII activity, which generates insoluble fibrin in the capillary lumen to increase flow resistance (aka viscosity, or systemic vascular resistance). Parasympathetic nervous innervation releases nitric oxide (NO) from the capillary endothelium, which binds to Ca+, inhibits thrombin, accelerates the disintegration of insoluble fibrin, and reduces flow resistance (aka nitrergic neurogenic vasodilation) Hypoxia and hypercarbia open the capillary gate by releasing nitric oxide from the capillary endothelium.(6) The capillary gate mechanism governs cardiac output, cardiac efficiency, tissue perfusion, tissue oxygenation, and organ function. Its activity affects the ...
Does Rheumatoid Arthritis Affects the Nitrergic Density and Somatic Area of the nNOS-Immunoreactive (IR) Myenteric Neurons, as well as the Morphometric Areas of CGRP and VIP-IR Va
Neurotrophins have long been recognized for their crucial roles in growth, differentiation, and survival in the developing nervous system. Recent findings demonstrating that the pro- form of NGF induces cell death via the p75NTR suggest that the consequences of neurotrophin signaling depend on many factors, in particular the balance between pro- and mature neurotrophins and the regulation of that balance, which may be altered in pathophysiological situations. Since p75NTR is upregulated in many types of neural injury and disease (Park et al., 2000; Troy et al., 2002; Harrington et al., 2004), the increased availability of a ligand that can stimulate apoptotic signaling through this receptor creates an environment in which these neurons are vulnerable. Thus, understanding neurotrophin processing is an important step toward understanding the pathway that a cell takes toward survival or death, especially in disease or after injury. We have detected increased proNGF levels in the CSF following ...
Dive into the research topics of Effect of long-term valproic acid administration on the efficiency of carnitine reabsorption in humans. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter for the gastrointestinal smooth muscles. As a neurotransmitter, NO plays a key role in peristalsis...
Synonyms for efferent nerve in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for efferent nerve. 2 synonyms for efferent nerve: efferent, motor nerve. What are synonyms for efferent nerve?
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The clava, also known as the gracile tubercle, is located in the medulla oblongata, otherwise known as the lower brainstem. It processes sensations from the lower portion of the body, such as the legs and the pelvis.
Armstrong RA, Winsper SJ, Blair JA (1995) Hypothesis: is Alzheimers disease a metal_induced immune disorder? Neurodegeneration 4:107_111 Bennett SA, Stevenson B, Staines WA, Roberts DC (1995) Periodic acid_Schiff (PAS)_positive deposits in brain following kainic acid_induced seizures: relationships to fos induction, neuronal necrosis, reactive gliosis, and blood_brain barrier breakdown. Acta Neuropathol Berl 89:126_138 Cras P, Smith MA, Richey PL, Siedlak SL, Mulvihill P, Perry G (1995) Extracellular neurofibrillary tangles reflect neuronal loss and provide further evidence of extensive protein cross_linking in Alzheimer disease. Acta Neuropathol Berl 89:291_295 Das S, Potter H (1995) Expression of the Alzheimer amyloid_promoting factor antichymotrypsin is induced in human astrocytes by IL_1. Neuron 14:447_456 De Simone R, Giampaolo A, Giometto B, Gallo P, Levi G, Peschle C, Aloisi F (1995) The costimulatory molecule B7 is expressed on human microglia in culture and in multiple sclerosis acute ...
2. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy After Massive Ascorbic Acid Administration. High dose concentration administration of ascorbic acid inhibits tumor growth in BALB/C
Looking for online definition of efferent nerve in the Medical Dictionary? efferent nerve explanation free. What is efferent nerve? Meaning of efferent nerve medical term. What does efferent nerve mean?
The current, prevalent hypothesis, proposed by German researcher Dr. Heiko Braak, theorizes that the earliest signs of PD begin in the olfactory region of the brain, and in the lower brainstem, before traveling upwards through the brainstem, ultimately affecting the nerve cells in the midbrain responsible for dopamine production.
Mice bred in the absence of gut flora went further and explored more boldly The teeming trillions of bacteria in the digestive tracts of mice have been s
an animal with a disease either the same as or like a disease in humans. Animal models are used to study the development and progression of diseases and to test new treatments before they are given to humans. Animals with transplanted human cancers or other tissues are called xenograft models.
Achalasia is a motor disorder of the lower esophageal sphincter, which fails to relax on swallowing. Although a greater risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma among achalasia patients is fairly well established, no epidemiological study has evaluated the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma in these patients. We compiled a cohort of 2,896 patients recorded with a discharge diagnosis of achalasia between 1965 and 2003 in the Swedish Inpatient Register. The cohort was followed through 2003 via record linkages with essentially complete registers of cancer, causes of death, and migration. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to estimate the relative risk of esophageal cancer in achalasia patients compared to the age-, sex-, and calendar period-matched Swedish population. We further estimated SIRs for esophageal cancer among patients treated with esophagomyotomy. After excluding the first year of follow-up, we observed excess risks for both squamous cell carcinoma (SIR 11.0, 95% confidence ...
The organization of the emotion-related somatic motor behavior, including jaw movements, is governed _disibledevent=line-height:2;font-family:Verdana;>ion (RFp) of the medulla oblongata. The CeA also has an inhibitory influence on non-dopaminergic (probably GABAergic) neurons in the retrorubral field of the midbrain that send their axons to the RFp. Furthermore, the CeA and lateral hypothalamus including the PLH may also modulate Vm neurons via projections to the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus which contains the cell bodies of primary afferent neurons conveying inputs from the masticatory muscle spindles or the periodontal ligament receptors to jaw closing motoneurons within the Vm. These pathways from the subcortical limbic structures to the trigeminal motor system in the lower brainstem underlie the regulation of emotional jaw movements.
Results show that: 1) one or two intrasphincteric injections of botulinum toxin result in clinical and objective improvement in about 84% of achalasia patients and are not associated with serious side-effects; 2) patients over 50 years showed better benefit than younger patients; 3) no correlation w …
Hypertension (HTN) and diabetes (DM) are comorbid conditions, each associated with inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is elevated in the serum of patients with DM and capable of robustly activating the immune system. Risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) is increased in both HTN and DM. Vascular relaxation is needed to regulate vascular tone and erectile function. Our previous studies showed that corpus cavernosum (CC) nitrergic relaxation to electrical field stimulation (EFS) was reduced after LPS exposure. It is not known whether LPS-induced inflammation plays a role in DM-associated ED. Our study aim was to examine vascular function of rat CC under high glucose conditions in the presence of LPS. We hypothesized that high glucose would exacerbate the LPS-induced decrease in EFS relaxation. Isolated rat CC strips incubated with control (5mM) or high glucose (HG, 25 mM) media with or without LPS (1 ug/mL) for 6 h. CC strips were mounted in a myograph and pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE, ...
Intrasphincteric botulinum toxin injection may be appropriate in those achalasia patients who are elderly or have concomitant medical problems but concern persists regarding the length of the response and untoward side effects.
The functional postganglionic innervation of isolated smooth muscle strips from the oesophagogastric junction was examined in specimens taken from six achalasia patients and seven controls. Muscle strips representing either the longitudinal or the circular layer were prepared and mounted in organ baths and isometric tension was recorded. Electrical field stimulation, selectively exciting nerves, was applied. Strips from the circular layer from controls relaxed during field stimulation, an effect that was the result of stimulation of noncholinergic, non-adrenergic, inhibitory nerves. Circular muscle strips from achalasia patients contracted during field stimulation, an effect that was caused by muscarinic receptor activation. In one patient, atropine reversed the contraction to a relaxation. Longitudinal muscle strips contracted in response to stimulation in both controls and achalasia patients. This response was abolished by atropine. In conclusion the function of postganglionic inhibitory nerve ...
Electrical stimulation of the lower brain stem (ESLB) at sites presumed to be parts of the ascending noradrenergic system was carried out in unanaesthetized young guinea pigs. At neutral ambient...
Zhou, Y.,Tan, C.K.,Ling, E.A. (1997). Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in the intramural ganglia of guinea pig urinary bladder. Journal of Anatomy 190 (1) : 135-145. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021878296001549 ...
In adult brain, the inhibitory GABAergic neurons utilize two distinct molecular forms of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. During embryonic development, two truncated forms of GAD67 are also expressed (GAD25 and GAD44), which are translated from two embryonic-specific splice variants of GAD67 messenger RNA. It has recently been established that the excitatory dentate granule cells, in addition to the neurotransmitter glutamate, also contain low levels of GABA and GAD67, which are increased after limbic seizures. To study the seizure-induced activation of glutamate decarboxylase, we investigated the expression of both embryonic and adult glutamate decarboxylase messenger RNAs in the adult rat hippocampus after kainic acid administration by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and immunoblotting. We observed a rapid induction of the embryonic glutamate decarboxylase messenger RNA in the granule cells of
I am not sure if I am on the right track and was hoping for some feedback. I have this so far: 1. Stem Dx: Dysfunctional Gastrointestinal Motility Related to: Inactive lifestyle,
This study demonstrates that AJS produced modest increases in arterial blood pressure, mesenteric vasoconstriction, and a marked vasodilation in sympathetically intact hindlimb beds but a much smaller vasodilation in sympathetically denervated hindlimbs of conscious rats. AJS also produced behavioral responses, including alerting, hunching, piloerection, and extension of the claws. This pattern of responses is referred to as the defense reaction.10 11 24 Since the AJS-induced vasodilator responses were markedly smaller in the sympathetically denervated bed, it is evident that the vasodilation depends on the lumbar sympathetic nerves.. Successive episodes of AJS caused similar hemodynamic and behavioral responses in the saline-treated rats, demonstrating that habituation to the AJS stimulus did not occur. It was necessary to establish that the AJS-induced responses were reproducible because habituation to other stressful stimuli such as foot shock can occur.25 26 The first episode of AJS produced ...
Dopamine and NO are physiological stimulators of synthesis of cAMP and cGMP, respectively, and NO synthase-containing interneurons in the striatum are physiologically activated by dopamine-containing neurons in the substantia nigra. This study investigated whether lesioning dopamine neurons has multiple consequences in the striatum consistent with the reported sensitization of cAMP synthesis, including alteration of the NO-cGMP pathway and phosphodiesterase-dependent metabolism of cyclic nucleotides. The substantia nigra of adult Sprague-Dawley rats was unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine. Two months later, we determined expression of NO synthase and evaluated cGMP and cAMP levels of intact and deafferented striatum. Moreover, we evaluated cAMP- and cGMP-phosphodiesterase activities in basal conditions and after Ca2+-calmodulin stimulation and determined the expression of the phosphodiesterase-1B isoform and the levels of phosphodiesterase-1B mRNA. Using immunocytochemistry we ...
As often happens in science, such as Greatbath with the pacemaker and Fleming with penicillin, great discoveries sometimes find you.
A maturing mouse gut nervous system (shown in orange), a mesh-like system of neurons that regulates digestion and gastrointenstial function, runs from the stomach through the intestines.. 0 Comments. ...