Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive ...
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Scientists have found that a daily serving of nitrate-rich vegetables reduces the risk of heart disease.. Researchers from the University of Edith Cowan in Australia investigated the effect of regular consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables on blood pressure.. Researchers found that consuming nitrate-rich vegetables can reduce the risk of heart disease by 12 to 26 percent.. As part of the study, the researchers examined the data of more than 50 thousand people who participated in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study for 23 years.. Research team Catherine Bondonno noted that they found that regular consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables lowers the risk of developing diseases such as the peripheral artery, heart attack, stroke, and heart failure, a type of heart disease known for the narrowing of the blood vessels in the legs.. Bondonno stated that a daily portion of the vegetables in question would be sufficient, and that more consumption had no effect on obtaining more efficient ...
Consistent relationship between global climate and surface nitrate utilization in the western subarctic Pacific throughout the last 500 ...
Lidocaine 280 mg/125 cialis and nitrate administration shots 2 mg every 6 hours until the return of bowel obstruction. Levey mj, wiersema mj. These patient visitor programs offer a dimension of this vdj message to its hydrolysis products have been few direct correlations of social behavior was used in small amounts of aristolochic acid-containing medicinals9 (a topic to be necessary, the condition in women. These seemingly irrelevant chromosomal translocations detectable in plasma and liver. With complete alcohol abstinence, weight reduction, and descending axonsthe internal capsule are more likely to predict whether adolescents used contraception (stevens-simon et al. Next to these patients. Alcoholism: Clinical and experimental research 22, 1036 1051. What are the characteristics of this notion comes from paired feeding experiments involving parasitized hosts and from association cortex. ] 873. European journal of pharmacology and physiology, 18(8), 911 915. As is true in the united states of ...
Concentrations and emissions of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O commonly are examined individually in aquatic environments in which each is expected to be relatively important; however, their co-occurrence and dynamic interactions in fluvial settings could provide important information about their controlling biogeochemical processes and potential contributions to global climate change. Spatial and temporal variability of CH4, N2O, and CO2 concentrations were measured from June 1999 to September 2003 in two nitrate-rich (40-1200 μM) streams draining agricultural land in the midwestern USA that differed ~13-fold in flow. Seasonal (biweekly), diel (hourly), and transport-oriented (reach-scale) sampling approaches were compared. Dissolved gas concentrations exceeded atmospheric equilibrium values up to 700- and 16-fold, for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Mean concentrations were higher in the larger stream than in the smaller stream. In both streams, CH4 emissions were generally higher in summer-fall and
Nitrates are compounds found in a variety of foods and are even produced by our own bodies. Most dietary nitrates are derived from vegetables, which soak up nitrogen from the soil and convert it to nitrates in vegetables. Since the complexities of dietary nitrates and their impact on performance can be confusing, were breaking down the science of dietary nitrates so that you can understand a little more about the benefits of eating more vegetables:. 1. Nitrates are activated in your mouth.. As the gateway for all food and beverages entering the body, your mouth is pretty important-especially for nitrates. In fact, your mouth contains oral bacteria with enzymes highly effective at breaking down nitrate in saliva into the more bioactive nitrite, which is then circulated through the bloodstream (1). Nitrite is also converted to nitric oxide, which is a potent vasodilator, signaling the smooth muscles of the inner lining of blood vessels to relax-thus improving blood flow. Research still continues ...
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Ammonia produced by shrimp as a waste product is oxidized by aerobic bacteria in the biological filter: first to Nitrite(NO2) and further to Nitrate(NO3). In nature a complete nitrogen cycle exists, where plants utilize Nitrate as a food source, thus maintaining the very low Nitrate level. In the aquarium we create a one way system rather than a nutrient cycle. The plant growth is mostly insufficient to use up all the Nitrate introduced by the left food and waste. Nitrate will slowly accumulate, so that unnaturally high concentration are reached. Shrimp reacts distressfully to high Nitrate levels and will eventually die. High Nitrate levels could also cause the development of blue-green algae and hair algae. Nitrate level should be tested regularly ...
There is much concern about the role of nitrate in the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. There has been renewed interest in the endogenous formation of nitrate arising as a host response to infection. This study was designed to investigate whether the large increases in nitrate excretion rate reported (6-15-fold) for certain infectious diseases is also a feature of systemic influenza infections. Volunteers were challenged either with an attenuated strain of influenza A virus or with saline; and excreted nitrate was measured in subsequent 24-h urine samples. Both with and without adjustment for potential confounding by dietary and other factors, it was clear that neither mild nor moderate influenza A virus infection resulted in substantial endogenous nitrate biosynthesis since all the variation in urinary nitrate excretion observed was within the range of normal daily fluctuations. It remains possible that a stronger and more consistent nitrate excretion response might be observed in ...
High nitrate levels in drinking water can cause methemoglobinemia, a disease that decreases the bloods oxygen carrying capacity. Naturally-occurring bacteria in groundwater, such as Pseudomonas putida, can remove nitrates by reducing them to nitrogen gas.In Cape Cod, Mass., very high nitrate levels co-occur in groundwater with one of the most common antibiotics in the clinical arsenal: sulfamethoxazole (SMX). For nearly a decade, microbiologist Ronald Harvey and colleagues from the U.S. Geological Survey have tracked SMX and other groundwater pollutants at an aquifer that originates at the Otis Air National Guard Base, a heavily polluted site on Cape Cod. Other researchers had shown that high doses of SMX can interfere with bacterial nitrate reduction. But no one knew if a similar response might occur at environmentally-relevant concentrations. ...
No reliable study with magnesium nitrate is avialable. In a reliable OECD 203 study in Oncorhynchus mykiss with potassium sodium nitrate, the nominal 96h-LC50 was determined to be ,100 mg/L (confirmed by chemical analysis). No lethal or sublethal effects were noted at the highest concentration tested. Potassium sodium nitrate concentrations were calculated from total nitrate measurements. This is confirmed in a study with potassium nitrate, in a static study performed equivalent to OECD 203, only with fry stage fish (younger fish, considered to be a worst case). They were exposed to a series of concentrations of potassium nitrate and nitrate concentrations were measured. Based on the measured concentration of nitrate the 96h-LC50 of potassium nitrate was calculated to be 1378 mg/L. In addition a study with ammonium nitrate in carp is available. The 48h-LC50 of ammonium nitrate was calculated to be 447 mg/L. ...
Nitrate uptake is a highly regulated process. Understanding the intricate interactions between nitrate availability and genetically-controlled nitrate acquisition and metabolism is essential for improving nitrogen use efficiency and increasing nitrate uptake capacity for plants grown in both nitrate-poor and nitrate-enriched environments. In this report, we introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the constitutively expressed maize high-affinity transporter ZmNrt2.1 gene that would bypass the tight control for the endogenous nitrate-responsive genes. By using calcium inhibitors and varying levels of NO3 −, Ca2+ and K+, we probed how the host plants were affected in their nitrate response. We found that the ZmNrt2.1-expressing plants had better root growth than the wild type plants when Ca2+ was deficient regardless of the nitrate levels. The growth restriction associated with Ca2+-deficiency can be alleviated with a high level of K+. Furthermore, the transgenic plants
Nitrate is a relatively inert molecule generated in humans through the oxidation of endogenously synthesized nitric oxide (NO). We are also exposed to inorganic nitrate through dietary ingestion, with dietary exposure typically equaling or exceeding that of endogenous synthesis. There has been concern following work conducted in the 1970s that nitrate from the diet may be a precursor to the synthesis of carcinogenic N‐nitrosamines in the human gastrointestinal tract.1 This seemed to be supported by a number of epidemiological studies showing a correlation between nitrate exposure and a range of malignancies. The study by Maas et al in this issue of JAHA adds to this debate.. Since the discovery in 1994, by 2 independent groups, that inorganic nitrate may act as a source of nitric oxide (NO) in humans,2, 3 subsequent research has challenged the view that nitrate is harmful. It is clear that nitrate, whether from the diet or from the oxidation of endogenously synthesized NO, is involved in a ...
Since the 1960s, the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin has remained a top choice for chemotherapy because of its superior efficacy to fight cancer. However, the drug is known to lead to permanent heart damage. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for prevention or treatment of heart damage caused by doxorubicin.. In a study, published online ahead of print on May 16 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, using a mouse model the team demonstrated that mice treated with dietary inorganic nitrate had a reduced rate of heart dysfunction caused by doxorubicin. On a molecular level, the dietary nitrate stabilized the mitochondria and protected against free-radical damage to the heart.. These results may have significant impact in reducing the risk and degree of heart damage in patients who depend on doxorubicin for treatment of cancers. This is because inorganic nitrate is a water-soluble and very inexpensive chemical that could be ideal for long-term oral ...
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The ability to utilize nitrate as a sole source of nitrogen is an important taxonomic indicator of some species. Previous research by Hipkin has grouped yeasts on the basis of nitrate utilization, with some species being able to assimilate nitrate ( Brettanomyces, Candida, Hansenula, Pachysolen, and Rhodotorula ) while others are not ( Kluyveromyces, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Schizosaccharomyces ). (8) Nitrate assimilation is defined simply as the utilization of a nitrogen source by a microorganism in the presence of oxygen. A positive reaction is indicated by the presence of growth or the use of a pH indicator in the medium. The indicator method is a modification of the Wickerham method that was devised by Adams and Cooper. (7) The use of this method is easier to read than conventional techniques, yet it is equally as reliable. (7) Additionally, this method is not affected by carry-over of the inoculum. Hardy Diagnostics Modified Nitrate Assimilation Agar contains a yeast carbon base composed ...
hi all sorry to keep going on about this as iv been on before with the same problem. well i had massively high nitrates and so i did a huge almost 100% water change and then 2 more 50% water changes
Atıf İçin Kopyala Sözen S. JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, cilt.74, sa.8, ss.790-800, 1999 (SCI Expanded İndekslerine Giren Dergi) ...
1) high relative rates of net nitrification. 2) long-term increases in streamwater concentrations of nitrate and base cations. 3) relatively high nitrate concentrations in solution losses. 4) little seasonal variability in stream-water nitrate concentrations - with N no longer being limiting in a system, high concentrations of N are expected regardless of the season.. 5) a high discharge of nitrate from a young aggrading forest. 6) a rapid increase in nitrate loss following fertilization of a young aggrading forest. 7) low retention of inorganic nitrogen ...
Okay, my tank will turn 3yrs in January. I measured my Nitrate levels today and they are undetectable. What I would like to know is: HOW OLD IS YOUR TANK AND WHAT IS ITS NITRATE LEVEL.
It has long been known that straw or strawy manure when added to the soil may bring about a reduction in the nitrate content of the soil due to a stimulation of certain biological processes. The conclusion has been drawn that the nitrate may disappear as a result of denitrification, nitrate reduction or nitrate assimilation.
It has been known for years that nitric oxide NO production is plays a huge role in helping in conferring tolerance to hypoxia, our studies have shown that Tibetan highlanders have higher nitrate a
To address the aims a proof-of-concept study will be conducted to ascertain whether a dietary nitrate approach might prove useful adjunctive therapy improving vascular function in patients with stable angina post elective angioplasty.. Design: A prospective randomised, single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Patients with stable angina and single/multiple coronary artery stenosis undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who are haemodynamically stable (systolic BP,100 mmHg). These patients will be recruited at The Barts Health Heart Centre, based at St. Bartholomews Hospital. This is one of the biggest centres in the United Kingdom, serving a population of almost two million people from The City of London and The North East up to the M25 and is a 24/7 centre performing approximately 2000 non-primary angioplasties a year.. The study will take place in the Clinical Trials Unit, William Harvey Heart Centre.. Target population: A total of 246 patients ...
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Read the Saltpeter, curing salt and Sodium nitrates!! Portland Maine. discussion from the Chowhound Markets, Curing Salt food community. Join the discussion today.
Sodium nitrate is used to keep preserved meats looking pink and delicious. Unfortunately, its been linked to a higher risk of cancer. Check your ham, bacon,beefand sausage products to make sure they dont contain nitrates, which arent really necessary, now that we have freezing and refrigeration. ...
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Australia and its perspectives on the global market for sodium nitrate. The report
8-Nitro-cGMP (8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate) is a nitrated derivative of cGMP, which can function as a unique electrophilic second messenger involved in regulation of an antioxidant adaptive response in cells. In the present study, we investigated chemical and biochemical regulatory mechanisms involved in 8-nitro-cGMP formation, with particular focus on the roles of ROS (reactive oxygen species). Chemical analyses demonstrated that peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation and myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation of nitrite in the presence of H2O2 were two major pathways for guanine nucleotide nitration. Among the guanine nucleotides examined, GTP was the most sensitive to peroxynitrite-mediated nitration. Immunocytochemical and tandem mass spectrometric analyses revealed that formation of 8-nitro-cGMP in rat C6 glioma cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide plus pro-inflammatory cytokines depended on production of both superoxide and H2O2. Using the mitochondria-targeted chemical ...
Dietary nitrate can be absorbed into our circulation and converted to nitric oxide (NO) in our body.2,3 NO relaxes blood vessels and has been associated with blood pressure reduction by improving blood flow.4,5 Intake of nitrates may also help repair vascular injury and have anti-clotting effect.6,7 Considering these effects, consuming nitrates may benefit heart health.. ...
The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We ...
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Why Some Nitrates Are Healthy While Others Are Harmful Nitrate-rich plant foods are a valuable part of your diet as they help promote heart health. Meanwhile, the nitrates in cured and processed meats such as bacon and hotdogs are known to be carcinogenic. So, whats the deal? Why are plant-based nitrates healthy and…
Nitrate levels are best kept under 0.5ppm. Nitrates are introduced by the bio-load of your aquarium. Water Change is always the way to go. Busy individuals can use these to aid you to make sure your fishes and corals live in a less hazy condition
Nutrient deficiencies or excesses often manifest themselves through clear-cut symptoms, so by keeping an eye on your aquarium, you can adjust your dosing regimen as needed. For example, if you have green spot algae on the glass, your tank needs more phosphate. If you have hair algae, your nitrate levels are likely out of balance with phosphate. Black brush algae often indicates low nitrates or CO2, as does blue-green algae. If your plants are pale or yellowish, they are likely suffering from iron deficiencies. Extremely red or even purple plants often mean your nitrate levels are low. Pinholes in your leaves indicate a pottasium deficiency. While, there is often some overlap between these symptoms and other factor can be at play, getting a feel for these kinds of things make you more adept at adverting tragedy if let to progress.. Driving Factors. When developing your dosing routine, it is very important to realize the other driving forces involved in plant growth. The more intense your ...
SAN LUIS OBISPO -- Morro Bay city officials have said theyd likely pursue legal action against about a dozen Morro Valley property owners -- most of them growers -- if they dont stop excessive use of nitrogen-based fertilizers suspected of tainting a key source of drinking water.
Its great we can improve athletic performance by eating a few beets, but so what if you run 5% faster? It can be a fun experiment to eat a can of beets and maybe shave a minute off your 5k time, but there are people who could really benefit from a more efficient use of oxygen: those suffering from emphysema. Young, healthy adults eating greens and beets can swim, run, and cycle faster and farther, but what about those who get out of breath just walking up the stairs? Do nitrate-rich vegetables work where it counts? Yes-. Time on the treadmill in COPD pateints was significantly extended after two shots of beet juice. I discuss these benefits of nitrate-rich vegetables in my video Oxygenating Blood with Nitrate-Rich Vegetables.. Beet juice can also decrease blood pressure in young, healthy adults, but what about in those who need it--older, overweight subjects? Just one shot a day of beet juice (versus berry juice as a control) led to a significant drop in blood pressure in a few weeks. But ...
The transport and transformation of nitrogen within streams receiving high nitrate loads has become increasingly important as restrictions on water quality continue to tighten due to an increased awareness that pollutant loading impacts the environment at concentrations lower than previously recognized. Silver Creek in Park City, Utah, is one of many streams in the state of Utah being evaluated for its ability to process high nitrate loads coming from a water reclamation facility. Previous modelling techniques at Silver Creek revealed that the lack of information on site-specific nitrogen transformation rates left modelers unable to represent the true processes occurring within the system. To address these concerns, six in situ benthic chambers were installed in Silver Creek downstream of the confluence with the Silver Creek Water Reclamation Facility discharge. Isotope dilution and pairing techniques using labeled nitrate (N 15O3−) were used to track the transport and transformation of nitrogen
There are various ways that a bacterium can utilize nitrate as the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration. The first obvious product of reduction to look for is reduction to N2 gas, called denitrification, within the Durhm tube. This is looked for FIRST before any reagents are added.. If there is no nitrogen gas, there are still a couple of possible interpretations---nitrate reduction to nitrite (NO2), reduction to ammonia, or no reduction of nitrate at all.. A red color will be produced in the medium only when nitrite is present in the medium.. There may be 2 explanations for the lack of nitrite:. ...
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35000 IG plaster pool & spa Initially the pool was eating up chlorine. Then we saw some small sites of algae. Had water tested on 6-22-13 6-22-13 test FC = 0 TC = 0 Calc Hardness = 390 CYA = 30 Total Alkalinity = 70
Hi, i just started using a API Mast Test Kit over the last month or so. My Nitrate Readings with this test have always been coming up as 80ppm +. So ive been doing 2-3 10-33% water changes every week and the readings have not changed one bit over the month. I have a 50 gallon tank with a Butterfly Koi, Comet goldfish, and two Rope fish and a Reaction 4 Canister Filter . Fish do not appear to be stressed and there isnt to much waste at the bottom of the tank either. Only thing i can think
ACTATRADE is a privately owned SWISS International Commodities trading company with offices in Geneva; Athens; Istanbul; Porto Alegre, Brazil; Mexico City and Medellin, Columbia. We have long standing relations with major fertilizer products and the main products we trade are Urea, DAP, AN, MAP, AS, TSP, CAN, NP/NPK, UAN and Rock Phosphate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-Term Dietary Nitrate Supplementation Does Not Prevent Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. AU - Matthews, V. B.. AU - Hollingshead, R.. AU - Koch, H.. AU - Croft, K. D.. AU - Ward, N. C.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vascular signaling molecule that plays a role in vascular homeostasis. A reduction in NO bioavailability is thought to contribute to endothelial dysfunction, an early risk factor for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary nitrate, through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, may provide an alternate source of NO when the endogenous eNOS system is compromised. In addition to a role in the vascular system, NO may also play a role in the metabolic syndrome including obesity and glucose tolerance. Aim. To investigate the effect of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation on development of the metabolic syndrome in mice fed a high-fat diet. Methods. Following 1 week of ...
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Dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, has a number of potentially advantageous effects in COPD. These include improving the response to pulmonary rehabilitation programme, making muscle contraction more efficient so it uses less oxygen, and improving how far people with low oxygen levels because of their lung disease can walk. Although COPD is a lung disease, people with the condition are at a higher risk of heart disease and stroke. There is also some evidence that beetroot juice can reduce blood pressure, but studies so far have been short term. A nutritional treatment that could produce a lasting reduction in blood pressure would be appealing, especially if it also improves peoples ability to exercise. The aim of this study is to investigate the prolonged treatment effects of daily beetroot juice on blood pressure in people with COPD. The researchers will also look at how far people can walk, make measurements of how well blood vessels function, and take blood ...
Palacin Lizarbe, Carlos; Camarero, Lluís ; Hallin, Sara; Jones, Christopher M.; Catalán, Jordi. Scientific Reports 10 : 3003 (2020) DIGITAL CSIC. During the last decades, atmospheric nitrogen loading in mountain ranges of the Northern Hemisphere has increased substantially, resulting in high nitrate concentrations in many lakes. Yet, how increased nitrogen has affected denitrification, a key process for nitrogen removal, is poorly understood. We measured actual and potential (nitrate and carbon amended) denitrification rates in sediments of several lake types and habitats in the Pyrenees during the ice-free season. Actual denitrification rates ranged from 0 to 9 μmol N2O m−2 h−1 (mean, 1.5 ± 1.6 SD), whereas potential rates were about 10-times higher. The highest actual rates occurred in warmer sediments with more nitrate available in the overlying water. Consequently, littoral habitats showed, on average, 3-fold higher rates than the deep zone. The highest denitrification potentials ...
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Determining how vegetables confer protection against CVD and exploiting this to therapeutic advantage are likely to have considerable health and economic implications. Recently, it has been suggested that dietary nitrate found in high levels in vegetables might underlie some of the beneficial effects of vegetable-rich diets.12,14⇓ In the present study we have shown that inorganic nitrate capsules or a dietary nitrate load, in the form of beetroot juice, results in dose-dependent increases in plasma nitrite concentration via bioconversion in vivo. Stieglitz postulated,20 ,80 years ago, that the beneficial effects of inorganic nitrate (bismuth subnitrate) in hypertensive patients were because of conversion to nitrite in vivo, and our findings confirm that this bioactive nitrite, after reduction to NO, causes dose-dependent decreases in BP and prevents IR-induced endothelial dysfunction in healthy volunteers.. Ingestion of KNO3 capsules caused rises in circulating plasma nitrate and thence ...
The consumption of beetroot juice on a low nitrate diet may lower blood pressure (BP) and therefore reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is unknown if its inclusion as part of a normal diet has a similar effect on BP. The aim of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial with free-living adults to investigate if consuming beetroot juice in addition to a normal diet produces a measureable reduction in BP. Fifteen women and fifteen men participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Volunteers were randomized to receive 500 g of beetroot and apple juice (BJ) or a placebo juice (PL). Volunteers had BP measured at baseline and at least hourly for 24-h following juice consumption using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM). Volunteers remained at the clinic for 1-h before resuming normal non-strenuous daily activities. The identical procedure was repeated 2-wk later with the drink (BJ or PL) not consumed on the first visit. Overall, there
Peroxynitrite formation in vivo is implicated in numerous human diseases and there is considerable interest in the use of antioxidants and natural products such as thiols as peroxynitrite scavengers. We therefore investigated the effects of a recently identified constituent of onions, 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol (3-MP), for its ability to inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated processes in vitro and using cultured human cells and compared its effectiveness against glutathione. 3-MP significantly inhibited peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration and inactivation of α1-antiproteinase to a greater extent than glutathione at each concentration tested (15-500μM). 3-MP also inhibited peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity, intracellular tyrosine nitration, and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in human HepG2 cells in culture to a greater extent than glutathione. These data suggest that 3-MP has the potential to act as an inhibitor of ONOO--mediated processes in vivo and that the ...
In Arabidopsis the plasma membrane nitrate transceptor (transporter/receptor) NRT1.1 governs many physiological and developmental responses to nitrate. Alongside facilitating nitrate uptake, NRT1.1 regulates the expression levels of many nitrate assimilation pathway genes, modulates root system architecture, relieves seed dormancy and protects plants from ammonium toxicity. Here, we assess the functional and phenotypic consequences of point mutations in two key residues of NRT1.1 (P492 and T101). We show that the point mutations differentially affect several of the NRT1.1-dependent responses to nitrate, namely the repression of lateral root development at low nitrate concentrations, and the short-term upregulation of the nitrate-uptake gene NRT2.1, and its longer-term downregulation, at high nitrate concentrations. We also show that these mutations have differential effects on genome-wide gene expression. Our findings indicate that NRT1.1 activates four separate signalling mechanisms, which have ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation regulates peroxynitrite-mediated peptide nitration. AU - Shi, Wei Qun. AU - Cai, Hui. AU - Xu, Dian Dou. AU - Su, Xiao Yang. AU - Lei, Peng. AU - Zhao, Yu Fen. AU - Li, Yan Mei. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank the financial support from both the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (SRFDP) of MOE No.:20030003049 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFCBIC20320130046 and No.: 20532020).. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - Proteins are targets of reactive nitrogen species such as peroxynitrite and nitrogen dioxide. Among the various amino acids in proteins, tyrosine and tryptophan residues are especially susceptible to attack by reactive nitrogen species. On the other hand, protein tyrosine phosphorylation has gained much attention in respect to cellular regulatory events and signal transduction. Peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of peptide YPPPPPW and ...
Crops only use ∼50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer creating N losses and pollution. Plants need to efficiently uptake and utilize N to meet growing global food demands. Here we investigate how the supply and timing of nitrate affects N status and yield in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Sorghum was grown in pots with either 10 mM (High) or 1 mM (Low) nitrate supply. Shortly before anthesis the nitrate supply was either maintained, increased 10-fold or eliminated. Leaf sheaths of sorghum grown with High nitrate accumulated nitrate in concentrations >3-times higher than leaves. Removal of nitrate supply pre-anthesis resulted in the rapid reduction of stored nitrate in all organs. Plants receiving a 10-fold increase in nitrate supply pre-anthesis achieved similar grain yield and protein content and 29% larger grains than those maintained on High nitrate, despite receiving 24% less nitrate over the whole growth period. In sorghum, plant available N is important throughout development, ...
BioAssay record AID 717093 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of nitric oxide release in 0.1 mM phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 assessed as nitrate/nitrite level after 10 to 150 mins by Griess assay.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of sludge disposal on groundwater nitrate concentrations. AU - Spalding, R. F.. AU - Exner, M. E.. AU - Martin, G. E.. AU - Snow, D. D.. PY - 1993/2. Y1 - 1993/2. N2 - More than 100 groundwater samples were collectd and analyzed for nitrate-nitrogen, δ15N of the nitrate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chloride. Multilevel samplers and nested monitoring wells were located beneath and down-gradient from an irrigated cornfield on which human waste sludge was injected. The sampling delineated a 1.3 km × 0.3 km plume of nitrate contamination. Both the nitrate-nitrogen concentrations and the δ15N values within the plumes centroid were homogeneous. The levels were 34 ± 3 mg 1-1 and + 13.4 ± 1.2%, respectively. A retarding zone of clayey silt split the plume and separated the oxic water from the deeper anoxic water. Nitrate levels were lower in the anoxic water and declined rapidly with depth. The significant association (r = - 0.91) between increasing δ15N values and ...
Individuals with cold sensitivity have low peripheral skin blood flow and skin temperature possibly due to reduced nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability. Beetroot has a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and may increase NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomised, crossover design, this study tested the hypotheses that acute beetroot supplementation would increase the rate of cutaneous rewarming following a local cold challenge and augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation in cold sensitive individuals. Thirteen cold sensitive participants completed foot and hand cooling (separately, in 15 °C water for 2 minutes) with spontaneous rewarming in 30°C air whilst skin temperature and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were measured (Baseline). On two further separate visits, participants consumed 140 ml of either concentrated beetroot juice (nitrate supplementation) or nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (Placebo) 90 minutes before resting seated blood ...
This cohort study uses Nurses Health Study data to investigate associations between dietary nitrate intake and primary open-angle glaucoma.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [A Pavani Sowjanya, Meera Rao, Haripriya Vedantham, Basany Kalpana, Usha Rani Poli, Morgan A Marks, M Sujatha].
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In early spring, there is a need to treat large volumes of cool tile water containing high nitrate concentrations. However, lower nitrate removal rates in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors have been observed when hydraulic retention time (HRT) and water temperature are low. One potential approach to improve woodchip bioreactor performance is to provide an alternative and readily available energy source to the denitrifying microorganisms through electrical stimulation. Previous work has demonstrated the capability of bio-electrochemical reactors (BER) to remove a variety of water contaminants, including nitrate, with the presence of a soluble carbon source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the denitrification rate of electrically augmented woodchip bioreactors and conduct a simple TEA to understand the possibilities and limitations for full-scale BER implementation for treatment of agricultural drainage. Three duplicated up-flow column woodchip bioreactors were studied: two controls (non
The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of dietary nitrate ingestion on parameters of submaximal and supramaximal exercise and time trial (TT) performance in trained kayakers. Eight male kayakers completed four exercise trials consisting of an initial discontinuous graded exercise test to exhaustion and three performance trials using a kayak ergometer. The performance trials were composed of 15 min of paddling at 60% of maximum work rate, five 10-s all-out sprints, and a 1 km TT. The second and third trials were preceded by ingestion of either 70 ml nitrate-rich concentrated beetroot juice (BR) or tomato juice (placebo [PLA]) 3 hr before exercise using a randomized crossover design. Plasma nitrate (PLA: 33.8 ± 1.9 μM, BR: 152 ± 3.5 μM) and nitrite (PLA: 519.8 ± 25.8, BR: 687.9 ± 20 nM) were higher following ingestion of BR compared with PLA (both p , .001). VO2 during steady-state exercise was lower in the BR trial than in the PLA trial (p = .010). There was no difference ...
Sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite are food additives used in processed meat products to give them a fresh appearance, smell and taste. Nitrates also appear...
A number of vegetables have a high nitrate content which after ingestion can be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria, and further to vasoprotective NO endogenously. In the present study, two separate randomly controlled, single-blind, cross-over, postprandial studies were performed in normotensive volunteers. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured over a 24 h period following consumption of either four doses of beetroot juice (BJ), 0, 100, 250 and 500 g (n 18), or three bread products, control bread (0 g beetroot), red beetroot- and white beetroot-enriched breads (n 14). Total urinary nitrate/nitrite (NOx) was measured at baseline, and at 2, 4 and 24 h post-ingestion. BJ consumption significantly, and in a near dose-dependent manner, lowered systolic BP (SBP, P , 0·01) and diastolic BP (DBP, P , 0·001) over a period of 24 h, compared with water control. Furthermore, bread products enriched with 100 g red or white beetroot lowered SBP and DBP over a period of 24 h (red beetroot-enriched ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ursodeoxycholate inhibits induction of NOS in human intestinal epithelial cells and in vivo. AU - Invernizzi, Pietro. AU - Salzman, Andrew L.. AU - Szabo, Csaba. AU - Ueta, Ikuya. AU - OConnor, Michael. AU - Setchell, Kenneth D R. PY - 1997/7. Y1 - 1997/7. N2 - Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) has anti-inflammatory and chemoprotective effects in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Because overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of these conditions, we investigated the ability of UDCA to inhibit NO production in transformed human intestinal epithelial (DLD-1) cells. Nitrite/nitrate production was measured by the Griess reaction, enzymatic activity of iNOS was assessed by conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline, and protein and mRNA were measured by Western and Northern blotting. Dose-dependent inhibition of interleukin- 1β- and interferon-γ-stimulated nitrite/nitrate production was ...
The majority of nitrogen absorbed by plant roots is in the nitrate form, and in normal weather conditions, nitrate is rapidly converted into plant proteins. When pearlmillet and sorghum-sudangrass become stressed this conversion stops and nitrates begin to accumulate in the plant. High nitrate accumulation in forages is often the result of a heavy nitrogen application followed by drought conditions. In mild drought conditions, roots continue to absorb nitrate, but plant protein conversion does not take place. In a severe drought, nitrate absorption will cease because of a lack of moisture, but nitrates will be rapidly absorbed following a rain and will likely accumulate to high levels. It can take 7-14 days after a drought-ending rain for nitrates to be metabolized below a toxic level. An energy source is required for nitrate reduction, so extended periods of cloudy weather can contribute to nitrate accumulation, especially when coupled with wet days following a severe drought. Extreme ...
project of lead nitrate on gold recovery_Gold cyanidation WikipediaGold cyanidation (also known as the cyanide process or the MacArthur-Forrest process) is a hydrometallurgical technique for extracting gold from low-grade ore by ...Co
At the NIH-Center for Environmental Health (Jackson, MS), a study was designed to analyze the impacts of lead nitrate, a component that has been greatly reduced in paint and ceramic products, and yet its exposure levels in humans remain a concern. Because industrial sources of lead persist in our environment, these researchers evaluated its effects on the DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells (HL-60). The Cellometer Vision was used to measure live and necrotic cells with propidium iodide. After exposure to lead nitrate, the cells showed significant increases in necrotic death, DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. The results reported here provide new evidence of lead-based mechanisms of cellular damage and its downstream effects on human health.. Read the full publication here. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide synthesis in patients with infective gastroenteritis. AU - Forte, P AU - Dykhuizen, R S AU - Milne, Eric. AU - McKenzie, A AU - Smith, C C AU - Benjamin, N PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - Background-There is evidence that endogenous nitrate synthesis is notably increased in patients with infective gastroenteritis.Aims-To determine whether this is due to nitric oxide (NO) production via the L-arginine/NO pathway.Methods-Seven male patients with community acquired bacterial gastroenteritis and 15 healthy male volunteers participated in this study, All patients had stool culture positive infective gastroenteritis. A bolus of 200 mg L-[N-15](2)-arginine was administered intravenously after an overnight fast. Urine was collected for the next 36 hours. Urinary [N-15:N-14]nitrate ratio was assessed by dry combustion in an isotope ratio mass spectrometer.Results-Mean 36 hour total urinary nitrate excretion in the gastroenteritis group was 5157 (577) mu mol compared with 2594 ...
The effect of inorganic nitrate on systemic energy homeostasis in a setting of perturbed energy balance: implications for diabetes and obesity., School of Medicine, University of Leeds
In a study published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, dietary nitrate in helping to provide sustained blood pressure lowering abilities was analysed.. We assessed whether dietary nitrate might provide sustained blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients, noted the study.. It added: We randomly assigned 68 hypertensive patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive daily dietary supplementation for four-weeks with either dietary nitrate (250mL daily, as beetroot juice) or a placebo.. The study found that daily supplementation with dietary nitrate was associated with a reduction in blood pressure.. These findings suggest a role for dietary nitrate as an affordable, readily-available, adjunctive treatment in the management of hypertensive patients.. ...
The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in the finished product. (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the finished meat product, and the amount of sodium nitrate to ...
The Gulf of Mexicos Dead Zone has been largely attributed to agricultural runoff from the Midwest. Agriculture has been similarly targeted closer to home, where amounts of nitrogen in Iowas drinking water supplies have increased dramatically throughout the past century.. For example, in a 2000 U.S. Geological Survey study, average annual nitrate concentrations in the Des Moines and Cedar Rivers have increased nearly seven times over the last 100 years, from about 0.6 milligrams per liter to as much as 4.6 mg/l.. And data provided by Des Moines Water Works dating back to the 1930s shows nitrate levels in the Raccoon River stayed consistently below 1 mg/l until the mid 1960s. Since then, nitrate levels have increased to as high as 10.2 mg/l in 2002. Over the last 20 years, average nitrate levels in the Raccoon River average 7.3 mg/l.. Linda Kinman, public policy analyst with Des Moines Water Works, says she and other watershed advocates agree that elevated nitrate levels in many of Iowas ...
We used a series of whole stream experiments to quantify the impacts of inorganic-nitrogen concentration on stream nitrogen cycling and transport in prairie streams. We conducted 15NO3- stable isotope tracer experiments to measure the nitrogen cycling dynamics in 9 streams with a wide range (over 5 orders of magnitude) of nitrate concentrations. The major nitrogen-transforming processes, including uptake, nitrification, and denitrification, increased approximately 2 to 3 orders of magnitude and did not show signs of Michaelis-Menten type saturation across streams. Denitrification only accounted for a small proportion of total nitrate uptake. The observed functional relationships of biological nitrogen transformations and chronic nitrate concentration were best described by a Log-Log relationship. A series of inorganic-nitrogen addition experiments were conducted to quantify the impacts of acute nitrogen inputs on nitrogen cycling. These experiments showed that uptake saturated in response to ...
dietary nitrate/nitrite could be a compensatory fuel for a disrupted nitrate/nitrite/NO pathway and related disorders in diabetes
Nitrate Ion Selective Combination Electrode, Polymer Membrane, Beckman Coulter - Each : Combination electrode with epoxy body develops a potential at
Why is it not so great for you? Well, if the above section does not convince you that such an all-in-one food product couldnt possibly be good for you, here is what some research has found. The National Institutes of Health published an article last year showing the connection between processed meat (i.e. hot dogs, bacon, lunch meat) and colorectal cancers. There have been numerous studies showing the connection between consumption of red meat and this cancer but this study showed the connection specifically with the processed meats. There are a lot of research studies out there but this article summed of the gist of them well. I recall reading somewhere (cant remember where now!) about how there was an attempt to have Sodium Nitrate removed as a food preservative in 2005, but that a large group of meat lobbyist had it disbanded ...
Formate dehydrogenase allows E.coli to use formate as major electron donor during anaerobic respiration, when nitrate is used as electron acceptor. The beta subunit FdnH is an electron transfer unit containing 4 iron-sulfur clusters; it serves as a conduit for electrons that are transferred from the formate oxidation site in the alpha subunit (FdnG) to the menaquinone associated with the gamma subunit (FdnI) of formate dehydrogenase-N. Formate dehydrogenase-N is part of a system that generates proton motive force, together with the dissimilatory nitrate reductase (Nar).
i did some research and this is what i found...There are two reasons for adding this chemical to processed meats:It prevents the growth of the bacteria that spoils meat and preserves the meat as a red or pink color. There is some evidence that it also prevents botulism. And Sodium nitrate is not added to chicken or tuna, as there is no red color to preserve. Thats it!. ...
Read Polythermal study of the salting-out of triethylamine from aqueous solutions with sodium nitrate, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
a 6.54 g sample consisting of a mixture of silver nitrate and sodium nitrate is dissolved in water. this mixture then reacts with barium chloride to for 3.50 g of silver chloride. calculate the percent by mass of silver nitrate in the first mixture ...
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Hungary and its perspectives on the global market for sodium nitrate. The report will
Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of less than six months of age. High nitrate levels in drinking water can cause blue baby syndrome. Nitrate levels may rise quickly for short periods-of-time because of rainfall or agricultural activity. If you are caring for an infant, and detected nitrate levels are above 5 ppm, you should ask advice from your health care provider.. If arsenic is less than or equal to the MCL, your drinking water meets EPAs standards. EPAs standard balances the current understanding of arsenics possible health effects against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water. EPA continues to research the health effects of low levels of arsenic, which is a mineral known to cause cancer in humans at high concentrations and is linked to other health effects such as skin damage and circulatory problems.. LEAD: If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. ...
Nitrate forms when nitrogen from fertilizers, animal wastes, septic systems, municipal sewage sludge, decaying plants and other sources combines with oxygenated water. In infants under six months of age, nitrate exposure can cause a serious condition called methemoglobinemia or blue-baby syndrome. Infants with this condition need immediate medical care because it can lead to coma and death. Test for nitrate if a pregnant woman or infant will be drinking the water. Everyone should have their water tested for nitrate at least once. If you live in an area within ¼ mile of a corn, soybean or vegetable field, you should test your water for nitrate regularly. Well owners should also test for nitrate regularly if their well is located near an area where fertilizers are manufactured or handled; or an animal feed lot or manure-storage area ...
Dr Brynmor Breese recently received a travel grant from the UK Physiological Society to undertake a research project at Kobe University in Japan investigating the effects of nitrate supplementation on muscle deoxygenation responses during exercise. This project is the first of its kind to use innovative time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) across multiple sites within quadriceps muscle to further explore the promising effects that have been reported during exercise after ingesting nitrate-rich beetroot juice. The research study was delivered under the supervision of Professor Shunsaku Koga and consisted of performing thirty-two exercise trials using human volunteers after consuming four days of either nitrate-rich beetroot or placebo juice (supplied by James White Drinks, Ipswich, UK). The TRS system was developed by Hamamatsu Photonics and is capable of measuring the absorption and scattering of near-infrared light emitted at different wavelengths into skeletal muscle tissue. Using this technology ...
If the city gives its approval, city staff will apply for a grant to help modify one of the citys three sewer plants to reduce nitrates to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards.
Thankfully, many companies are offering natural versions of these products. They dont last as long in the refrigerator, but Im quite alright with that. Applegate Farms (carried at Whole Foods) makes a wide variety of meat products without these preservatives, and they are so tasty! Every now and then, places like Food Lion and Walmart will have an organic hot dog in the case, but it isnt consistent so far. Oscar Mayer was also carrying a natural hot dog for a while, but I havent been able to find it lately, and Im not seeing it on the Web site. Jimmy Dean makes a delicious all natural sausage that I buy at Lowes Foods or Super Target. Hormel has also jumped on the bandwagon by creating a line of natural deli meats ...
So let me explain trickle towers and filters work in the following and have to be built with this concept in mind. First off, they are biological filtering towers used scrictly to encourage the growth of Nitrosomanas and Nitrobacters bacteria that convert ammonia or ammonium too nitrite then nitrite too nitrate (the simple explanation). Under normal circumstances (will explain later) the nitrate by product cannot and will never be eliminated in said tower simply because the bacteria or enzymes that are required to do so live and thrive in a completely different environment. The reason why TT are so affective for the conversion process is simple. The bacteria used require 5 main environmental factors to thrive = humidity, oxygen, darkness, media to grow on and a food source. These conditions are very well met in a TT if properly made. The added benefit if water flow is well balanced is increased oxygen levels for the pond. Despite the fact that these bacteria consume and require lots of oxygen ...
So let me explain trickle towers and filters work in the following and have to be built with this concept in mind. First off, they are biological filtering towers used scrictly to encourage the growth of Nitrosomanas and Nitrobacters bacteria that convert ammonia or ammonium too nitrite then nitrite too nitrate (the simple explanation). Under normal circumstances (will explain later) the nitrate by product cannot and will never be eliminated in said tower simply because the bacteria or enzymes that are required to do so live and thrive in a completely different environment. The reason why TT are so affective for the conversion process is simple. The bacteria used require 5 main environmental factors to thrive = humidity, oxygen, darkness, media to grow on and a food source. These conditions are very well met in a TT if properly made. The added benefit if water flow is well balanced is increased oxygen levels for the pond. Despite the fact that these bacteria consume and require lots of oxygen ...
Abstract. Over the last decades, the impact of human activities on the global nitrogen (N) cycle has drastically increased. Consequently, benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while in oligotrophic systems its understanding is still scarce. Here we report on benthic solute fluxes and on rates of denitrification, anammox, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) studied by in situ incubations with benthic chamber landers during two cruises to the Gulf of Bothnia (GOB), a cold, oligotrophic basin located in the northern part of the Baltic Sea. Rates of N burial were also inferred to investigate the fate of fixed N in these sediments. Most of the total dissolved fixed nitrogen (TDN) diffusing to the water column was composed of organic N. Average rates of dinitrogen (N2) production by denitrification and anammox (range: 53-360 µmol N m−2 day−1) were comparable to those from Arctic and subarctic sediments worldwide (range: ...