In this study, we attempted to induce mutations in the MN strain of HIV-1 by subjecting the virus to the immunological selective pressure associated with growth in the presence of human serum with high NA activity directed predominately against the V3 region neutralization determinant. We hypothesized that this selective pressure would result in a mutation(s) in the V3 neutralization determinant itself and that the mutation(s) would result in selective resistance to neutralization by the serum used for the selection process and other sera that reacted selectively with the MN V3 neutralization determinant. The four different NR viruses so derived were found to be broadly resistant to neutralization by all of the human sera that we tested, including some that had NA activity that could not be demonstrated to be directed against the V3 determinant by peptide blocking experiments. Sequencing of the PCR DNA spanning the V3 regions of the four different NR viruses derived by this procedure did not ...
Investigating the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer against HSV-1 is essential for monitoring the immune protection against HSV-1 in susceptible populations, which would facilitate the development of vaccines against herpes infection and improvement of HSV-1 based oncolytic virotherapy. In this study, we have developed a neutralization test based on the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT-NT) to determine the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 in human serum samples. This optimized assay employed a monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing glycoprotein D to detect the HSV-1 infected cells. With this test, the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 could be determined within one day by automated interpretation of the counts of cell spots. We observed good correlation in the results obtained from ELISPOT-NT and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) by testing 22 human serum samples representing different titers. Moreover, 269 human serum samples collected from a wide range of age
The FAVN (Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation) test is the method of choice for determining the levels of antibody to rabies virus in serum.
Immunization with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus‐like particles or L2 capsid protein elicits neutralizing antibodies that mediate protection
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The presence of neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus implies immunity. The serum neutralization test is serotype specific. Antibodies against one type does not indicate immunity against type three antibodies. Reference Interval applies to Poliovirus Types 1 and 3 ...
Definition of platelet neutralization procedure in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is platelet neutralization procedure? Meaning of platelet neutralization procedure as a legal term. What does platelet neutralization procedure mean in law?
It is shown in this paper that homologous immune sera are able to neutralize the B. typhosus skin-preparatory factors. The neutralization experiments were performed on a large number of rabbits, at least ten rabbits which showed positive control reactions being used for the titration of each serum. The rabbits into which the mixtures of B. typhosus culture filtrates with immune sera were injected can be divided into the following categories: those showing complete neutralization in highest dilutions (HN), those showing complete neutralization only in lower dilutions (LN) and those showing no neutralization (NN). The results indicate that the potency of a given serum as measured by the method outlined above has a direct relation to the reactions obtained in these groups of rabbits. For practical purposes the highest dilution of the serum which gives complete neutralization of the B. typhosus skin-preparatory factors (HN titer) may be taken as the actual titer of the serum as expressed in terms of ...
In the past few years, several highly potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) specific for the gp120 envelope protein of HIV-1 have been discovered. The goal of this work is to use this information to inform the design of vaccines that are able to induce such antibodies (see the Perspective by Crowe). However, because of extensive somatic hypermutation, the epitope bound by these antibodies often does not bind to the germline sequence. Jardine et al. (p. 711, published online 28 March; see the cover) used computational analysis and in vitro screening to design an immunogen that could bind to VRC01-class bNAbs and to their germline precursors. Georgiev et al. (p. 751) took advantage of the fact that only four sites on the HIV viral envelope protein seem to bind bNAbs, and sera that contain particular bNAbs show characteristic patterns of neutralization. An algorithm was developed that could successfully delineate the neutralization specificity of antibodies present in polyclonal sera from ...
The high overall genetic homology between humans and rhesus macaques, coupled with the phenotypic conservation of lymphocyte populations, highlights the potential use of nonhuman primates (NHPs) for the preclinical evaluation of vaccine candidates. For HIV-1, experimental models are needed to identify vaccine regimens capable of eliciting desired immune responses, such as broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One important neutralization target on the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) is the conserved primary CD4 receptor binding site (CD4bs). The isolation and characterization of CD4bs-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (mAbs) from HIV-1-infected individuals have provided insights into how broadly reactive Abs target this conserved epitope. In contrast, and for reasons that are not understood, current Env immunogens elicit CD4bs-directed Abs with limited neutralization breadth. To facilitate the use of the NHP model to address this and other questions relevant to human humoral immunity, ...
View Notes - Heat of Neutralization - Copy from CHEM 120 at Waterloo. Heat of Neutralization Introduction This laboratory report aims to summarize and discuss the experiment where calorimeters were
OBJECTIVE: HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility.. DESIGN: Analysis of HCV from human liver chimeric mice infected with cell-culture-derived prototype genotype 2a recombinant J6/JFH1 or HVR1-deleted variant J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 identified adaptive mutations, which were analysed by reverse genetics in Huh7.5 and CD81-deficient S29 cells. The increased in vivo genomic stability of the adapted viruses facilitated ex vivo density analysis by ultracentrifugation and in vivo neutralisation experiments addressing the role of HVR1.. RESULTS: In vivo, J6/JFH1 and J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 depended on single substitutions within amino acids 867-876 in non-structural protein, NS2. The identified A876P-substitution resulted in a 4.7-fold increase in genomic stability. In vitro, NS2 substitutions ...
Part 8 of Berry Berry Easy notes on Acids and Bases for Form 4 SPM Chemistry students regarding applications of neutralisation reactions in daily life
We study the neutralization of negative hydrogen ions in collisions with multicharged fast ions (including relativistic ions) by using an approach that allows a simple expression for the neutralizatio
Immunogenicity of inter-protomer disulfide stabilized RSV F variants.Neutralization titers of sera from mice immunized with 10 μg of RSV F variants in the pres
APAM plays a role of electrical neutralization with the suspended particles and makes a bridge to form large f - Manufacturer - Producer - PSL147347YH
The Comparison of Sensitivity and Specificity of ELISA-based Microneutralization Test with Hemagglutination Inhibition Test to Evaluate Neutralizing Antibody against Influenza Virus (H1N1)
To test whether antibodies that are neutralizing or nonneutralizing for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary isolates can be distinguished by their affinities for the oligomeric envelope glycoproteins, we selected HIV-1(JR-FL) as a model primary virus and a panel of 13 human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and evaluated three parameters: (i) half-maximal binding to recombinant monomeric envelope, gp120(JR-FL); (ii) half-maximal binding to oligomeric envelope of HIV-1(JR-FL) expressed on the surface of transfected 293 cells; and (iii) neutralization of HIV-1(JR-FL) in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell-based neutralization assay. Two conclusions can be drawn from these experiments. First, we confirm that antibody interactions with monomeric gp120 do not predict primary virus neutralization. Second, we show that neutralization correlates qualitatively with the relative affinity of an antibody for the oligomeric envelope glycoproteins, at least for HIV-1(JR-FL).. ...
Seth, Ankit, Santosh K. Maurya, Ashish Srivastava (2014) Formulation development, characterization and estimation of acid neutralization capacity of shankha bhasma tablets for the treatment of dyspepsia. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced HIV type 1 neutralization by human anti-glycoprotein 120 monoclonal antibodies in the presence of monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte function-associated molecule 1. AU - Hioe, Catarina E.. AU - Hildreth, James. AU - Zolla-Pazner, Susan. PY - 1999/4/10. Y1 - 1999/4/10. N2 - Cellular adhesion receptor LFA-1 and its ICAM ligands are known to play a role in HIV infection. The presence of these molecules on virions and target cells promotes virus infectivity and has previously been shown to hinder virus neutralization by anti-HIV antibodies. To delineate the effect of these molecules on neutralization of HIV-1, human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to V3 and the CD4-binding domain (CD4bd) of gp120 were examined in the presence of anti-LFA-1 MAbs. When either of two anti-LFA-1 MAbs was present, higher levels of virus neutralization were achieved by both anti-V3 and anti- CD4bd MAbs. This effect was observed with primary HIV-1 isolates as well as with a laboratory-adapted strain. ...
Spin-polarized ion neutralization spectroscopy (SPINS), in which a beam of electron-spin-polarized He+ ions is directed onto a surface and analysis is done of the electrons ejected from the surface as a result of ion neutralization, is a unique tool for surface studies that has unparalleled surface specificity. This technique has been used in studies described in this thesis of Mg surfaces and rare gas van der Waals solids. The possibility of plasmon excitation in He+ ion neutralization at Mg has been investigated, but this process is found to be unlikely. Instead, the mechanism for ion neutralization appears to be resonance neutralization followed by electron ejection through Auger deexcitation. Experiments at frozen Xe surfaces found that ion neutralization proceeds by an Auger neutralization-type process above the surface, while experiments at frozen Kr are explained by the formation of two types of collision complexes at the surface, one ejecting an electron by double ionization of a surface ...
Definition of Neutralisation (immunology) in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Neutralisation (immunology)? Meaning of Neutralisation (immunology) as a legal term. What does Neutralisation (immunology) mean in law?
The isolation of J3 represents a significant improvement on previous nAbs derived from immunized animals as in single-domain VHH form it has a comparable breadth and potency to the best nAbs obtained from a limited number of natural human infections. In contrast, previous nAb clones characterized from immunized animals have only exhibited limited breadth (Forsman et al., 2008; Sundling et al., 2010). A caveat to this is the observation that sera with 17b-like binding specificity can be induced after immunization of humans (Vaine et al., 2010), and it should be noted that 17b and other Abs to CD4-induced epitopes are less broadly neutralizing as full-length mAbs than in Fab form (Labrijn et al., 2003). However, given the previously reported decrease in neutralization ability seen with the Fab of b12 (Labrijn et al., 2003), it appears the CD4-binding site of Env is not per se more easily targeted for neutralization by small Ab fragments as is the CD4-induced binding site, presumably because of the ...
Percentage of Participants who are YF and Dengue Virus (DENV)-naive at Baseline and are Seroprotected against YF on Day 30 as Measured by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) in a Subset of 120 Participants in each Trial ...
We performed a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 146 (18%) of 823 persons tested. Further studies are needed to determine health risks for humans from this potentially deadly group of viruses ...
View Notes - Studio_9_HessLaw_modified-1 from CHEM 025 at Lehigh University. Chem. 25: Studio #8 _ _Heat of Neutralization and Hesss Law STUDIO:_ NAME:_ HEAT OF NEUTRALIZATION OF ACIDS AND BASES
To identify TBE virus-endemic areas, it is effective to conduct an epizootiological survey of wild rodents. The neutralizing test can be used for serological diagnosis of wild rodents, but it is time consuming and uses hazardous live viruses that require a high-level https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Vorinostat-saha.html biosafety facility. It is also known that non-infected wild rodents sometime indicated low neutralization antibody titers by the neutralization test. Therefore, a diagnosis which is more convenient for the epizootiological survey of wild rodents is required. In this study, we tried to develop ELISAs using two recombinant antigens. in the serological diagnosis of rodents for the first time. Domain III of the E protein was known to have the neutralizing epitopes (11) and was used for the serological diagnosis in several flaviviruses (13, 14). In this study, the recombinant domain III of the E protein was applied to the diagnosis ELISA for wild rodents. The EdIII-ELISA was shown ...
The antibody response is crucial for preventing many viral infections and may also contribute to resolution of infection. When a vertebrate is infected with a virus, antibodies are produced against many epitopes on multiple virus proteins. A subset of these antibodies can block virus infection by a process that is called neutralization. Antibodies can neutralize viral infectivity…
As commonly induced, weakly neutralizing Abs - such as those against V3 - do not protect against heterologous HIV-1 transmission (17), it was initially surprising that our results implicated these Abs in decreased MTCT risk. However, it is highly relevant to MTCT that V3-specific Abs can neutralize concomitant autologous virus strains (ref. 18 and Moody, MA, et al., in review). In fact, maternal V3-specific IgG Abs neutralized and exerted selection pressure on circulating autologous maternal viruses at inhibitory concentrations compatible with that associated with decreased MTCT risk. Nonetheless, it is important to caution that measuring maternal IgG V3 binding and tier 1 virus neutralization responses may be a surrogate for a yet-unmeasured antiviral function.. The WITS study offered a large historical cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women, yet was limited by case and specimen availability. Propensity score matching was used to maximize the power. Moreover, a pilot study of humoral responses ...
In this study, expanded human trial with M, Gerbil kidney tissue culture inactivated HFRS vaccine was carried out and neutralizing antibody response was assessed by plaque reduction neutralization(PRNT) and CPE neutralization(CPENT) methods. According to the data of all 74 person immune sera assayed by the two methods, the rates of seroconversion and GMT tesed by CPENT were significantly higher than that by PRNT. Several vaccinating groups were studied and the neutralizing antibody levels were as follows: v...
Application: ELISA, In vitro neutralization and Western blot analysis. Isotype: Rabbit Ig. Antigen: For immunization recombinant mouse TNF-alpha (E.coli-derived) is used. Purification: Antibodies were sequentially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and protein A-affinity chromatography. Packaging: Lyophilized and vacuum-packed. Contents: 0.5 mg/vial. Buffer: Prior to lyophilization: 0.5 ml PBS + 125 mM trehalose. Specificity: Binds with high affinity to and efficiently neutralizes both natural and recombinant mouse TNF-alpha. High degree of cross-neutralizing activity with rat TNF-alpha.
Regardless of whether you are developing consumable or industrial products, ensuring product quality, efficacy, and safety is of the utmost importance. In vitro screening and routine quality control testing combined with authenticated models and controls can help ensure product integrity and brand reputation.. Explore our featured content below to learn more about the importance of authenticated in vitro models and control strains for toxicity screening, infectivity studies, virus neutralization assays, microbial analysis, industry-guided quality control testing, and more.. .authentication-wrapper .AFSImage{ margin-bottom:1em; } .Card__main{ display:block !important; } .Card.--expand .Card__header:after{ display:none !important; } @media only screen and (min-width: 47em) { .authentication-wrapper{ margin-bottom:1.5em; } .authentication-wrapper h4{ text-align:center; font-weight:bold; margin:1.25em 0 1em; } .authentication-wrapper h4:hover{ text-decoration:underline; } .authentication-wrapper p{ ...
More than 20.8 million people are infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, with South Africa having one of the fastest growing HIV-1 epidemics, where an estimated 2.4 million people were infected. Thirty-two sera from 25 patients were tested for their ability to neutralize HTLV-III(B) (IIIB) and four primary isolates representing subtypes B, C, D, and a recombinant gag C/env B type. A CEM-SS cell line-based assay was used and the neutralizing titer was defined as the reciprocal of the highest dilution giving a 50% reduction in p24 antigen production. All isolates were neutralized better by subtype-specific sera, except for the C4714 strain, which was neutralized by both subtype B and C sera. C4714 was neutralized by 18/25 (72%) sera, IIIB by 19/32 (59%) sera, D482 by 7/31(23%) sera, B3245 by 6/29 (21%) sera, and the recombinant B/C1491 isolate by 4/25 (16%) sera. Five sera were unable to neutralize any of the isolates. The V3 region of the isolates used in the neutralization assay was amplified ...
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BOUVIN-PLEY M, MORGAND M, MEYER L, GOUJARD C, MOREAU A, MOUQUET H, NUSSENZWEIG M, PACE C, HO D, BJORKMAN PJ, BATY D, CHAMES P, PANCERA M, KWONG PD, POIGNARD P, BARIN F, BRAIBANT M. Drift of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 toward increased neutralization resistance over the course of the epidemic: a comprehensive study using the most potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Braibant M. J Virol 2014, 88, 13910-13917 ...
Complement and isotype dependence of anti-A33 MAb neutralization of VACV EEV.VACV EEV neutralization activity of purified anti-A33 MAbs in the absence (MAbs) or
This simple experiment allows students to follow the pH and temperature changes when an acidic solution is gradually neutralised.
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exactly where K is equivalent to the level of endotoxin permitted for every machine, N is equal to the quantity of devices tested, and V is equivalent to the overall volume from the extract or rinse. If the undiluted rinsing or extracting Resolution is unsuitable for the Bacterial Endotoxins Exam 85 , repeat the inhibition or enhancement take a look at after neutralization and removing with the interfering substances or just after the solution has actually been diluted by a factor not exceeding the Maximum Legitimate Dilution ...
Misrtan (A) is used as a excellent auxiliary tanning agent, it is applied either in the neutralization or retanning of chrame leather or in both processes. ...
We describe microneutralization assays that used automated 96-well enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-SPOT) readout instrumentation to measure human anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in CV-1 cells that were stably transfected to express human FcγRIIA (CD32) using conventional Vero cells as a comparator. Classic plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) end-point titers were determined by probit analysis. Neutralization titers against DENV measured in CV-1 transfectants were expressed in terms of both conventional 50% to 90% PRNT end-point titers and differential infectivity of antibody-treated virus in control and CD32-expressing CV-1 cells. Significantly reduced PRNT titers and strikingly heightened infectivity (up to 100-fold) of antibody-treated DENV was observed in CV-1 CD32 transfectants compared with that observed in control CV-1 or Vero cells. Because DENVs may preferentially replicate in CD32-expressing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells, in vivo, it is possible that CD32 introduced into
TY - JOUR. T1 - Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate induced cross-neutralizing antibody against subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in adult volunteers. AU - Chou, Ai Hsiang. AU - Liu, Chia Chyi. AU - Chang, Jui Yuan. AU - Jiang, Renee. AU - Hsieh, Yi Chin. AU - Tsao, Amanda. AU - Wu, Chien Long. AU - Huang, Ju Lan. AU - Fung, Chang Phone. AU - Hsieh, Szu Min. AU - Wang, Ya Fang. AU - Wang, Jen Ren. AU - Hu, Mei Hua. AU - Chiang, Jen Ron. AU - Su, Ih Jen. AU - Chong, Pele Choi Sing. PY - 2013/11/21. Y1 - 2013/11/21. N2 - Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac) at 5- and 10-μg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each ...
A panel of anti-gp120 human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), CD4-IgG, and sera from people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was tested for neutralization of nine primary HIV-1 isolates, one molecularly cloned primary strain (JR-CSF), and two strains (IIIB and MN) adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines. All the viruses were grown in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and were tested for their ability to infect these cells in the presence and absence of the reagents mentioned above. In general, the primary isolates were relatively resistant to neutralization by the MAbs tested, compared with the T-cell line-adapted strains. However, one HuMAb, IgG1b12, was able to neutralize most of the primary isolates at concentrations of | or = 1 microgram/ml. Usually, the inability of a HuMAb to neutralize a primary isolate was not due merely to the absence of the antibody epitope from the virus; the majority of the HuMAbs bound with high affinity to monomeric gp120
FIG 2 Human MBL neutralizes insect cell-derived DENV-2 independent of complement activation. (A and B) MBL binds to DENV-2. C6/36 cell-derived DENV-2 (A) or both C6/36 cell-derived and Vero cell-derived DENV-2 (B) virions were captured on a microtiter plate using an anti-DENV prM protein-specific MAb (2H2) or isotype control anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) E2 MAb (H77.16) and incubated with an increasing concentration of purified human MBL. MBL binding was detected with an anti-MBL specific MAb and inhibited by the presence of 10 mM EDTA or 100 µg/ml mannan. Error bars indicate SEM for up to 6 independent experiments. Black asterisks indicate statistical differences compared to EDTA-treated samples. Grey asterisks denote values of C6/36 cell-derived DENV binding to MBL that are different from those of Vero cell-derived DENV-2. O.D. 450 nm, optical density at 450 nm. (C) In parallel experiments, captured DENV virions derived from C6/36 or Vero cells were detected with an anti-DENV ...
Here, we have evaluated the cross-neutralization of pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses. Despite more than 90 years of separation between these viruses that both caused human pandemics, the 1918 SC and 2009 CA viruses raised immune responses in mice that demonstrated cross-neutralization, whereas they were both resistant to antisera directed to a relatively recent seasonal influenza virus of the same subtype. To understand the molecular basis for cross-neutralization, we examined the specificity of antibody recognition by protein competition studies, as well as by site-directed mutagenesis and protein structural modeling. The RBD-A region was defined as the target of neutralization, and we demonstrated that glycosylation sites in this region are important in allowing evasion of antibody neutralization in seasonal strains. Specifically, introduction of glycosylation sites into these strains eliminated their ability to bind neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that glycan shielding from ...
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An understanding of how broadly neutralizing activity develops in HIV-1-infected individuals is needed to guide vaccine design and immunization strategies. Here we used a large panel of 44 HIV-1 envelope variants (subtypes A, B, and C) to evaluate the presence of broadly neutralizing antibodies in serum samples obtained 3 years after seroconversion from 40 women enrolled in the CAPRISA 002 acute infection cohort. Seven of 40 participants had serum antibodies that neutralized more than 40% of viruses tested and were considered to have neutralization breadth. Among the samples with breadth, CAP257 serum neutralized 82% (36/44 variants) of the panel, while CAP256 serum neutralized 77% (33/43 variants) of the panel. Analysis of longitudinal samples showed that breadth developed gradually starting from year 2, with the number of viruses neutralized as well as the antibody titer increasing over time. Interestingly, neutralization breadth peaked at 4 years postinfection, with no increase thereafter. ...