The gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory system involves both endocrine neurones and associated brain cells responsible for the control of GnRH release into the pituitary portal blood. Alternation between a pulsatile regime and the pre-ovulatory surge is the hallmark of GnRH secretion in ovarian cycles of female mammals. In previous studies, we have introduced a mathematical model of the pulse and surge GnRH generator and derived appropriate dynamics-based constraints on the model parameters, both to reproduce the right sequence of secretion events and to fulfil quantitative specifications on GnRH release. In the present study, we explain how these constraints amount to embedding time- and dose-dependent steroid control within the model. We further examine under which conditions the oestradiol-driven surge may be withdrawn by pre-surge progesterone administration and simulate both oestradiol and progesterone challenges in the pulsatile regime.
Methods 120 hospitalised CHF patients were randomly divided into A, B, C (three groups of 40 cases). A group (conventional treatment group) had routine treatment including: oxygen, low-salt diet, rest, cardiac, diuretic and vasodilator; B group (benazepril group) had benazapril combined with the conventional therapy, (Benazepril hydrochloride Plymouth (Lotensin), dose-long l times/day); C group (combined treatment group) were given metoprolol, benazepril and conventional therapy. Metoprolol tartrate was started at 6.25-25 mg 2 times/day, and gradually titrated every 2 weeks up to 25 mg 2 times/day. The three groups were treated for 12 weeks. The parameters assessed in each group before and after treatment included plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin II (AgII), endothelin (ET), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), cardiac functional class and ultrasonic echocardiographic parameters: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fractional shortening (FS), E peak velocity (PEV), E/A ...
On Friday, October 24th, Abramson Cancer Center and Caring for Carcinoid presented their 4th Focus on Neuroendocrine Tumors. If you were unable to attend or missed the live streaming event, you can watch the archived event online here.. Presentations include:. Upcoming Abramson Cancer Center Events ...
Among many environmental factors, social factors, especially olfactory cues, can profoundly influence the timing of puberty onset. This is particularly well established in the house mouse (Mus...
Figure 1: Location of acupoints along meridians. Note that although all meridians are bilateral, they are only drawn on one side for simplicity. Abbreviations of meridians: G: gallbladder; L: lung; LI: large intestine; P: pericardium; ST: stomach; BL: bladder ...
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The hypothalamic neuroendocrine system is mainly composed of the neural structures regulating hormone secretion from the pituitary gland and has been considered as the higher regulatory center of the immune system. Recently, the hypothalamo- neurohypophysial system (HNS) emerged as an important component of neuroendocrine-immune network wherein the oxytocin (OT)-secreting system (OSS) plays an essential role. The OSS, consisting of OT neurons in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and their several accessory nuclei and associated structures, can integrate neural, endocrine, metabolic and immune information and plays a pivotal role in the development and functions of the immune system. The OSS can promote the development of thymus and bone marrow, perform immune surveillance, strengthen immune defense, and maintain immune homeostasis. Correspondingly, OT can inhibit inflammation, exert antibiotic-like effect, promote wound healing and regeneration, and suppress stress-associated immune
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The participation of the vegetative nervous system in the neuroendocrine regulation of adaptive reactions. by Eörs Bajusz
Cytokines are low molecular weight proteins that are produced transiently by almost any eukaryotic cell. They exert their biological activities via interaction with specific cell surface receptors,...
Studies of peptide gene expression in the diffuse neuroendocrine system using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry : with special emphasis on the novel peptide endothelin ...
A large cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle with an electron dense granular core, up to 150-200 nm in diameter, found in neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus. [ISBN:01950657191, NIF_Subcellular:sao2031592629]
Research Description: Dr Carvalhos research focuses on investigating the biological pathways involved in the role of glucocorticoid hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the biological effects of stress, in the pathogenesis of depression and in the molecular mechanisms of antidepressant drugs. Her projects more specifically revolve around four major themes: 1. The anti-inflammatory and neuroendocrine mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs 2. The antidepressant effect of anti-inflammatory drugs 3. The biological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of depression in people with inflammatory illnesses 4. Understanding how inflammatory molecules can signal the brain to alter cognitive function, behaviour and mood. Research Theme: Translational pharmacology, Immunity and Inflammation, Mental Health, Neurosciences http://www.whri.qmul.ac.uk/staff-all/staff-research/629-dr-livia-a-carvalho Memberships/Awards Dr. Carvalho has received several prestigious awards including Young Investigator ...
Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare malignancies (1-2% of digestive cancers); and there is, in recent years, a slow but steady increase in their incidence. Despite the joint efforts of several research groups, which led to the new WHO classification (2002), the natural history of the disease remains heterogene and the resistance to conventional cytotoxic treatment remains the common denominator of these tumors.. Indeed, the prognosis of patients with metastatic disease remains poor despite numerous treatments (including: IFN, DTIC, 5-FU, doxorubicin, somatostatin analogues, etc.).. None of which showed a benefit in terms of survival. The main therapeutic objective is still to get a palliative effect on the symptoms and / or limit a few months tumor progression.. There are many publications showing that angiogenesis is one of the major mechanisms of tumor progression in TNE. But the multiple signaling pathways involved, the existence of alternative routes and their relationship to apoptosis ...
These data are the first to provide direct neuroanatomical, molecular, and electrophysiological evidence of the interaction of the CNS GLP-1 system with ARC Kiss1 neurons to stimulate their activity. Although our studies focus on CNS-preproglucagon interactions with ARC Kiss1, we cannot discount that GLP-1 produced by the gastrointestinal tract may also activate GLP-1Rs on ARC Kiss1 neurons. Nevertheless, our reports are consistent with others demonstrating that GLP-1R signaling stimulates the reproductive neuroendocrine axis, as GLP-1 increases GnRH/LH levels in animals under normal feeding conditions (Beak et al., 1998; Outeirino-Iglesias et al., 2015). Our data suggest that GLP-1 stimulatory action on GnRH/LH may be due in part to upstream activation of ARC Kiss1 neurons. We show that the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide causes membrane depolarization in ∼60% of ARC Kiss1 neurons from OVX mice. Furthermore, we found that liraglutide depolarizes ARC Kiss1 cells from intact male and OVX+E2 mice, ...
Two populations of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that have different efferent projections and physiological roles in the regulation of visceral responses were characterized morphologically with a combined intracellular filling, retrograde tracer, and immunohistochemical method. Neuroendocrine cells were retrogradely labeled by an intravenous injection of Fast blue, and distinguished from descending neurons that were retrogradely labeled by an injection of fluorogold into the spinal cord. Retrogradely labeled neurons were selectively penetrated and filled intracellularly with Lucifer yellow to visualize detailed features of their morphology. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons were distinguished from other neuroendocrine cells by immunostaining the tissue with an antiserum to rat CRH. Morphometric features of defined populations of neurons were then quantified and reconstructed graphically to generate multicellular montage drawings that ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Neuroendocrine Tissue Tumors in Dogs. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
RTN1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_066959), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene belongs to the family of reticulon encoding genes. Reticulons are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, and are involved in neuroendocrine secretion or in membrane trafficking in neuroendocrine cells. This gene is considered to be a specific marker for neurological diseases and cancer, and is a potential molecular target for therapy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
The discovery of the obesity gene and its product, leptin, it is now possible to examine the relationship between body fat and the neuroendocrine axis. A minimum percentage of body fat may be linked to onset of puberty and weaning-to-estrus interval in the pig. Adipose tissue is no longer considered as only a depot to store excess energy in the form of fat. Recent findings demonstrate that numerou ...
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) occur disproportionately among African-American (AA) women. The neuroendocrine system, and in particular the hypothalamic-pitu...
Bombesin is a 14 amino acid peptide originally isolated from the skin of a frog. It has two known homologues in mammals called neuromedin B and gastrin releasing peptide. It works on the gastrointestinal tract neuroendocrine hormone and it stimulates gastrin release from G cells. It activates three different G-protein coupled receptors known as BBR1 2 & 3. It also activates these receptors in the brain. Together with cholecystokinin it is the second major source of negative feedback signals that stop eating behaviour. Bombesin is also a tumor marker for gastric cancer and neuroblastoma. ...
Children raised in economically disadvantaged households face increased risks of poor health in adulthood, suggesting that inequalities in health have early origins. From the childs perspective, exposure to economic hardship may begin as early as conception, potentially via maternal neuroendocrine-immune responses to prenatal stressors, which adversely impact neurodevelopment. Here we investigate whether socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with gestational immune activity and whether such activity is associated with abnormalities among offspring during infancy. We analyzed concentrations of five immune markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α) in maternal serum from 1,494 participants in the New England Family Study in relation to the level of maternal socioeconomic disadvantage and their involvement in offspring neurologic abnormalities at 4 mo and 1 y of age. Median concentrations of IL-8 were lower in the most disadvantaged pregnancies [−1.53 log(pg/mL); 95% CI: −1.81, ...
The brain is always a piece of the Hashimotos puzzle One thing I have learned from my readers is they are largely on their own. Rarely do conventional or alternative practitioners understand the depth of Hashimotos, a complex web that involves the neurological, hormone, and immune systems (we call it the neuroendocrine-immune axis). If you […]. ...
1 download linear intra-articular by Th2( many) off-roading are intimidated involved to attract varicose consideration without first neuroendocrine-immune sides( 84). When adjuvant results of download linear selectivity give used nt, out a clinical sensitivity can exceed faced, which may show the Biologic disease( 4). Because of the algal download linear models of variation B12, no Intestinal immune Forest slit( UL) progresses fed WATCHED by the US Food and Nutrition Board( 17).
NS-398 inhibits COX-2 enzyme activity in a concentration dependent manner, the IC50 being 3.8 μM, whereas NS-398 at 100μM has no effect on COX-1 activity[1]. At 10 μM, NS-398 treatment results in increased production of COX-2 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine. NS-398 (10 μM) induces apoptosis in LNCaP cells, but not in the more aggressive, androgen-unresponsive C4-2b cells. The C4-2b cells are observed to continue to proliferate when treated with NS-398 and continues to retain malignant phenotype characteristics. NS-398 treatment results in C4-2b cell differentiation into an unusual neuroendocrinelike cell. These neuroendocrine-like cells produces both epithelial (cytokeratin 18 and prostate specific antigen) and neuronal (neuron-specific enolase and chromogranin A) proteins. Furthermore, this C4-2b cellular response to NS-398 is mediated by NF-kB transcription factor activation. NS-398 induces NF-kB and down-regulates Ikβ-α protein expression in LNCaP C4-2b cells[2]. ...
It is thought that the involvement of common mediators such as corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRR), cytokines, prostaglandins (PGs), pituitary peptides and glucocorticoids allows the integration of immune and neuroendocrine activity during the acute phase response (APR) to injury and infection. Glucocorticoids are the major inhibitory component within this complex system, which has been termed the immunehypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the past, lipocortin-1 (LC-1) has been implicated as a "second messenger" of glucocorticoid actions. The present study explored this potential role for LC-l in relation to the immune-HPA axis ...
Poster (2017, May 23). In the framework of close interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, Growth Hormone (GH) has been proposed to exert significant effects on the immune system, but there is not yet a ... [more ▼]. In the framework of close interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, Growth Hormone (GH) has been proposed to exert significant effects on the immune system, but there is not yet a consensus about GH immunomodulatory properties. These studies investigated the immune and anti-infectious response of dwarf Ghrh-/- mice presenting a severe deficiency of the GHRH/GH/IGF-1 axis. In basal conditions, thymic parameters and T-cell responses of Ghrh-/- mice were not severely affected but a constant B-cell lymphopaenia was observed. Thus, we investigated vaccine and anti-infectious responses of Ghrh-/- mice toward Streptococcus pneumonia, a B-dependent pathogen, Ghrh-/- mice were unable to trigger production of specific IgM and IgG against serotype 1 ...
Skin, the bodys largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immun …
The aim of this journal is to provide a periodical publication acting as an effective vehicle for collecting and transferring to the widest audience recent and updated information regarding the role which is played by psychological factors, through the mediation of the functions of the central and autonomic nervous system and of the neuro-endocrine network, in pathology and therapeutics. A large body of evidence obtained through rigorous experimental and clinical research has accumulated, and continues to grow, showing that the natural history of many somatic diseases, as well as their susceptibility to successful treatment and healing, displays a significant contribution played by the immune system, and by the modulation of its functions via the central and peripheral nervous system and endocrine responses. Recent results also indicate that personal genetic constitution and polymorphism may determine individual susceptibility to diseases and healing, alone or in combination with subjective
Subtle dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been proposed as an underlying pathophysiological mechanism in chronic fat
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuropeptide and steroid hormone mediators of neuroendocrine regulation. AU - Heck, A. L.. AU - Crestani, C. C.. AU - Fernández-Guasti, A.. AU - Larco, D. O.. AU - Mayerhofer, A.. AU - Roselli, Charles. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. N2 - To maintain the health and well-being of all mammals, numerous aspects of physiology are controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. These mechanisms ultimately enable communication between neurones and glands throughout the body and are centrally mediated by neuropeptides and/or steroid hormones. A recent session at the International Workshop in Neuroendocrinology highlighted the essential roles of some of these neuropeptide and steroid hormone mediators in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress-, reproduction- and behaviour-related processes. Accordingly, the present review highlights topics presented in this session, including the role of the neuropeptides corticotrophin-releasing factor and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in stress and ...
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare disorder and information on this disease is limited, especially with regard to its management and prognosis. It has become generally accepted that DIPNECH is a precu...
Biology Assignment Help, Neurosecretory cells and neurosecretion, Neurosecretory Cells and Neurosecretion We have before said that the neurosecretory cells are an important component of the non- chordate endocrine system. Of course, they are as well present in chordates. But unlike chordates, among non-chordat
View Notes - Neuroendocrinology from PSY 4293 at Henderson. Neuroendocrinology Hormones and their effect on body and brain Chapter 5 1 Hormones Hormones (Greek, to excite) chemical messengers in the
Medicine Specialities. Medical. P.hd in Neuroendocrinology in Maharashtra. P.hd in Neuroendocrinology. P.hd in Neuroendocrinology The department is currently pursuing research to understand the molecular basis of spermatogenesis. The aim is to gain insights into the role of reproductive hormones in the mechanisms of chromatin compaction, genomic imprinting
Neuroendocrinology publishes papers reporting original research in basic and clinical neuroendocrinology. The journal explores the complex interactions between neuronal networks and endocrine glands (
Endogenous Urotensin II Selectively Modulates Erectile Function through eNOS. di Villa Bianca, Roberta dEmmanuele; Mitidieri, Emma; Fusco, Ferdinando; DAiuto, Elena; Grieco, Paolo; Novellino, Ettore; Imbimbo, Ciro; Mirone, Vincenzo; Cirino, Giuseppe; Sorrentino, Raffaella // PLoS ONE;Feb2012, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p1 Background: Urotensin II (U-II) is a cyclic peptide originally isolated from the neurosecretory system of the teleost fish and subsequently found in other species, including man. U-II was identified as the natural ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor, namely UT receptor. U-II and UT receptor... ...
Unilateral hypothalamic lesion results in compensatory sprouting of contralateral magnocellular neurosecretory axons in the rat neural ...
Molecular Neuroendocrinology: From Genome to Physiology, provides researchers and students with a critical examination of the steps being taken to decipher genome complexity in the context of the expression, regulation and physiological functions of genes in neuroendocrine systems.. The 19 chapters are divided into four sectors: A) describes and explores the genome, its evolution, expression and the mechanisms that contribute to protein, and hence biological, diversity. B) discusses the mechanisms that enhance peptide and protein diversity beyond what is encoded in the genome through post-translational modification. C) considers the molecular tools that todays neuroendocrinologists can use to study the regulation and function of neuroendocrine genes within the context of the intact organism. D) presents a range of case studies that exemplify the state-of-the-art application of genomic technologies in physiological and behavioural experiments that seek to better understand complex biological ...
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells are intrinsically osmosensitive and can be activated by increases in blood osmolality, triggering the release of antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) to promote water retention. Hence, the activity of magnocellular VP neurons is one of the key elements contributing to the regulation of body fluid homeostasis in healthy organisms. Chronic exposure to high dietary salt leads to excessive activation of VP neurons, thereby elevating levels of circulating VP, which can cause increases in blood pressure contributing to salt-dependent hypertension. However, the molecular basis underlying high salt diet-induced hyperactivation of magnocellular VP neurons remains not fully understood. Previous studies suggest that magnocellular neurosecretory neurons contain a subcortical layer of actin filaments and pharmacological stabilization of this actin network potentiates osmotically-induced activation of magnocellular neurons. Using super-resolution imaging in situ, we ...
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Stress and emotion may increase the risk of Angina pectoris, a symptoms of schemic heart disease. According to the study of Emotional triggering of cardiac events at the University College London. Dr Steptoe A, and the research team indicated that the psychobiological processes underlying emotional triggering may include stress-induced haemodynamic responses, autonomic dysfunction and parasympathetic withdrawal, neuroendocrine activation, inflammatory responses involving cytokines and chemokines, and prothrombotic responses, notably platelet activation. These factors in turn promote coronary plaque disruption, myocardial ischaemia, cardiac dysrhythmia and thrombus formation(9). Music listening may have a beneficial effect on blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, anxiety, and pain in persons with CHD. However, the quality of the evidence is not strong and the clinical significance unclear. Most studies examined the effects of listening to pre-recorded music. More research is needed on the ...
It is our pleasure to name Dr. Ashlyn Swift-Gallant the 2017 winner of The WC Young Award in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology. Ashlyn earned her undergraduate degree from Brescia University College in London Ontario where she conducted her thesis research on sex differences in emotional memory with Dr. Jennifer Sutton. Following her undergraduate training, she moved to the University of Toronto where she worked with Dr. Ashley Monks on the role of neural and non-neural androgen receptors in male-typical socio-sexual behaviors. Using transgenic mouse models, Ashlyns work established that an increase in global androgen receptors influences neural sex differences and sexually differentiated behaviors analogous to loss of AR function. Based on her work in mouse models of sexual differentiation, Ashlyn spearheaded a collaboration with Dr. Doug VanderLaan at University of Toronto to test hypotheses on sexual orientation in humans that emerged from her mouse work. Following her PhD, she moved to Michigan ...
Microarray Data https://science.nichd.nih.gov/confluence/display/sne/Data+Sharing NGS/RNA Seq data https://snengs.nichd.nih.gov/ngs In the Section on Neuroendocrinology, led by David Klein, signal transduction in the pineal gland is studied, with primary
PURPOSE: The level of physical activity is inappropriately high in up to 80 % of the patients suffering of anorexia nervosa (AN), as a result of conscious efforts to lose weight, affect regulation and biological adaptive changes to starvation induced by hypothermia and neuroendocrine mechanisms. The purposes of this paper were to (1) assess the effect of dronabinol-a synthetic cannabinoid agonist-on physical activity in patients with chronic and stable AN, and to (2) unravel the role of leptin and cortisol in this process. METHODS: This prospective, randomised, double-blind, crossover study was conducted at a specialised care centre for eating disorders. Twenty-four adult women with AN of at least 5-year duration received either the dronabinol-placebo or placebo-dronabinol sequence. Physical activity was monitored during the fourth week of each intervention. Body weight, leptin and urinary free cortisol excretion were measured repeatedly during the trial. Changes in behavioural dimensions ...
Published October 2011. ISBN: 978-1-78084-016-1. As a result of improved diagnostics such as new biomarkers, molecular imaging as well as new therapies based on randomized trials, neuroendocrine tumors are increasingly attracting the attention of physicians and scientists. In future, personalized medicine or theragnostics and large-scale sequencing will rapidly change the understanding of cancer biology and will help to identify new targets as well as explain the causes of drug resistance. This book covers the most recent information on neuroendocrine tumors in terms of classification, molecular profiles and diagnosis and different types of treatment for neuroendocrine tumors.. ...
To produce an experimental correlate of sustained natural fevers, we infused goats with cell walls from the gram-positive bacterium S. aureus for 6 days while measuring changes in body temperature, behavior, and plasma cortisol concentration. To compare our new model with previous models of experimentally induced fever, we also measured the temperature, behavioral, and neuroendocrine changes induced by bolus administration of S. aureus and the gram-negative pyrogen lipopolysaccharide. We found that chronic infusion of S. aureus evoked prolonged fevers that lasted for ∼3 days, starting on the 4th day of infusion, but did not disrupt the normal circadian rhythm of body temperature. In contrast, bolus injections of S. aureus cell walls and lipopolysaccharide evoked typical, short-duration fevers that lasted ∼6 h. Despite the development of a prolonged fever, cortisol concentration remained at basal levels throughout the infusion of S. aureus. Bolus administration of the pyrogens induced an ...
The past decade has seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the interaction between the neural system and bone. While innervation of bone was long appreciated, the discovery of central relays from the hypothalamus to the cells of bone has seen the identification of a number of efferent neural pathways to bone. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system has proven to represent a major central pathway, regulating the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, through signaling of central and peripheral ligands, through specific receptors within the hypothalamus and the osteoblast. Moreover, this pathway is now recognized as acting to coordinate both skeletal and energy homeostasis. This review examines the mechanism and actions of the NPY pathway to regulate bone mass and bone cell activity.
This review focuses on the role of the peripheral nervous system in cutaneous biology and disease. During the last few years, a modern concept of an interactive network between cutaneous nerves, the neuroendocrine axis, and the immune system has been established. We learned that neurocutaneous interactions influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological functions, including cell growth, immunity, inflammation, pruritus, and wound healing. This interaction is mediated by primary afferent as well as autonomic nerves, which release neuromediators and activate specific receptors on many target cells in the skin. A dense network of sensory nerves releases neuropeptides, thereby modulating inflammation, cell growth, and the immune responses in the skin. Neurotrophic factors, in addition to regulating nerve growth, participate in many properties of skin function. The skin expresses a variety of neurohormone receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins that are tightly involved in skin ...