The gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory system involves both endocrine neurones and associated brain cells responsible for the control of GnRH release into the pituitary portal blood. Alternation between a pulsatile regime and the pre-ovulatory surge is the hallmark of GnRH secretion in ovarian cycles of female mammals. In previous studies, we have introduced a mathematical model of the pulse and surge GnRH generator and derived appropriate dynamics-based constraints on the model parameters, both to reproduce the right sequence of secretion events and to fulfil quantitative specifications on GnRH release. In the present study, we explain how these constraints amount to embedding time- and dose-dependent steroid control within the model. We further examine under which conditions the oestradiol-driven surge may be withdrawn by pre-surge progesterone administration and simulate both oestradiol and progesterone challenges in the pulsatile regime.
Neurons of the regenerating caudal neurosecretory system of Tilapia mossambica and of the normal system of Albula vulpes send processes into the central canal of the spinal cord. Evidence for appreciable release of secretion into the cerebrospinal fluid from these processes has been obtainied with both light and electron microscopes. ...
Pituitary Neuroendocrine Axis Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Endocrine Axis The attachments below are fully illustrated annotated outline of the discussion we are about to be engaged in. http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp42/4202002.html Animation 8.5: The Hypothalamus and Endocrine Function The hypothalamus is a small, yet vitally important, brain region that integrates the bodys two communication…
1. Opioid drugs act on specific receptors which are principally classified into mu, delta and kappa subtypes. Spiradoline (U-62066E) is a kappa-selective agent which has been shown to possess potent anti-nociceptive effects but does not show cross tolerance with morphine. 2. We have assessed the
Methods 120 hospitalised CHF patients were randomly divided into A, B, C (three groups of 40 cases). A group (conventional treatment group) had routine treatment including: oxygen, low-salt diet, rest, cardiac, diuretic and vasodilator; B group (benazepril group) had benazapril combined with the conventional therapy, (Benazepril hydrochloride Plymouth (Lotensin), dose-long l times/day); C group (combined treatment group) were given metoprolol, benazepril and conventional therapy. Metoprolol tartrate was started at 6.25-25 mg 2 times/day, and gradually titrated every 2 weeks up to 25 mg 2 times/day. The three groups were treated for 12 weeks. The parameters assessed in each group before and after treatment included plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin II (AgII), endothelin (ET), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), cardiac functional class and ultrasonic echocardiographic parameters: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fractional shortening (FS), E peak velocity (PEV), E/A ...
Poorly Cohesive Cell Carcinoma of the Gallbladder with Signet Rings and Neuroendocrine-Like Morphology: A Rare Incidental Histopathological Diagnosis with Lessons to Learn - Order reprints #919095
On Friday, October 24th, Abramson Cancer Center and Caring for Carcinoid presented their 4th Focus on Neuroendocrine Tumors. If you were unable to attend or missed the live streaming event, you can watch the archived event online here.. Presentations include:. Upcoming Abramson Cancer Center Events ...
Among many environmental factors, social factors, especially olfactory cues, can profoundly influence the timing of puberty onset. This is particularly well established in the house mouse (Mus...
Figure 1: Location of acupoints along meridians. Note that although all meridians are bilateral, they are only drawn on one side for simplicity. Abbreviations of meridians: G: gallbladder; L: lung; LI: large intestine; P: pericardium; ST: stomach; BL: bladder ...
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The hypothalamic neuroendocrine system is mainly composed of the neural structures regulating hormone secretion from the pituitary gland and has been considered as the higher regulatory center of the immune system. Recently, the hypothalamo- neurohypophysial system (HNS) emerged as an important component of neuroendocrine-immune network wherein the oxytocin (OT)-secreting system (OSS) plays an essential role. The OSS, consisting of OT neurons in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and their several accessory nuclei and associated structures, can integrate neural, endocrine, metabolic and immune information and plays a pivotal role in the development and functions of the immune system. The OSS can promote the development of thymus and bone marrow, perform immune surveillance, strengthen immune defense, and maintain immune homeostasis. Correspondingly, OT can inhibit inflammation, exert antibiotic-like effect, promote wound healing and regeneration, and suppress stress-associated immune
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The participation of the vegetative nervous system in the neuroendocrine regulation of adaptive reactions. by Eörs Bajusz
The effects of a novel antidepressant, nefazodone (50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg orally) on neuroendocrine function and temperature were assessed using a single-blind, crossover design in eight healthy male volunteers. Nefazodone significantly increased plasma levels of prolactin (PRL) and raised oral temperature. There was also a trend towards an increase in plasma cortisol. These results are consistent with an acute facilitatory effect of some aspects of 5-HT neurotransmission, perhaps mediated through nefazodones metabolism to its major metabolite, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP).
Cytokines are low molecular weight proteins that are produced transiently by almost any eukaryotic cell. They exert their biological activities via interaction with specific cell surface receptors,...
Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in prostate cancer is a well-recognized phenotypic change by which prostate cancer cells transdifferentiate into neuroendocrine-like (NE-like) cells. NE-like cells lack the expression of androgen receptor and prostate specific antigen, and are resistant to treatments. In addition, NE-like cells secrete peptide hormones and growth factors to support the growth of surrounding tumor cells in a paracrine manner. Accumulated evidence has suggested that NED is associated with disease progression and poor prognosis. The importance of NED in prostate cancer progression and therapeutic response is further supported by the fact that therapeutic agents, including androgen-deprivation therapy, chemotherapeutic agents, and radiotherapy, also induce NED. We will review the work supporting the overall hypothesis that therapy-induced NED is a mechanism of resistance to treatments, as well as discuss the relationship between therapy-induced NED and therapy-induced senescence,
Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of environment and neuroendocrine factors on puberty in Yorkshire gilts and ovarian function in hypophysial stalk-transected (HST) heifers;Thirty-six, 3-month-old gilts were reared in isolation under 3 photoperiodic regimens of total darkness, constant light and normal summer daylight and their growth and ages at puberty compared to littermates reared in groups under normal summer daylight. The growth rates, percentages of animals cycling at 8 months and the average ages at puberty were similar for all treatment groups. The olfactory bulbs of 12 Yorkshire gilts (OB) 3-5 months old were removed and their growth and ages at puberty compared to sham-operated littermates (SC). Growth rates in both groups were similar, but the percentage of OB gilts cycling at 9 months (33) was significantly less (P | 0.05) than SC gilts (80). These results indicate that isolation, total darkness or constant light do not influence significantly growth rate or time of
Changes in the number and morphometric parameters of A1 neurosecretory neurons (nsn) were analyzed in Lymantria dispar 4th instar caterpillars, exposed for 3 days to different stressors: cadmium, high temperature and tannic acid. The relative cytoplasm density of A1 nsn was also estimated. Caterpillars reared on a diet supplemented with cadmium exhibited increased size of A1 nuclei (10 and 250 mu g Cd per g of dry food weight), increased number of nucleolii in nuclei and raised relative cytoplasm density in all experimental groups. Cadmium obviously induces intensive synthetic activity in A1 nsn. The second stressor was high environmental temperature of 35 degrees C. Decrease of all analyzed morphometric parameters suggests that acute exposure of 4th instar caterpillars to 35 degrees C, as well as 12 h recovery at optimal temperature of 23 degrees C, reduced the activity of A1 nsn. Tannic acid was added to the artificial diet in the following concentrations: 1\%, 2.5\% and 5\%. All estimated ...
The International Brain Injury Association (IBIA) is dedicated to the development and support of multidisciplinary medical and clinical professionals, advocates, policy makers, consumers and others who work to improve outcomes and opportunities for persons with brain injury.
Studies of peptide gene expression in the diffuse neuroendocrine system using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry : with special emphasis on the novel peptide endothelin ...
A large cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle with an electron dense granular core, up to 150-200 nm in diameter, found in neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus. [ISBN:01950657191, NIF_Subcellular:sao2031592629]
Puberty is the end-point of a complex series of developmental events, defined by the dynamic interaction between genetic factors and environmental cues, ultimately leading to the attainment of reproductive capacity. The neuroendocrine basis of puberty has been the subject of extensive investigation …
The prevalence and severity of childhood obesity have increased steadily over the post three decades. The human species evolved to rigorously defend its lower limit for weight and adiposity but is tolerant of the upper limit, which, until recent times, was rarely approached. Neuroendocrine mechanisms within the limbic core of the brain prevent starvation (ventromedial hypothalamus), heighten reward (ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens), and attenuate stress (amygdala), in order to promote food-seeking and ingestive behavior and to conserve energy output. In a stressful modern environment with ready access to calorie-dense, highly palatable foods and limited venues for activity, normal, reflexive responsiveness to these three drives makes weight gain all but inevitable. The obesity that ensues often engenders insulin resistance, which undermines the ability of normal hunger and satiety signals to accurately modulate energy intake versus expenditure. Obesity interventions that rely on ...
Research Description: Dr Carvalhos research focuses on investigating the biological pathways involved in the role of glucocorticoid hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the biological effects of stress, in the pathogenesis of depression and in the molecular mechanisms of antidepressant drugs. Her projects more specifically revolve around four major themes: 1. The anti-inflammatory and neuroendocrine mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs 2. The antidepressant effect of anti-inflammatory drugs 3. The biological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of depression in people with inflammatory illnesses 4. Understanding how inflammatory molecules can signal the brain to alter cognitive function, behaviour and mood. Research Theme: Translational pharmacology, Immunity and Inflammation, Mental Health, Neurosciences http://www.whri.qmul.ac.uk/staff-all/staff-research/629-dr-livia-a-carvalho Memberships/Awards Dr. Carvalho has received several prestigious awards including Young Investigator ...
Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare malignancies (1-2% of digestive cancers); and there is, in recent years, a slow but steady increase in their incidence. Despite the joint efforts of several research groups, which led to the new WHO classification (2002), the natural history of the disease remains heterogene and the resistance to conventional cytotoxic treatment remains the common denominator of these tumors.. Indeed, the prognosis of patients with metastatic disease remains poor despite numerous treatments (including: IFN, DTIC, 5-FU, doxorubicin, somatostatin analogues, etc.).. None of which showed a benefit in terms of survival. The main therapeutic objective is still to get a palliative effect on the symptoms and / or limit a few months tumor progression.. There are many publications showing that angiogenesis is one of the major mechanisms of tumor progression in TNE. But the multiple signaling pathways involved, the existence of alternative routes and their relationship to apoptosis ...
nucleus, sequence-specific double-stranded DNA binding, axon target recognition, central nervous system development, nervous system development, neuroendocrine cell differentiation, neuron projection morphogenesis
Nevroendokrine (NE) celler er en benevnelse på spesialiserte celler som finnes diffust utbredt i flere organ i kroppen og som har evnen til å produsere og skille ut hormon-liknende substanser. I lungene oppfattes ansamlinger av disse cellene som sanseorgan som monitorerer oksygen-nivået, og de spiller sannsynligvis en viktig rolle for lungenes utvikling, regulering av lungesirkulasjon og luftstrøm, samt immunrespons. Hovedmålet med avhandlingen har vært å se på ulike sider ved lungenes NE system ved fysiologiske og patologiske tilstander, med fire delarbeider som hver for seg belyser ulike aspekt ved dette. I det første arbeidet ble den generelle NE markøren kromogranin A (CgA) målt i blodprøver fra personer som deltok i Helseundersøkelsen i Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT 1995-97). Resultatene viste at mannlige deltakere med dårlig lungefunksjon hadde høyere nivå av CgA enn deltakere med normal lungefunksjon, som et uttrykk for NE aktivering. Det andre arbeidet omhandler et 72 ukers ...
These data are the first to provide direct neuroanatomical, molecular, and electrophysiological evidence of the interaction of the CNS GLP-1 system with ARC Kiss1 neurons to stimulate their activity. Although our studies focus on CNS-preproglucagon interactions with ARC Kiss1, we cannot discount that GLP-1 produced by the gastrointestinal tract may also activate GLP-1Rs on ARC Kiss1 neurons. Nevertheless, our reports are consistent with others demonstrating that GLP-1R signaling stimulates the reproductive neuroendocrine axis, as GLP-1 increases GnRH/LH levels in animals under normal feeding conditions (Beak et al., 1998; Outeirino-Iglesias et al., 2015). Our data suggest that GLP-1 stimulatory action on GnRH/LH may be due in part to upstream activation of ARC Kiss1 neurons. We show that the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide causes membrane depolarization in ∼60% of ARC Kiss1 neurons from OVX mice. Furthermore, we found that liraglutide depolarizes ARC Kiss1 cells from intact male and OVX+E2 mice, ...
Two populations of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that have different efferent projections and physiological roles in the regulation of visceral responses were characterized morphologically with a combined intracellular filling, retrograde tracer, and immunohistochemical method. Neuroendocrine cells were retrogradely labeled by an intravenous injection of Fast blue, and distinguished from descending neurons that were retrogradely labeled by an injection of fluorogold into the spinal cord. Retrogradely labeled neurons were selectively penetrated and filled intracellularly with Lucifer yellow to visualize detailed features of their morphology. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons were distinguished from other neuroendocrine cells by immunostaining the tissue with an antiserum to rat CRH. Morphometric features of defined populations of neurons were then quantified and reconstructed graphically to generate multicellular montage drawings that ...
Our team is formed of basic research scientists, medical doctors and clinicians - all bringing their diverse expertise to better understand reproductive and metabolic bla bla bla ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Neuroendocrine Tissue Tumors in Dogs. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
RTN1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_066959), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene belongs to the family of reticulon encoding genes. Reticulons are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, and are involved in neuroendocrine secretion or in membrane trafficking in neuroendocrine cells. This gene is considered to be a specific marker for neurological diseases and cancer, and is a potential molecular target for therapy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
The discovery of the obesity gene and its product, leptin, it is now possible to examine the relationship between body fat and the neuroendocrine axis. A minimum percentage of body fat may be linked to onset of puberty and weaning-to-estrus interval in the pig. Adipose tissue is no longer considered as only a depot to store excess energy in the form of fat. Recent findings demonstrate that numerou ...
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) occur disproportionately among African-American (AA) women. The neuroendocrine system, and in particular the hypothalamic-pitu...
Bombesin is a 14 amino acid peptide originally isolated from the skin of a frog. It has two known homologues in mammals called neuromedin B and gastrin releasing peptide. It works on the gastrointestinal tract neuroendocrine hormone and it stimulates gastrin release from G cells. It activates three different G-protein coupled receptors known as BBR1 2 & 3. It also activates these receptors in the brain. Together with cholecystokinin it is the second major source of negative feedback signals that stop eating behaviour. Bombesin is also a tumor marker for gastric cancer and neuroblastoma. ...
This journal is devoted to timely reviews of experimental and clinical studies in the field of endocrine, metabolic, and immune disorders. Specific emphasis is placed on humoral and cellular targets for natural, synthetic, and genetically engineered drugs that enhance or impair endocrine, metabolic, and immune parameters and functions. Topics related to the neuroendocrine-immune axis are given special emphasis in view of the growing interest in stress-related, inflammatory, autoimmune, and degenerative disorders ...
Children raised in economically disadvantaged households face increased risks of poor health in adulthood, suggesting that inequalities in health have early origins. From the childs perspective, exposure to economic hardship may begin as early as conception, potentially via maternal neuroendocrine-immune responses to prenatal stressors, which adversely impact neurodevelopment. Here we investigate whether socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with gestational immune activity and whether such activity is associated with abnormalities among offspring during infancy. We analyzed concentrations of five immune markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α) in maternal serum from 1,494 participants in the New England Family Study in relation to the level of maternal socioeconomic disadvantage and their involvement in offspring neurologic abnormalities at 4 mo and 1 y of age. Median concentrations of IL-8 were lower in the most disadvantaged pregnancies [−1.53 log(pg/mL); 95% CI: −1.81, ...
The brain is always a piece of the Hashimotos puzzle One thing I have learned from my readers is they are largely on their own. Rarely do conventional or alternative practitioners understand the depth of Hashimotos, a complex web that involves the neurological, hormone, and immune systems (we call it the neuroendocrine-immune axis). If you […]. ...
1 download linear intra-articular by Th2( many) off-roading are intimidated involved to attract varicose consideration without first neuroendocrine-immune sides( 84). When adjuvant results of download linear selectivity give used nt, out a clinical sensitivity can exceed faced, which may show the Biologic disease( 4). Because of the algal download linear models of variation B12, no Intestinal immune Forest slit( UL) progresses fed WATCHED by the US Food and Nutrition Board( 17).
NS-398 inhibits COX-2 enzyme activity in a concentration dependent manner, the IC50 being 3.8 μM, whereas NS-398 at 100μM has no effect on COX-1 activity[1]. At 10 μM, NS-398 treatment results in increased production of COX-2 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine. NS-398 (10 μM) induces apoptosis in LNCaP cells, but not in the more aggressive, androgen-unresponsive C4-2b cells. The C4-2b cells are observed to continue to proliferate when treated with NS-398 and continues to retain malignant phenotype characteristics. NS-398 treatment results in C4-2b cell differentiation into an unusual neuroendocrinelike cell. These neuroendocrine-like cells produces both epithelial (cytokeratin 18 and prostate specific antigen) and neuronal (neuron-specific enolase and chromogranin A) proteins. Furthermore, this C4-2b cellular response to NS-398 is mediated by NF-kB transcription factor activation. NS-398 induces NF-kB and down-regulates Ikβ-α protein expression in LNCaP C4-2b cells[2]. ...
It is thought that the involvement of common mediators such as corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRR), cytokines, prostaglandins (PGs), pituitary peptides and glucocorticoids allows the integration of immune and neuroendocrine activity during the acute phase response (APR) to injury and infection. Glucocorticoids are the major inhibitory component within this complex system, which has been termed the immunehypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the past, lipocortin-1 (LC-1) has been implicated as a second messenger of glucocorticoid actions. The present study explored this potential role for LC-l in relation to the immune-HPA axis ...
The Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging (ADNI) database is an expansive undertaking by government, academia, and industry to pool resources and data on subjects at various stage of symptomatic severity due to Alzheimers disease. As expected, magnetic resonance imaging is a major component of the project. Full brain images are obtained at every 6-month visit. A range of cognitive tests studying executive function and memory are employed less frequently. Two blood draws (baseline, 6 months) provide samples to measure concentrations of approximately 145 plasma biomarkers. In addition, other diagnostic measurements are performed including PET imaging, cerebral spinal fluid measurements of amyloid-beta and tau peptides, as well as genetic tests, demographics, and vital signs. ADNI data is available upon review of an application. There have been numerous reports of how various processes evolve during AD progression, including alterations in metabolic and neuroendocrine activity, cell survival, and ...
Poster (2017, May 23). In the framework of close interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, Growth Hormone (GH) has been proposed to exert significant effects on the immune system, but there is not yet a ... [more ▼]. In the framework of close interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, Growth Hormone (GH) has been proposed to exert significant effects on the immune system, but there is not yet a consensus about GH immunomodulatory properties. These studies investigated the immune and anti-infectious response of dwarf Ghrh-/- mice presenting a severe deficiency of the GHRH/GH/IGF-1 axis. In basal conditions, thymic parameters and T-cell responses of Ghrh-/- mice were not severely affected but a constant B-cell lymphopaenia was observed. Thus, we investigated vaccine and anti-infectious responses of Ghrh-/- mice toward Streptococcus pneumonia, a B-dependent pathogen, Ghrh-/- mice were unable to trigger production of specific IgM and IgG against serotype 1 ...
Skin, the bodys largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immun …
The aim of this journal is to provide a periodical publication acting as an effective vehicle for collecting and transferring to the widest audience recent and updated information regarding the role which is played by psychological factors, through the mediation of the functions of the central and autonomic nervous system and of the neuro-endocrine network, in pathology and therapeutics. A large body of evidence obtained through rigorous experimental and clinical research has accumulated, and continues to grow, showing that the natural history of many somatic diseases, as well as their susceptibility to successful treatment and healing, displays a significant contribution played by the immune system, and by the modulation of its functions via the central and peripheral nervous system and endocrine responses. Recent results also indicate that personal genetic constitution and polymorphism may determine individual susceptibility to diseases and healing, alone or in combination with subjective
Adjunct to the management of hypertension. It corrects neuro-endocrine dysfunction & lowers raised blood pressure. It corrects hepato-renal dysfunction.
Subtle dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been proposed as an underlying pathophysiological mechanism in chronic fat
14629864 Job Description & RequirementsSurgical Technologist - Operating Room - (Surg Tech - OR)StartDate: ASAP Available Shifts: 12 D Pay Rate: $18
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuropeptide and steroid hormone mediators of neuroendocrine regulation. AU - Heck, A. L.. AU - Crestani, C. C.. AU - Fernández-Guasti, A.. AU - Larco, D. O.. AU - Mayerhofer, A.. AU - Roselli, Charles. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. N2 - To maintain the health and well-being of all mammals, numerous aspects of physiology are controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. These mechanisms ultimately enable communication between neurones and glands throughout the body and are centrally mediated by neuropeptides and/or steroid hormones. A recent session at the International Workshop in Neuroendocrinology highlighted the essential roles of some of these neuropeptide and steroid hormone mediators in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress-, reproduction- and behaviour-related processes. Accordingly, the present review highlights topics presented in this session, including the role of the neuropeptides corticotrophin-releasing factor and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in stress and ...
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare disorder and information on this disease is limited, especially with regard to its management and prognosis. It has become generally accepted that DIPNECH is a precu...
Abstract Background Neuroendocrine changes have been reported after ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and brain trauma. As there are no corresponding data in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) we analyzed various neuroendocrine parameters to investigate possible alterations in hormone profiles of patients with ICH.. Methods Twenty patients with ICH were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients were a priori parted into two groups: Ten non-ventilated patients treated on the stroke-unit (hemorrhage volumes ,20 ml, small ICH), and 10 ventilated patients treated on the neurocritical care unit (hematoma volumes ,20 ml with possible additional ventricular involvement (large ICH). Neuroendocrine parameters were compared between both groups referring to reference values. The following parameters were obtained over a period of 9 days in 20 patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH: thyrotropin, free thiiodothyronine and thyroxine, human growth hormone, insulin-like growth ...
Biology Assignment Help, Neurosecretory cells and neurosecretion, Neurosecretory Cells and Neurosecretion We have before said that the neurosecretory cells are an important component of the non- chordate endocrine system. Of course, they are as well present in chordates. But unlike chordates, among non-chordat
View Notes - Neuroendocrinology from PSY 4293 at Henderson. Neuroendocrinology Hormones and their effect on body and brain Chapter 5 1 Hormones Hormones (Greek, to excite) chemical messengers in the
Medicine Specialities. Medical. P.hd in Neuroendocrinology in Maharashtra. P.hd in Neuroendocrinology. P.hd in Neuroendocrinology The department is currently pursuing research to understand the molecular basis of spermatogenesis. The aim is to gain insights into the role of reproductive hormones in the mechanisms of chromatin compaction, genomic imprinting
Neuroendocrine bladder tumours are rare variants, such as small cell or LCNC, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours, and paraganglioma varieties, based on 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organ classification system. This classification provides a useful platform to discuss the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical and pathological characteristics of neuroendocrine tumours of the urinary bladder. The overall prognosis for urinary bladder neuroendocrine carcinomas is worse than the prognosis of urothelial carcinoma. In some cases, a small cell neuroendocrine-like subtype has been defined, having high expression of the neuronal marker and poor outcomes (50). Particularly, most neuroendocrine-like tumours did not have histological features consistent with neuroendocrine bladder tumours but were phenotypically similar to conventional urothelial carcinoma. Early and accurate differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine-like tumours may be possible by genomic ...
Organized into 3 elements encompassing 21 chapters, this quantity begins with a dialogue of the idea that of neurosecretory neuron that used to be brought via Ernst Scharrer in 1928. This ebook discusses the demanding situations within the examine of the advance of the neuroendocrine process in bugs, with a spotlight on Lepidoptera. different chapters think of the neuroendocrine mechanisms that keep watch over the physiological strategies in crustaceans. The reader is then brought to the key neurohemal buildings in crustaceans, together with the sinus gland, the pericardial organs, and the post-commissural organs. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the 2 mind structures that exhibit influence of endogenous steroids that account for subsets of senescent adjustments ...
Neuroendocrinology publishes papers reporting original research in basic and clinical neuroendocrinology. The journal explores the complex interactions between neuronal networks and endocrine glands (
TY - JOUR. T1 - Further Observations on the Structure and Function of Median Eminence, With Reference to the Organization of RF-producing Elements in the Endocrine Hypothalamus. AU - Knigge, K. M.. AU - Joseph, S. A.. AU - Silverman, A. J.. AU - Vaala, S.. PY - 1973/1/1. Y1 - 1973/1/1. N2 - This chapter offers additional morphological and functional data suggesting that ependyma of the median eminence are capable of recovering thyrotrophin-releasing factor (TRF) from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and delivering it to the portal vessels. This capability is necessarily a fundamental requisite to a hypothesis in which the CSF is a part of the route of delivery of releasing factors from brain to the anterior pituitary. A major unresolved problem is the identity and location of those specialized parvicellular neurones in the central nervous system (CNS) responsible for secretion of the releasing factors. On the assumption that the parvicellular, releasing factor (RF)-producing neurosecretory system ...
Endogenous Urotensin II Selectively Modulates Erectile Function through eNOS. di Villa Bianca, Roberta dEmmanuele; Mitidieri, Emma; Fusco, Ferdinando; DAiuto, Elena; Grieco, Paolo; Novellino, Ettore; Imbimbo, Ciro; Mirone, Vincenzo; Cirino, Giuseppe; Sorrentino, Raffaella // PLoS ONE;Feb2012, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p1 Background: Urotensin II (U-II) is a cyclic peptide originally isolated from the neurosecretory system of the teleost fish and subsequently found in other species, including man. U-II was identified as the natural ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor, namely UT receptor. U-II and UT receptor... ...
Unilateral hypothalamic lesion results in compensatory sprouting of contralateral magnocellular neurosecretory axons in the rat neural ...
SNAP-25 is a Q-SNARE protein mediating exocytosis of neurosecretory vesicles including chromaffin granules. SNAP-25 K201Q mutant showed no changes compared with SNAP-25 wild-type. However, K201E, R198Q, and R198E displayed reduced release frequencies, slower release kinetics, and prolonged fusion pore duration that were correlated with reduced probability to engage in the tightly zippered state. The results show that the positively charged amino acids at the SNAP-25 C terminus promote tight SNARE complex zippering and are required for high release frequency and rapid release in individual fusion events. being the number of cells in a group. Results Transmitter release 15291-76-6 IC50 kinetics determined by amperometry To investigate the role of positively charged amino acids in the C terminal domain of SNAP-25, SNAP-25 wt and R198Q, R198E, K201Q, or K201E mutants were overexpressed in bovine chromaffin cells (Fig. 1separately and averaging the best fit parameters (see Table 3). 15291-76-6 IC50 ...
Molecular Neuroendocrinology: From Genome to Physiology, provides researchers and students with a critical examination of the steps being taken to decipher genome complexity in the context of the expression, regulation and physiological functions of genes in neuroendocrine systems.. The 19 chapters are divided into four sectors: A) describes and explores the genome, its evolution, expression and the mechanisms that contribute to protein, and hence biological, diversity. B) discusses the mechanisms that enhance peptide and protein diversity beyond what is encoded in the genome through post-translational modification. C) considers the molecular tools that todays neuroendocrinologists can use to study the regulation and function of neuroendocrine genes within the context of the intact organism. D) presents a range of case studies that exemplify the state-of-the-art application of genomic technologies in physiological and behavioural experiments that seek to better understand complex biological ...
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells are intrinsically osmosensitive and can be activated by increases in blood osmolality, triggering the release of antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) to promote water retention. Hence, the activity of magnocellular VP neurons is one of the key elements contributing to the regulation of body fluid homeostasis in healthy organisms. Chronic exposure to high dietary salt leads to excessive activation of VP neurons, thereby elevating levels of circulating VP, which can cause increases in blood pressure contributing to salt-dependent hypertension. However, the molecular basis underlying high salt diet-induced hyperactivation of magnocellular VP neurons remains not fully understood. Previous studies suggest that magnocellular neurosecretory neurons contain a subcortical layer of actin filaments and pharmacological stabilization of this actin network potentiates osmotically-induced activation of magnocellular neurons. Using super-resolution imaging in situ, we ...
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Future Market Insights has revealed various facts on the neuroendocrine carcinoma market in its recently published research report titled
Stress and emotion may increase the risk of Angina pectoris, a symptoms of schemic heart disease. According to the study of Emotional triggering of cardiac events at the University College London. Dr Steptoe A, and the research team indicated that the psychobiological processes underlying emotional triggering may include stress-induced haemodynamic responses, autonomic dysfunction and parasympathetic withdrawal, neuroendocrine activation, inflammatory responses involving cytokines and chemokines, and prothrombotic responses, notably platelet activation. These factors in turn promote coronary plaque disruption, myocardial ischaemia, cardiac dysrhythmia and thrombus formation(9). Music listening may have a beneficial effect on blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, anxiety, and pain in persons with CHD. However, the quality of the evidence is not strong and the clinical significance unclear. Most studies examined the effects of listening to pre-recorded music. More research is needed on the ...
It is our pleasure to name Dr. Ashlyn Swift-Gallant the 2017 winner of The WC Young Award in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology. Ashlyn earned her undergraduate degree from Brescia University College in London Ontario where she conducted her thesis research on sex differences in emotional memory with Dr. Jennifer Sutton. Following her undergraduate training, she moved to the University of Toronto where she worked with Dr. Ashley Monks on the role of neural and non-neural androgen receptors in male-typical socio-sexual behaviors. Using transgenic mouse models, Ashlyns work established that an increase in global androgen receptors influences neural sex differences and sexually differentiated behaviors analogous to loss of AR function. Based on her work in mouse models of sexual differentiation, Ashlyn spearheaded a collaboration with Dr. Doug VanderLaan at University of Toronto to test hypotheses on sexual orientation in humans that emerged from her mouse work. Following her PhD, she moved to Michigan ...
Inspired by Carlos Beyers 50 years of pioneering research and influence on his students and colleagues, Behavioral Neuroendocrinology builds upon Beyers f
Microarray Data https://science.nichd.nih.gov/confluence/display/sne/Data+Sharing NGS/RNA Seq data https://snengs.nichd.nih.gov/ngs In the Section on Neuroendocrinology, led by David Klein, signal transduction in the pineal gland is studied, with primary
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PURPOSE: The level of physical activity is inappropriately high in up to 80 % of the patients suffering of anorexia nervosa (AN), as a result of conscious efforts to lose weight, affect regulation and biological adaptive changes to starvation induced by hypothermia and neuroendocrine mechanisms. The purposes of this paper were to (1) assess the effect of dronabinol-a synthetic cannabinoid agonist-on physical activity in patients with chronic and stable AN, and to (2) unravel the role of leptin and cortisol in this process. METHODS: This prospective, randomised, double-blind, crossover study was conducted at a specialised care centre for eating disorders. Twenty-four adult women with AN of at least 5-year duration received either the dronabinol-placebo or placebo-dronabinol sequence. Physical activity was monitored during the fourth week of each intervention. Body weight, leptin and urinary free cortisol excretion were measured repeatedly during the trial. Changes in behavioural dimensions ...
Published October 2011. ISBN: 978-1-78084-016-1. As a result of improved diagnostics such as new biomarkers, molecular imaging as well as new therapies based on randomized trials, neuroendocrine tumors are increasingly attracting the attention of physicians and scientists. In future, personalized medicine or theragnostics and large-scale sequencing will rapidly change the understanding of cancer biology and will help to identify new targets as well as explain the causes of drug resistance. This book covers the most recent information on neuroendocrine tumors in terms of classification, molecular profiles and diagnosis and different types of treatment for neuroendocrine tumors.. ...
To produce an experimental correlate of sustained natural fevers, we infused goats with cell walls from the gram-positive bacterium S. aureus for 6 days while measuring changes in body temperature, behavior, and plasma cortisol concentration. To compare our new model with previous models of experimentally induced fever, we also measured the temperature, behavioral, and neuroendocrine changes induced by bolus administration of S. aureus and the gram-negative pyrogen lipopolysaccharide. We found that chronic infusion of S. aureus evoked prolonged fevers that lasted for ∼3 days, starting on the 4th day of infusion, but did not disrupt the normal circadian rhythm of body temperature. In contrast, bolus injections of S. aureus cell walls and lipopolysaccharide evoked typical, short-duration fevers that lasted ∼6 h. Despite the development of a prolonged fever, cortisol concentration remained at basal levels throughout the infusion of S. aureus. Bolus administration of the pyrogens induced an ...
The past decade has seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the interaction between the neural system and bone. While innervation of bone was long appreciated, the discovery of central relays from the hypothalamus to the cells of bone has seen the identification of a number of efferent neural pathways to bone. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system has proven to represent a major central pathway, regulating the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, through signaling of central and peripheral ligands, through specific receptors within the hypothalamus and the osteoblast. Moreover, this pathway is now recognized as acting to coordinate both skeletal and energy homeostasis. This review examines the mechanism and actions of the NPY pathway to regulate bone mass and bone cell activity.
This review focuses on the role of the peripheral nervous system in cutaneous biology and disease. During the last few years, a modern concept of an interactive network between cutaneous nerves, the neuroendocrine axis, and the immune system has been established. We learned that neurocutaneous interactions influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological functions, including cell growth, immunity, inflammation, pruritus, and wound healing. This interaction is mediated by primary afferent as well as autonomic nerves, which release neuromediators and activate specific receptors on many target cells in the skin. A dense network of sensory nerves releases neuropeptides, thereby modulating inflammation, cell growth, and the immune responses in the skin. Neurotrophic factors, in addition to regulating nerve growth, participate in many properties of skin function. The skin expresses a variety of neurohormone receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins that are tightly involved in skin ...
This review focuses on the role of the peripheral nervous system in cutaneous biology and disease. During the last few years, a modern concept of an interactive network between cutaneous nerves, the neuroendocrine axis, and the immune system has been established. We learned that neurocutaneous interactions influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological functions, including cell growth, immunity, inflammation, pruritus, and wound healing. This interaction is mediated by primary afferent as well as autonomic nerves, which release neuromediators and activate specific receptors on many target cells in the skin. A dense network of sensory nerves releases neuropeptides, thereby modulating inflammation, cell growth, and the immune responses in the skin. Neurotrophic factors, in addition to regulating nerve growth, participate in many properties of skin function. The skin expresses a variety of neurohormone receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins that are tightly involved in skin ...
Vertebrate dopaminergic neurons develop in distinct neural territories to constitute one of the major neuromodulatory systems. We have identified a zebrafish mutation in the bHLH-PAS family member arnt2, based on a strong reduction in cell number of specific dopaminergic neuron groups in the hypothalamus and posterior tuberculum. Knockdown of sim1 causes a dopaminergic phenotype similar to arnt2 mutants, suggesting that Sim1 acts as a binding partner of Arnt2, similar to their role in hypothalamic neuroendocrine cell specification. sim1, arnt2 and otp are co-expressed in dopaminergic neurons, and combined overexpression of Sim1 and Otp leads to formation of supernumerary dopaminergic neurons in the ventral diencephalon. Arnt2, Sim1 and Otp thus are core components of a conserved transcriptional network, which specifies neuroendocrine as well as A11-related dopaminergic neurons in the fish hypothalamus and posterior tuberculum. Our data suggest a common evolutionary origin of specific ...
The highest density of VGCCs are found in your nervous system and, indeed, studies dating back to the 1950s and 60s show the nervous system is the organ that is most sensitive to EMFs.. Some of these studies show massive changes in the structure of neurons, including cell death and synaptic dysfunction. When the VGCCs are activated in the brain they release neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Hence, consequences of chronic EMF exposure to the brain include the following, which Pall details in a 2016 paper:5. ...
Psychomotor slowing, neuroendocrine responses, and behavioral changes after oral administration of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in normal volunteers ...
NE differentiation in pancreatic carcinomas has been reported in various studies using IHC (13, 14, 15) . However, the expression of PGP9.5 and its relation to other NE markers have not been studied in pancreatic cancer to date. In this study, CGA was used as a marker for NE differentiation because it has been demonstrated to be a well-characterized marker for NE differentiation (16) . We found that tumor cells immunoreactive to CGA monoclonal antibody accounted for ,1% of the tumor cell population. On the other hand, PGP9.5 was expressed in 26 of 69 (37.7%) pancreatic cancers. These results suggested that the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic cancer is independent of NE differentiation.. Subsequently, we investigated a possible correlation of PGP9.5 status with clinicopathological features. Although PGP9.5 expression was not associated with tumor histology or the extent of the tumor, pancreatic cancer patients with PGP9.5 expression had significantly shorter survival times than those without ...
Neuroendocrine tumors are well vascularized and express specific cell surface markers, such as somatostatin receptors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Using the Rip1Tag2 transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, we have investigated the potential benefit of a combination of anti-angiogenic treatment with targeted internal radiotherapy. To this end, [Lys40(Ahx-DTPA-111In)NH2]-Exendin-4, a radiopeptide that selectively binds to GLP-1R expressed on insulinoma and other neuroendocrine tumor cells, was co-administered with PTK787, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFR). For biodistribution, Rip1Tag2 mice were pre-treated with PTK787 for 0, 3, 5 or 7 days. Subsequently, [Lys40(Ahx-DTPA-111In)NH2]-Exendin-4 was administered and the biodistribution assessed after 4 hours. For therapy, mice were injected with 1.1 MBq [Lys40(Ahx-DTPA-111In)NH2]-Exendin-4 and treated with PTK787 orally for another 7 days. Tumor volume, tumor cell apoptosis and ...
Although several proteins have been implicated in secretory vesicle tethering, the identity and mechanical properties of the components forming the physical vesicle-plasma membrane link remain unknown. Here we present the first experimental measurements of nanomechanical properties of secretory vesicle-plasma membrane tethers using combined AFM force clamp and TIRF microscopy on membrane sheets from PC12 cells expressing the vesicle marker ANF-eGFP. Application of pulling forces generated tether extensions composed of multiple steps with variable length. The frequency of short (|10 nm) tether extension events was markedly higher when a fluorescent vesicle was present at the cantilever tip and increased in the presence of GTPγS, indicating that these events reflect specifically the properties of vesicle-plasma membrane tethers. The magnitude of the short tether extension events is consistent with extension lengths expected from progressive unfolding of individual helices of the exocyst complex,
Focus on Neuroendocrine Tumors: Patient & Caregiver Conference Friday, September 16, 2011 Hilton Hotel City Avenue, Philadelphia, PA
If waste is not efficiently removed by the lymph, it is allowed to build up causing oxidative stress which can cause many health issues such as CFS and ultimately tissue damage that can result in many diseases including cancer.. Tissue damage of any neuroendocrine organ such as the adrenals, pancreas, pituitary, hypothalamus, or thyroid can result in impaired communication of the neuroendocrine system and can cause symptoms that one would seek drugs or alcohol to alleviate. The enormous nutritional requirements to metabolize and remove the thousands of toxins humans are exposed to in their food and environment today and the waste created by their metabolism which can many times be more toxic than the original toxin, can also cause deficiencies of many of the raw materials required of the brain to produce the natural feel-goods.. By stimulating this system through massage, it works more efficiently, which in turn boosts the immune system, clears blockages, eliminates toxins, transports ...
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of HF in the population (1). Among elderly women living in the community, HFpEF comprises nearly 90% of incident HF cases (2). Furthermore, HFpEF is increasing out of proportion to HF with reduced EF (HFrEF), and its prognosis is worsening while that of HFrEF is improving (3). The health and economic impact of HFpEF is at least as great as that of HFrEF, with similar severity of chronic exercise intolerance (4), acute hospitalization rates (3,5), and substantial mortality (3).. Despite the importance of HFpEF, our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, and optimal treatment remains largely undefined. Originally thought to be purely due to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (hence the now-discarded misnomer diastolic HF), it is now obvious that HFpEF is much more complex. Findings to date indicate important contributions from aging (6,7), neuroendocrine dysfunction (4,8), inflammation ...
Pearl: Corticosteroid administration should occur EARLY on in the patients resuscitation. Just as patients can develop acute kidney injury, encephalopathy, or heart failure as a result of poor perfusion, patients may also experience neuroendocrine dysfunction (hence the need for vasopressin, hydrocortisone, insulin replacement). Over the last 50 years many studies and meta-analyses have been conducted to try to answer the question of when to give steroids and who may benefit from them including Schumer, Bone, Cronin, Jurney, Annane, CORTICUS, and COIITSS. The largest RCT to date on the subject, called ADRENAL, is currently underway. Below is a summary of what we know so far.Corticosteroids should only be considered in patients with severe septic shock (systolic , 90 mmHg) who have failed adequate fluid resuscitation and initial vasopressor therapy.*. ...
Neuroendocrine Tumours (NETs) are a family of cancers that cause tumours in the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system consists of nerve and gland cells. It produces hormones and releases them into the bloodstream. NETs are generated by cells that release the hormones. The majority of NETs are found in the intestine, pancreas and the lungs.(4). ...
An important principle of psychoneuroimmunologic interaction is that immunocytes act as if they were mobile sensitive organs for the central nervous system, producing local and systemic neuropeptides and immunological transmitters with appropriate stimulation. They inform the brain of local damage and mobilize the neuroendocrine system for protection. Their list is long and continues to grow. It includes: somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, thyroid stimulating hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and other neurotransmitters and hormones, having immunomodulating properties. This may indicate to close interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, which may be involved into the disease process. A bright example of this may be a disease that has not been closely studied in our country, but is widespread throughout the world. This is the chronic fatigue syndrome, at the base of which lie disturbances of the central nervous, ...
Classical and in vitro approaches for the analysis of the molecular components of neuroendocrine systems often disrupt their close interaction with other bodily systems, which is a crucial aspect of their function in vivo. Genetic dissection is an alternative, noninvasive approach which involves the systematic generation of mutations in individual genes, followed by in vivo analysis of the phenotypic effects of altering a single protein at a time avoiding extraneous disruptions. Among insects Drosophila melanogaster is the most suitable model for this approach. This paper explores the application of genetic and molecular techniques available in Drosophila for studying its neuroendocrine system with special emphasis on the production of ecdysone and juvenile hormone. Strategies are described for the generation and identification of endocrine mutations, especially those affecting hormone synthesis and regulation. Once identified by a specific mutation, a gene in Drosophila can be cloned either ...
Consistent with the results of the Bechara study, our subjects gradually concentrated their choices on deck B (Fig. 2). The beginning phase of the task was an exploratory period in which both populations sampled each deck equally. For the next 20 draws subjects shifted towards deck B drawing on average 8 of the 20 cards from deck A. In the final 10 draws both groups largely abandoned deck A: on average the younger subjects chose deck A two times of 10 and the older subjects chose deck A three times of 10. In summary both populations appear to have adapted the same way to the payoffs.... ...
Principal Investigator:小川 園子, Project Period (FY):2015-05-29 - 2020-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), Research Field:Basic / Social brain science
candidate, environment, and research. This proposal describes a 5-year training program designed to provide the candidate with the expertise needed to achieve h...
Obesity is associated with several health conditions, the most devastating of which is type 2 diabetes. Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Current weight loss therapies targeting the reduction of food intake have proven to be relatively ineffective, and the ability to reduce the risk of obesity-related complications is limited.
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www.MOLUNA.de Neuroendocrine Perspectives [4190737] - Neuroendocrine Perspectives, Volume 7, is part of an international book series designed to keep clinicians and researchers appraised of important trends and new data in basic and clinical neuroendocrinology. It focuses on four very rapidly evolving major topics: - the role of dopaminergic regulation of the intermediate pituitary lobe in
Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2: An acidic protein found in the NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM that functions as a molecular chaperone for PROPROTEIN CONVERTASE 2.