Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2020 Elsevier B.V. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Log in to Pure. ...
NF-kappa B is a widely used regulator of inducible and tissue-specific gene control. In the cytosol, when complexed to an inhibitory molecule, I kappa B, NF-kappa B is in an inactive form and cannot bind DNA. Activation of cells with appropriate stimuli results in the dissociation of NF-kappa B from I kappa B and its translocation to the nucleus as an active binding protein. We now demonstrate that NF-kappa B binding in vitro can be inhibited by agents that modify free sulfhydryls. Binding is eliminated after treatment with N-ethylmaleimide, an alkylating agent, and diamide, an oxidizing agent. The diamide effect can be reversed by 2-mercaptoethanol. Further, 2-mercaptoethanol acts synergistically with deoxycholate plus Nonidet P-40 in converting inactive cytosolic NF-kappa B to an active DNA-binding form. It is therefore possible that modulation of the redox state of NF-kappa B could represent a post-translational control mechanism for this factor.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear Role of IκB Kinase-γ/NF-κB Essential Modulator (IKKγ/NEMO) in NF-κB-dependent Gene Expression. AU - Verma, Udit N.. AU - Yamamoto, Yumi. AU - Prajapati, Shashi. AU - Gaynor, Richard B.. PY - 2004/1/30. Y1 - 2004/1/30. N2 - The IκB kinase (IKK) complex, which is composed of the two kinases IKKα and IKKβ and the regulatory subunit IKKγ/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) essential modulator (NEMO), is important in the cytokine-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition to modulation of IKK activity, the NF-κB pathway is also regulated by other processes, including the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of various components of this pathway and the post-translational modification of factors bound to NF-κB-dependent promoters. In this study, we explored the role of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of components of the IKK complex in the regulation of the NF-κB pathway. IKKγ/NEMO was demonstrated to shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and to interact with the ...
The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) plays an essential role in epidermal appendage induction and morphogenesis. In the epidermis of mice lacking NF-κB activity, initiation of primary hair follicle pre-placode formation is observed, but these primitive structures fail to proliferate and generate placodes. NF-κB signaling is known to modulate activity of WNT and SHH signaling at early stages of hair follicle development, but these roles do not fully account for the phenotypes observed when this pathway is blocked. To identify additional NF-κB target genes we developed a novel method to isolate and transcriptionally profile primary hair follicle placodes with active NF-κB signaling. In parallel, we compared gene expression at the same developmental stage in embryos with compromised NF-κB signaling, and wild type littermate controls. In addition to corroborating established NF-κB functions, these analyses uncovered novel NF-κB target genes with potential roles in priming ...
Todays study seeks to research the role of cathepsin L in glutamate receptor-induced transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) activation and excitotoxicity in rats striatal neurons. degradation and phosphorylation, adjustments in the degrees of IKK, p-IKK, TP53, caspase-3, beclin1, p62, and LC3II/LC3I. The results show that QA-induced lack of striatal neurons were inhibited by Z-FF-FMK […]. Read More ». ...
Todays study seeks to research the role of cathepsin L in glutamate receptor-induced transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) activation and excitotoxicity in rats striatal neurons. degradation and phosphorylation, adjustments in the degrees of IKK, p-IKK, TP53, caspase-3, beclin1, p62, and LC3II/LC3I. The results show that QA-induced lack of striatal neurons were inhibited by Z-FF-FMK […]. Read More ». ...
Around 40,000 people die from sepsis in the UK each year. Although the Surviving Sepsis Campaign -a performance improvement effort by hospitals across Europe, South America and the United States- has improved outcomes, the mortality rate remains at 31% overall, and ,70% in patients who develop sepsis-induced multiple organ failure.. Oxidative stress in patients with sepsis has been consistently described over the last 20 years by us and others (reviewed in [2]). Oxidative stress initiates inflammatory responses via activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). Mitochondrial dysfunction initiated by oxidative stress is generally accepted as a playing a major role in sepsis induced organ failure.. Production of energy takes place in mitochondria resulting in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products. Although ROS are damaging, they are essential in cell signalling and their activity is tightly regulated by a network of antioxidants. When ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytosolic-DNA-mediated, STING-dependent proinflammatory gene induction necessitates canonical NF-kB activation through TBK1. AU - Abe, Takayuki. AU - Barber, Glen N.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is known to control the induction of innate immune genes in response to the recognition of cytosolic DNA species, including the genomes of viruses such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). However, while STING is essential for protection of the host against numerous DNA pathogens, sustained STING activity can lead to lethal inflammatory disease. It is known that STING utilizes interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) pathways to exert its effects, although the signal transduction mechanisms remain to be clarified fully. Here we demonstrate that in addition to the activation of these pathways, potent induction of the Jun N-terminal protein kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway was similarly observed in ...
Fischer, J.G.; Glauert, H.P.; Yin, T., 2002: Moderate Iron Overload Enhances Lipid Peroxidation in Livers of Rats, but Does Not Affect NF-kB Activation Induced by the Peroxisome Proliferator, Wy-14,643
en] The role of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B in the regulation of apoptosis in normal and cancer cells has been extensively studied in recent years. Constitutive NF-kappa B activity in B lymphocytes as well as in Hodgkins disease and breast cancer cells protects these cells against apoptosis. It has also been reported that NF-kappa B activation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, chemotherapeutic drugs, or ionizing radiations can protect several cell types against apoptosis, suggesting that NF-kappa B could participate in resistance to cancer treatment. These observations were explained by the regulation of antiapoptotic gene expression by NF-kappa B. However, in our experience, inhibition of NF-kappa B activity in several cancer cell lines has a very variable effect on cell mortality, depending on the cell type, the stimulus, and the level of NF-kappa B inhibition. Moreover, in some experimental systems, NF-kappa B activation is required for the onset of apoptosis. Therefore, it is likely ...
Title: Molecular Mechanisms of Bcl10-Mediated NF-kappaB Signal Transduction Author: Felicia D. Langel, Ph.D., 2006 Directed by: Brian C. Schaefer, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology Bcl10 is a key signaling intermediate in the TCR-to-NF-?B pathway in T lymphocytes. It is currently believed that, once activated, Bcl10 functions within a multiprotein signaling complex that activates the IKK complex. Bcl10 is thought to regulate this signaling complex, but how it transmits its signal through the complex is unknown. A thorough knowledge of Bcl10 biology is critical to understanding how Bcl10 functions and how it regulates its binding partners. In this study, we used mutational analysis, molecular imaging, biochemistry, and computer/bioinformatics modeling to elucidate a structure and function for Bcl10. From our data, we identified a novel binding site for MALT1 within the Bcl10 protein, hypothesized that this site is completely separate and distinct from the ...
The sequence and biochemical properties of the product of the cloned cDNA for the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) have been determined. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 549 amino acids capable of encoding a 60 kd protein. NF-kappa B p65 contains an amino-terminal region of 320 amino acids with extensive similarity to the oncogene c-rel and lesser similarity to NF-kappa B p50. In vitro translated p65 forms a DNA-binding complex with NF-kappa B p50, and the binding of this complex can be specifically inhibited by purified I kappa B. Progressive carboxy-terminal deletions of p65 show that, contrary to previous assumptions, p65 does include a DNA-binding domain that in vivo might become activated only through hetero-oligomerization with p50. DNA binding by truncated p65 is inhibited by I kappa B, thus mapping the I kappa B interaction domain to the rel-homologous region and suggesting that I kappa B exerts its inhibitory effect upon NF-kappa B primarily through interaction with p65.
In contrast, compared to NTG HF, TG HF hearts had markedly reduced (p , 0.01) NF-κB DNA activation, and significantly less (p , 0.05) LV dilatation (LVEDV 52 ± 20 μL) and systolic dysfunction (LVEF 61 ± 8 %), but a similar degree of hypertrophy as assessed by LV/TL and ANF expression. Moreover, as compared to TG sham, TG HF hearts exhibited no TNF, IL-1β, or IL-6 upregulation. Importantly, as compared to TG sham, TG HF showed only a mild increase in apoptotic rate (0.4 ± 0.3 %) that was not statistically significant (p = 0.45), suggesting that differences in the rate of cell loss between NTG and TG HF may account for comparable degrees of chamber hypertrophy despite differences in LV dilatation.. Conclusion: Persistent NF-κB activation imparts detrimental effects in post-infarction HF and worsens LV remodeling, related, at least in part, to augmentation of inflammatory cytokine expression and apoptosis. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) refers to a protein complex functional in signaling pathways, particularly in response to stress stimuli. There are two signaling pathways leading to the activation of NF-kB signaling, known as the canonical (or classical) pathway, the non-canonical (or alternative) pathway.. In the canonical NF-kB pathway, NF-kB dimers such as p50/RelA are maintained in the cytoplasm by interaction with an independent Inhibitor of NF-kB (IkB) molecule. When the upstream signaling is active, an IkBa kinase (IKK) complex consisting of catalytic kinase subunits IKKa and/or IKKb and the scaffold protein NEMO will be recruited to the cytoplasmic adaptor of certain cell surface receptor and stay activated. Activation of IKK complex will consequently phosphorylate the IkB at two serine residues, which induce the proteasomal degradation of IkB. Released from IkB, NF-kB dimers then translocate into the nucleus and bind with a consensus sequence ...
In this review poster, we researched the function, regulation, and structure of NF-κB as it relates to carcinogenesis. Found in almost all animal cells, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a transcription factor that plays various roles in cellular proliferation, cell survival, inflammation, and T cell activation. There are two different NF-κB signaling pathways: the canonical pathway and the non-canonical pathway. NF-κB forms a p50/Rel A heterodimer in the canonical pathway and a p52/ Rel B heterodimer in the non-canonical pathway. NF-κB protein is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm as an inactive complex with a κB inhibitor (IκB) protein. Outside stimuli such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) activate cell surface receptors such as Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) and Receptor Activators of NF-κB (RANK). These surface receptors, in turn, activate IκB kinase (IKK). IKK phosphorylates IκB, which causes ...
Previous investigations suggest that DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a promising multifaceted drug for the treatment of stroke. It is not clear whether NBP can treat traumatic brain injury (TBI) and what could be the mechanisms of therapeutic benefits. To address these issues, TBI was induced by a controlled cortical impact in adult male mice. NBP (100 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally administered within 5 min after TBI. One day after TBI, apoptotic events including caspase-3/9 activation, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation into the nucleus in the pericontusion region were attenuated in NBP-treated mice compared to TBI-saline controls. In the assessment of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) pathway, NBP ameliorated the p65 expression and the p-IκB-α/IκB-α ratio, indicating reduced NF-κB activation. Consistently, NBP reduced the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor ...
DNA transcription control. Computer model showing a molecule of the FP50 homodimer (green) from NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) bound to the DNA interferon regulatory factor (IRF) recognition sequence on a strand of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, orange). NF-kB is a protein complex that controls the transcription of DNA. IRFs are proteins that regulate the transcription of interferons, which are released in response to the presence of pathogens. - Stock Image C010/4990
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) transcription factors represent a conserved family of proteins that regulate not only immune cells, but also heart cells, glial cells and neurons, playing a fundamental role in various cellular processes. Due to its dysregulation in certain cancer types as well as in chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases, it has recently been appreciated as an important therapeutic target. The aim of this study was to investigate the binding pocket of NF-kappa B (p50/p65) heterodimer complex in association with NF-kappa B inhibitor I kappa B alpha to identify potent ligands via fragment-based e-pharmacophore screening. The ZINC Clean Fragments (similar to 2 million) and the Schrodingers medically relevant Glide fragments library (similar to 670) were used to create the e-pharmacophore models at the potential binding site which was validated by site mapping. Glide/HTVS docking was conducted followed by re-docking of the top 20% fragments by Glide/SP and Glide/XP ...
Neuroinflammation is an essential defense response to pathogens or injury in the central nervous system, but might also contribute to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Astrocytes are glial cells that are implicated in neuroinflammation, but also in brain development and homeostasis. The NF-kappa B transcription factors are key regulators of inflammation that also regulate in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Previous studies suggested that NF-kappa B activation in astrocytes might indeed be critical for neuroinflammatory responses and its pathological consequences. In the present study a novel mouse model was characterized to further elucidate the role of astroglial NF-Kappa B signaling in neuroinflammation. This model conditionally expresses a constitutively active mutant of the NF-kappa B activating kinase IKK2 in astrocytes. This results in astroglial NF-kappa B activation, which is sufficient to induce a prominent neuroinflammatory response and impairs brain ...
Neuroinflammation is an essential defense response to pathogens or injury in the central nervous system, but might also contribute to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Astrocytes are glial cells that are implicated in neuroinflammation, but also in brain development and homeostasis. The NF-kappa B transcription factors are key regulators of inflammation that also regulate in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Previous studies suggested that NF-kappa B activation in astrocytes might indeed be critical for neuroinflammatory responses and its pathological consequences. In the present study a novel mouse model was characterized to further elucidate the role of astroglial NF-Kappa B signaling in neuroinflammation. This model conditionally expresses a constitutively active mutant of the NF-kappa B activating kinase IKK2 in astrocytes. This results in astroglial NF-kappa B activation, which is sufficient to induce a prominent neuroinflammatory response and impairs brain ...
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is an important transcription factor, involved in many immune and inflammatory responses. It is critical in HIV gene expression as it has kappa B binding sites in the HIV-1 long-terminal repeat. Hence, targeting NF-kappaB to prevent its DNA binding holds a signific …
The May laboratory investigates signal transduction pathways that lead to altered patterns of gene expression in immune and inflammatory responses. We are particularly interested in understanding how the loss of control of normal signaling contributes to the progression of diseases such as chronic inflammation and cancer. Our goal is to determine the specific molecular events underlying aberrant signals and to define realistic targets for selectively blocking abnormal, while maintaining physiologically normal responses. The focus of our work is the Nuclear Factor (NF)-kappa B transcription factor activation pathway that is critical for inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity and lymphocyte development. NF-kappa B activation is typically a rapid and transient response, however constitutive NF- kappa B activity occurs at sites of chronic inflammation and in various tumors, leukemias and lymphomas. We combine cellular, molecular and genetic approaches to determine the mechanisms that redirect ...
Increasing evidence from epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies suggests that dysregulated inflammatory response plays a pivotal role in a multitude of chronic ailments including cancer. The molecular mechanism(s) by which chronic inflammation drives cancer initiation and promotion include increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen intermediates, increased expression of oncogenes, COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2), 5-LOX (5-lipoxygenase) and MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases), and pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), AP-1 (activator protein 1) and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) that mediate tumour cell proliferation, transformation, metastasis, survival, invasion, angiogenesis, chemoresistance and radioresistance. These inflammation-associated molecules are activated by a number of environmental and lifestyle-related factors including ...
Among the many target genes of the transcription factor NF-kappaB are p53 and c-myc, both of which are involved in apoptosis. This prompted us to investigate the role of NF-kappaB in this process. We report that NF-kappaB is potently activated upon serum starvation, a condition leading to apoptosis in 293 cells. Similar to Bcl-2, a transdominant-negative mutant of the NF-kappaB p65 subunit partially inhibited apoptosis, indicating a direct involvement of the transcription factor in induction of cell death. As expected, the p65 mutant suppresses kappaB-dependent gene expression. Surprisingly, transiently or stably overexpressed Bcl-2 had the same effect. The transcription inhibitory activity of the two proteins correlated with their cell death protective potential. Like Bcl-2, the related protein Bcl-xL but not Bcl-xS was able to suppress kB-dependent transcription. Bcl-2 inhibited NF-kappaB activity by an unusual mechanism. It did not prevent the release of IkappaB in the cytoplasm but ...
Death receptor 6 (DR6, TNFRSF21) is a member of the death receptor family, which belongs to the superfamily of tumor necrosis factor receptors.
Tumour necrosis factor (p55 or p60) receptor (TNFR) 1 is the major receptor that activates pro-inflammatory signalling and induces gene expression in response to TNF. Consensus is lacking for the function of (p75 or p80) TNFR2 but experiments in mice have suggested neuro-, cardio- and osteo-protective and anti-inflammatory roles. It has been shown in various cell types to be specifically required for the induction of TNFR-associated factor-2 (TRAF2) degradation and activation of the alternative nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway, and to contribute to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and the classical NF-kappaB pathway. We have investigated the signalling functions of TNFR2 in primary human and murine macrophages. We find that in these cells TNF induces TRAF2 degradation, and this is blocked in TNFR2(-/-) macrophages. TRAF2 has been previously reported to be required for TNF-induced activation of p38 MAPK. However, TRAF2 degradation does not inhibit TNF-induced tolerance of p38
Cross-species comparison revealed that conservation of NF-κB family - related TFBS motifs is much higher in the Early genes group than in the Late genes group. The highest numbers of common DNA binding motifs considered were found in the locations where the adjusted promoter sequences were highly conserved. For almost all Early genes, the NF-κB-family related TFBS motifs were conserved between most pairs of species, with the exception of comparison between mouse and cattle in TNF. As we presumed the best promoter sequence conservation and interspecies conservation of TF binding motifs persisted between human and chimp, followed in many cases by that between human and cattle. In the case of two Early genes, REL and TNFAIP3 comparison, no conserved NF-κB-family related TFBS were found between chimpanzee or mouse and cattle. In human versus cattle comparison two single non-overlapping binding sites were found, but this is a low score in comparison with the number of conserved TFBS found in other ...
Phosphorylation of RELA plays a key role in regulating NF-κB activation and function. Subsequent to NF-κB nuclear translocation, RELA undergoes site-specific post-translational modifications to further enhance the NF-κB function as a transcription factor. RELA can either be phosphorylated in the RHD region or the TAD region, attracting different interaction partners. Triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), protein kinase A (PKA) specifically phosphorylates serine 276 in the RHD domain in the cytoplasm, controlling NF-κB DNA-binding and oligomerization.[6] On the other hand, mitogen and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) are also able to phosphorylate RELA at residue 276 under TNFα induction in the nucleus, increasing NF-κB response at the transcriptional level.[7] Phosphorylation of serine 311 by protein kinase C zeta type (PKCζ) serves the same purpose.[8] Two residues in the TAD region are targeted by phosphorylation. After IL-1or TNFα stimulation, serine 529 is phosphorylated by casein ...
The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the development of experimental hereditary hypertension and to persistently ameliorate the development of hypertension due brief interventions during early development (perinatal treatment). We used two different models of experimental hereditary hypertension, namely the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and ... read more the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat (FHH). SHR and FHH dams and their offspring were supplemented with five different treatments during pregnancy and lactation. We found that in both models the perinatal manipulation on the balance between nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species, with L-arginine and antioxidants, resulted in a persistent decrease in blood pressure and prevented renal injury in the FHH. A similar effect was found after perinatal inhibition of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB. With micoarray analysis we investigated the transcriptome throughout life in SHR and we developed a ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
E3330 (APX-3330) is a direct, orally active AP endonuclease 1 (APE1; also known as REF-1) inhibitor, which suppresses NF-κB DNA-binding activity. E3330 (APX-3330) blocks TNF-α-induced activation of IL-8 production in liver cancer cell lines. E3330 (APX-3330) shows anticancer properties, such as inhibition of cancer cell growth and migration. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Induction of apoptosis and NF-kB activation by Apaf-1/Nod1 family members and DD proteins (Inohara et al., 2000). The more recent study suggested that IKKgamma binds to the site in C-terminal regulatory region of IKKbeta which is located after the HLH motif. Images ...
PMID 15459013] Early-onset sarcoidosis and CARD15 mutations with constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB activation: common genetic etiology with Blau syndrome. ...
Among transcriptional regulatory proteins described, NF-kappaB seems particularly important in modulating the expression of immunoregulatory genes relevant in critical illness, inflammatory diseases, apoptosis, and cancer. In particular, NF-kappaB plays a central role in regulating the transcription of cytokines, adhesion molecules, and other mediators. The biochemical basis by which diverse stimuli converge to activate or intervene this family of transcription factors is still largely unknown. The NF-kappaB transcription factor family represents an important group of regulators of a broad range of genes involved in cellular responses to inflammatory and other kinds of signals. Knockout mouse studies have also revealed a key role for this family in broad physiological processes, including immune function and metabolism. Overall, specificity seems to exist in the role of each transcriptional complex in gene transcription and physiological function. Each NF-kappaB complex displays distinct ...
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been long considered a master regulator of inflammation and immune responses. Additionally, aberrant NF-κB signaling has been linked with carcinogenesis in many types of cancer. In recent years, the study of NF-κB members in NF-κB unrelated pathways provided novel attractive targets for cancer therapy, specifically linked to particular pathologic responses. Here we review specific functions of IκB kinase complexes (IKKs) and IκBs, which have distinctly tumor promoting or suppressing activities in cancer. Understanding how these proteins are regulated in a tumor-related context will provide new opportunities for drug development ...
This impact was no for a longer time noticed after 48 hours. Remedy with one,25(OH)2D3 also had related inhibitory influence of NF-kB action (info not proven).
Looking for online definition of Putative NF-kappaB-activating protein 209 in the Medical Dictionary? Putative NF-kappaB-activating protein 209 explanation free. What is Putative NF-kappaB-activating protein 209? Meaning of Putative NF-kappaB-activating protein 209 medical term. What does Putative NF-kappaB-activating protein 209 mean?
BACKGROUND: Unloading of skeletal muscle causes atrophy and loss of contractile function. In part, this response is believed to be mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB). Both curcumin, a component of the spice turmeric, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, inhibit activation of NF-kappaB by inflammatory stimuli, albeit by different mechanisms. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary curcumin or NAC supplementation would inhibit unloading-induced NF-kappaB activity in skeletal muscle and thereby protect muscles against loss of mass and function caused by prolonged unloading. METHODS: We used hindlimb suspension to unload the hindlimb muscles of adult mice. Animals had free access to drinking water or drinking water supplemented with 1% NAC and to standard laboratory diet or diet supplemented with 1% curcumin. For 11 days, half the animals in each dietary group were suspended by the tail (unloaded) and half were allowed to ambulate freely.
Humans are symbiotic organisms; our genome is populated with a substantial number of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), some remarkably intact, while others are remnants of their former selves. Current research indicates that not all ERVs remain silent passengers within our genomes; re-activation of ERVs is often associated with inflammatory diseases. ERVK is the most recently endogenized and transcriptionally active ERV in humans, and as such may potentially contribute to the pathology of inflammatory disease. Here, we showcase the transcriptional regulation of ERVK. Expression of ERVs is regulated in part by epigenetic mechanisms, but also depends on transcriptional regulatory elements present within retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs). These LTRs are responsive to both viral and cellular transcription factors; and we are just beginning to appreciate the full complexity of transcription factor interaction with the viral promoter. In this review, an exploration into the inflammatory transcription
Objective-Pleiotropic atheroprotective effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may be mediated on the level of vascular gene transcription. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of statins on the activation of transcription factors known to regulate inflammation and cell proliferation/differentiation. Methods and Results-Simvastatin, atorvastatin, and lovastatin (0.1 to 10 mumol/L) inhibited the binding of nuclear proteins to both the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA consensus oligonucleotides in human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The inhibitory effects of statins on NF-kappaB or AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity were examined by transient transfection studies. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors upregulated IkappaB-alpha protein levels in endothelial cells and decreased c-Jun mRNA expression in smooth muscle cells as analyzed by Western and Northern blotting, ...
NF-kappa B, a master regulator of several signaling cascades, is known to be actively transported in the nucleus in response to various stimuli. Here, we found that NF-kappa B is associated with polymeric tubulin and co-localized with microtubules in MCF-7 cells. Using TN16, a known microtubule targeting agent, we found that microtubule dynamics plays a critical role in NF-kappa B-microtubule interaction. Treatment of cells with low concentrations of TN16 (25 and 50 nM) that suppressed microtubule dynamics without visibly affecting microtubule organization enhanced the association of NF-kappa B with microtubules and facilitated nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B. Colchicine and vinblastine also produced similar nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B. Further, nuclear import of NF-kappa B activated apoptotic pathway in the cells that were blocked in mitosis by TN16 treatment suggesting that NF-kappa B acts as a pro-apoptotic protein in response to the suppression of microtubule dynamics. ...
Aspirin inhibits the activation of NF-kappa B, thus prevents the degradation of the NF-kappa B inhibitor, I kappa B, and therefore NF-kappa B is retained in the cytosol. Aspirin also inhibits NF-kappa B-dependent transcription from the Ig kappa enhancer and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat (LTR) in transfected T cells. [1] Aspirin and salicylate are mediated in part by their specific inhibition of IKK-beta, thereby preventing activation by NF-kappaB of genes involved in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory response. [2] Aspirin is protective against neurotoxicity elicited by the excitatory amino acid glutamate in rat primary neuronal cultures and hippocampal slices. [3] Aspirin triggers transcellular biosynthesis of a previously unrecognized class of eicosanoidsduring coincubations of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and neutrophils [polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)]. Aspirin evokes a unique class of eicosanoids formed by acetylated PGHS-2 and ...
I kappa B-alpha inhibits transcription factor NF-kappa B by retaining it in the cytoplasm. Various stimuli, typically those associated with stress or pathogens, rapidly inactivate I kappa B-alpha. This liberates NF-kappa B to translocate to the nucleus and initiate transcription of genes important for the defense of the organism. Activation of NF-kappa B correlates with phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha and requires the proteolysis of this inhibitor. When either serine-32 or serine-36 of I kappa B-alpha was mutated, the protein did not undergo signal-induced phosphorylation or degradation, and NF-kappa B could not be activated. These results suggest that phosphorylation at one or both of these residues is critical for activation of NF-kappa B. ...
Exposure of mammalian cells to radiation triggers the ultraviolet (UV) response, which includes activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B). This was postulated to occur by induction of a nuclear signaling cascade by damaged DNA. Recently, induction of AP-1 by UV was shown to be mediated by a pathway involving Src tyrosine kinases and the Ha-Ras small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein, proteins located at the plasma membrane. It is demonstrated here that the same pathway mediates induction of NF-kappa B by UV. Because inactive NF-kappa B is stored in the cytosol, analysis of its activation directly tests the involvement of a nuclear-initiated signaling cascade. Enucleated cells are fully responsive to UV both in NF-kappa B induction and in activation of another key signaling event. Therefore, the UV response does not require a signal generated in the nucleus and is likely to be initiated at or near the plasma membrane. ...
INTRODUCTION: To explore the effect of rosiglitazone on myocardial injury in septic rats through the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of
The NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors participate in the activation of immune system regulatory genes and viral early genes including the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat. NF-kappaB/Rel proteins are coupled to inhibitory molecules, collectively termed IkappaB, which are responsible for cytoplasmic retention of NF-kappaB. Cell activation leads to the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha, permitting NG-kappaB/Rel translocation to the nucleus and target gene activation. To further characterize the signaling events that contribute to IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, a kinase activity was isolated from Jurkat T cells that specifically interacted with IkappaBalpha in an affinity chromatography step and phosphorylated IkappaBalpha with high specificity in vitro. By using an in-gel kinase assay with recombinant IkappaBalpha as substrate, two forms of the kinase (43 and 38 kDa) were identified. Biochemical criteria and immunological cross-reactivity identified the kinase ...
Acute psychosocial stress stimulates transient increases in circulating pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines, but little is known about stress effects on anti-inflammatory cytokines or underlying mechanisms. We investigated the stress kinetics and interrelations of pro- and anti-inflammatory measures on the transcriptional and protein level.,br /,,br /,Forty-five healthy men were randomly assigned to either a stress or control group. While the stress group underwent an acute psychosocial stress task, the second group participated in a non-stress control condition. We repeatedly measured before and up to 120 min after stress DNA binding activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whole-blood mRNA levels of NF-κB, its inhibitor IκBα, and of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. We also repeatedly measured plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-10.,br /,,br /,Compared ...
Results (1) PAH specimens showed co-localisation of p65 within CD68+ macrophages in 75.4 (64.8-84.6)% of samples. Airway epithelium, neutrophils and lymphocytes were also positive for p65. (2) Pulmonary arterial medial thickness was increased in PAH compared to controls, at 33.7 (18.8-67.9)% in vessels 100-250 mm external diameter (E.D.) and 27.2 (14.8-44.2)% in vessels 250-500 mm ED, vs 17.7 (11.2-30.3)% and 14.9 (11.8-17.8)% in controls (p,0.0001 between groups). (3) Nuclear p65 was present in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (EC) but not other vascular cells including pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in PAH: 53.9 (0-100)% of vessels 100-250 mm E.D. and 53.1 (0-100)% of those 250-500 mm E.D. scored EC p65 positivity in PAH compared to 7.5 (0-25.0)% in 100-250 mm ED and 4.7 (0-21.1)% in 250-500 mm ED in controls (p,0.0001 between groups) (Abstract P29 Figure 1). ...
Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors identified as homologs of Toll in Drosophila. Mammalian TLRs are expressed on innate immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and respond to the membrane components of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Pathogen recognition by TLRs provokes rapid activation of innate immunity by inducing production of proinflammatory cytokines and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. TLR signaling pathways are separated into two groups: a MyD88-dependent pathway that leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines with quick activation of NF-{kappa}B and MAPK, and a MyD88-independent pathway associated with the induction of IFN-beta and IFN-inducible genes, and maturation of dendritic cells with slow activation of NF-{kappa}B and MAPK ...