The past 20 years have seen a mushrooming growth of the field of computational neuroanatomy. Much of this work has been enabled by the development and refinement of powerful, high-dimensional image warping methods, which have enabled detailed brain parcellation, voxel-based morphometric analyses, and multivariate pattern analyses using machine learning approaches. The evolution of these 3 types of analyses over the years has overcome many challenges. We present the evolution of our work in these 3 directions, which largely follows the evolution of this field. We discuss the progression from single-atlas, single-registration brain parcellation work to current ensemble-based parcellation; from relatively basic mass-univariate t-tests to optimized regional pattern analyses combining deformations and residuals; and from basic application of support vector machines to generative-discriminative formulations of multivariate pattern analyses, and to methods dealing with heterogeneity of neuroanatomical ...
Weiskopf N, Mohammadi S, Lutti A, Callaghan MF PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current computational neuroanatomy based on MRI focuses on morphological me …
Quantification of network connectivity presupposes a robust estimate of cell count. It is important to recognize that the number of neurons in a given brain region is not constant over time, but can change during development, as a consequence of neurodegenerative disease, or in the process of learning, as was suggested in particular for hippocampal areas such as the dentate gyrus (DG). To compute the convergence and/or divergence ratios between cell populations in a normal brain, or to test hypotheses about changes in a specific cell group count associated with a particular neurological disorder, total cell numbers and densities have to be calculated. Earlier anatomical studies counted Nissl-stained cells in two-dimensional (2D) slices. A switch to the 3D volume is not trivial. Stereology techniques developed in the last decades (Gundersen, 86, Baddeley et al., 86, West et al., 91, Guillery and Herrup, 97) provide unbiased estimates of such quantitative 3D parameters as the number of cells, ...
POSITION CLOSED Technician (with a possibility of doing a PhD): The Neuroinformatics Laboratory at the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, invites applications for a technician position. Available from - February 2018 Duration - approx. 3 years Description The Laboratory of Neuroinformatics is seeking to recruit a technician interested in neuroscience to assist and learn in…
Neuroimaging in vivo is becoming popular from the last two decades. The primary quest of neuroimaging is to better-understanding the functions of various brain areas pertaining to various cognitive processes of interest. Though there are several neuroimaging techniques available currently, the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is playing an important role in the field of Imaging Neuroscience. In this paper an introduction to fMRI, the issues related to experimental design and analysis will be presented. This paper also discusses some of the neuroinformatics tools available for fMRI research. ...
# 325 The Pediatric Brain: Functional Neuroanatomy, The Sensory Systems and their Treatment Applications. Online registration by Cvent
Abstract: The ability to statistically and visually compare and contrast brain image data from multiple subjects is essential to understanding normal variability and differentiating normal from diseased populations. This talk describes the concerns that must be dealt with to maximize the value of data contained in databases. The problem is particularly acute when the ultimate goal is the synthesis of atlases, the creation of models and statistical comparisons across different cohorts. Data coming from multiple sources, subjects, protocols and devices must either be treated or described sufficiently to make it comparable. Legacy data presents unique problems as an accurate history may be unavailable. Newly acquired data affords the opportunity to create detailed metadata but must be extendable, as needed, to accommodate pre-processing and other data manipulations. The ever increasing size of emerging databases also poses challenges for automation and direct linkages between data archives and ...
Cell assemblies, defined as groups of neurons exhibiting precise spike coordination, were proposed as a model of network processing in the cortex. Considerable progress made in recent years in multi-electrode technology enables to record massively parallel spike trains of hundred(s) of neurons. Nevertheless, due to the challenges inherent in multivariate approaches, most studies favoring cortical cell assemblies still resorted to analyzing pairwise interactions. However, to recoverthe underlying correlation structures, higher-order correlations need to be identified directly. Inspired by the Accretion method (Gerstein et al. 1978) we propose a new assembly detection method based on frequent item set mining (FIM), which searches effectively and without redundancy for individual spike patterns that exceed a given support threshold. We study search methods, with which the space of potential cell assemblies may be explored, as well as test statistics and subsetconditions with which candidate assemblies may
Surface visualizations of fMRI provide a comprehensive view of cortical activity. However, surface visualizations are difficult to generate and most common visualization techniques rely on unnecessary interpolation which limits the fidelity of the resulting maps. Furthermore, it is difficult to understand the relationship between flattened cortical surfaces and the underlying 3D anatomy using tools available currently. To address these problems we have developed pycortex, a Python toolbox for interactive surface mapping and visualization. Pycortex exploits the power of modern graphics cards to sample volumetric data on a per-pixel basis, allowing dense and accurate mapping of the voxel grid across the surface. Anatomical and functional information can be projected onto the cortical surface. The surface can be inflated and flattened interactively, aiding interpretation of the correspondence between the anatomical surface and the flattened cortical sheet. The output of pycortex can be viewed using WebGL,
OMERO is based on complex and rich data model to implement objects and annotations following dedicated workflows. Most of them are captured automatically at the import or analysis workflows. Users manual annotations are possible at each level to enrich and share the content. A complete data model can be found here.. The diagram below includes most visible and familiar data objects, personalised to emphasis on manual annotations to add in the system. The blue objects are from ODM, and are already implemented. However, light blue objects in dashed boxes are not from the ODM, and are illustrated as logical compounds to show the meta-data missed and not captured from the bioimaging experiences. You will see in the next paragraph how to use Tag and tagset features to annotate data in OMERO.. ...
Home Program Venue Registration Contact If you have any questions please write to: Chaitanya Chintaluri: c.chintaluri[at]nencki.gov.pl Organizers: Chaitanya Chintaluri Michele Giugliano Daniel Wójcik
The definition of the brain in the second model, the Developmental CNS Model, differs from the Classical Model in that structures are grouped by the location of their precursors in the embryo; and it includes the retina, a structure which is located outside the cranial cavity of the mature animal but originates in the Encephalon (embryonic brain). (The retina is classically defined as part of the peripheral nervous system.) To avoid confusion, the standard NeuroNames terminology for structures defined by dissection of the mature brain are in English; standard names for subdivisions based on embryonic precursor are in Latin and capitalized. Thus, the highest level divisions of the Developmental CNS Model are the Telencephalon, Mesencephalon, and Rhombencephalon, which correspond to a large extent, but with significant exceptions, to the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain of the Classical Model. (The Developmental CNS Model is not currently illustrated in BrainInfo ...
Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School - Cited by 54,039 - Neuroimaging - Neuroinformatics - Development - Childhood psychiatric condition
T. Glatard, L. B. Lewis, R. F. da Silva, R. Adalat, N. Beck, C. Lepage, P. Rioux, M. - E. Rousseau, T. Sherif, E. Deelman, N. Khalili-Mahani, and A. C. Evans, Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems, Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, vol. 9, no. 12, 2015. ...
Garcia, S., Dejean, C., Estebanez, L., Guarino, D., Jaillet, F., Jennings, T., Mahnoun, Y., Pröpper, R., Rautenberg, P., Rodgers, C., Sobolev, A., Wachtler, T., Yger, P., and Davison, A.P. (2013). Neo: a universal object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats. Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. ...
Downloadable! In this paper we examine in a game theoretic framework in how far market conditions facilitating start-up formation positively affect technical change and firms profits. We consider a model in which R&D efforts of an incumbent firm generate technological know-how embodied in key R&D employees, who might use this know-how to form a start-up. Market conditions, in particular the availability of complementary assets, influence whether new firms are created and determine expected profits for start-up-founders. Easy availability of complementary assets has the direct effect that the generation of start-ups, which leads to the diffusion and duplication of know-how, is fostered. However, incentives of incumbent firms to invest in R&D might be reduced because of the increased danger of knowledge loss through spin-out formation. We fully characterize the effects of an increase in the availability of complementary assets, demonstrating that under certain market conditions the effects on innovative
Diagnosis: Duosulciinae. Body elongate-fusiform, with strong and regular tapering behind vulva so that width at anus becomes about half that at vulva. Annules prominent as cuticle folds between them. Lateral field with two incisures delimiting single narrow but elevated ridge, which, in SEM, shows 12 or more fine longitudinal lines (subgenera Malenchus, Neomalenchus), or with four or six incisures making three or five longitudinal bands on most of body (subgenus Telomalenchus). Cephalic region elevated, flattened dorso-ventrally but not to a great extent, elevated with four to six fine annules. Labial plate rectangular, bearing four cephalic papillae (pits); amphidial slits curved ventrally and extending for one to two cephalic annules (subgenera Malenchus, Neomalenchus) along the lateral side of head. Stylet 7-14 um long, with distinct knobs. Precorpus equal to or shorter than isthmus, postcorpus a muscular bulb with refractive thickenings or lacking musculature (subgenus Neomalenchus). Basal ...
2nd part of the lecture. This lecture will discuss how understanding and applying simple neuroanatomical rules, one can localize the damage along the neuroaxis, the first crucial step toward making the correct clinical diagnosis and initiating treatment.. ...
2nd part of the lecture. This lecture will discuss how understanding and applying simple neuroanatomical rules, one can localize the damage along the neuroaxis, the first crucial step toward making the correct clinical diagnosis and initiating treatment.. ...
Dr. Xiaobo Li is an Associate Professor and Director of the Computational Neuroanatomy and Neuroinformatics lab (CNN lab) in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT). Dr. Li received her Ph.D. in 2004 from the University of Birmingham, UK, on geometrical modeling in digitized data. She has extensive research experience in developing and translating mathematical techniques to quantitatively evaluate the structural and functional organization in the human brain using structural MRI/fMRI/DTI data, and extensive clinical application experience in brain development and disorders such as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, etc. ...
MITs excellence in brain research will be showcased next week in San Diego as Institute scientists give five of the 24 invited talks at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. "This is an extremely high representation from one institution," said Mriganka Sur, chair of the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and one of the MIT speakers.. The Society for Neuroscience is the worlds largest organization of scientists devoted to studying the brain. Some 30,000 people are expected to attend the groups annual -conference.. One of the five MIT researchers, H. Sebastian Seung, professor of computational neuroscience, will give the Presidential Special Lecture on "The Once and Future Science of Neural Networks." In his talk, Seung will describe a revolutionary new way to create a nanoscale-level map of the brains axon and dendrite "wires" based on actual human brain tissue. This cutting-edge field, called computational neuroanatomy, is expected to confirm or deny long-held basic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional neuroanatomy of mirroring during a unimanual force generation task. AU - Sehm, B.. AU - Perez, M. A.. AU - Xu, B.. AU - Hidler, J.. AU - Cohen, L. G.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Performance of a unimanual motor task often induces involuntary mirror electromyographic (EMG) activity in the opposite, resting hand. In spite of the ubiquitous presence of mirroring, little is known regarding the underlying cortical contributions. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain regions activated in association with parametric increases in right isometric wrist flexion force (10%, 20%, 30%, and 70%) in 12 healthy volunteers. During scanning, EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB). Mirror EMG was observed in left FCR during 20%, 30%, and 70% of force. Left ECR, BB, and TB showed mirror EMG only at 70% of force. Increasing force was ...
Purchase Functional Neuroanatomy of the Nitric Oxide System, Volume 17 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444502858, 9780080532080
The radiation of the corpus callosum has been made visible by the removal of tissue from the medial surface of the hemisphere including the cingulum, gyrus cinguli, paracentral lobule, and parts of the superior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule. The parieto-occipital fissure bounds the dissected area posteriorly. In the dissection there is a complex interlacing of the radiations of the corpus callosum and internal capsule together with the fibers of numerous association systems. This makes it impossible to display the course of most of the fiber bundles comprising the corona radiata ...
The neuron appears to be the fundamental computational entity in the brain, and in computational neuroscience the choice of mathematical model for the neurons is crucial: Should one include as much biophysical detail as possible, or should one opt for simpler neuron models incorporating only certain salient features in their barest forms? Or something in between?. This question has commonly evoked heated, although not always constructive, discussions. In this workshop, however, the aim is to outline and discuss the pros and cons of the various approaches in an enlightening way.. ...
Overall-Assessment. At the end of the school, students were given a questionnaire in order to find out about their opinion on this summer school.. Strengths. In my opinion this first international school at WSBS was a big success. The mixture of scientists/lecturers representing different research fields and coming from different countries, certainly, was one of the strengths of the school.. In addition, all students worked hard and tried to get out as much as possible from this school. There was a very friendly and very lively working atmosphere throughout the whole course time, with many interactions among students but also between students and lecturers. In general, technical facilities were good to excellent, and the station is well capable to host such an international school. Of course, the biggest strength of the school at WSBS is that marine organisms can be obtained fresh from the sea and then maintained in aquaria without any problems. This allowed a great variety of animals to be ...
Amari S, Beltrame F, Bjaalie JG, Dalkara T, De Schutter E, Egan GF, Goddard NH, Gonzalez C, Grillner S, Herz A, Hoffmann KP, Jaaskelainen I, Koslow SH, Lee SY, Matthiessen L, Miller PL, Da Silva FM, Novak M, Ravindranath V, Ritz R, Ruotsalainen U, Sebestra V, Subramaniam S, Tang Y, Toga AW, Usui S, Van Pelt J, Verschure P, Willshaw D, Wrobel A. Neuroinformatics: the integration of shared databases and tools towards integrative neuroscience. J Integr Neurosci. 2002 Dec; 1(2):117-28. PMID: 15011281. ...
• JOB: 10 Nov 2017 - 33195 The EPFL Blue Brain Project (BBP), situated on the Campus Biotech in Geneva, Switzerland, applies advanced neuroinformatics, data analytics, high-performance computing and simulation-based approaches to the challenge of understanding the structure and function of the mammalian brain in health and disease. The BBP provides the community with regular re
Novel microchips imitate the brains information processing in real time. Neuroinformatics researchers from the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich
Body identity integrity disorder is a strange and very distressing condition. A shift towards treating it as a neuroscientific problem could be the key to a cure.
Recent findings regarding different characteristics according to the age of tinnitus onset prompted us to conduct a study on the differences in tinnitus-related neural correlates between late-onset tinnitus (LOT; mean onset age, 60.4 years) and early-onset tinnitus (EOT; mean onset age, 29.7 years) groups. Hence, we collected quantitative electroencephalography findings of 29 participants with LOT and 30 with EOT, and from 59 controls. We then compared the results between the 2 groups and between the tinnitus groups and age- and sex-matched control groups using resting state electroencephalography source-localized activity and connectivity analyses. Compared with the EOT and older control groups, the LOT group demonstrated increased localized activity and functional connectivity in components of previously described tinnitus distress networks, and the default mode and intrinsic alertness networks, such as the prefrontal cortices, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and insula. The current findings ...
The term superior parietal lobule refers to one of four subdivisions of the parietal lobe identified by dissection in the human ( Carpenter-1983 ) and the macaque ( Martin-2000 ). Located on the dorsal margin of the cerebral hemisphere, it is, in the human, separated rostrally from the postcentral gyrus by the postcentral sulcus and a line extending from the upper end of that sulcus over the margin of the cerebral hemisphere to the cingulate sulcus, which separates it from the cingulate gyrus. Thus, it includes the caudal portion of the paracentral lobule. Caudally its boundary with the occipital lobe is an oblique plane through the parieto-occipital sulcus on the dorsomedial margin of the hemisphere and the preoccipital notch on the ventromedial margin.. Its boundary on the dorsolateral surface of the hemisphere is the intraparietal sulcus, which separates it from the supramarginal gyrus and the angular gyrus of the inferior parietal lobule. The other three parts of the parietal lobe are the ...
Neural circuits in all areas of the brain are subject to ongoing remodelling due to the plasticity of individual synapses and neurons. Experience-driven learning, spontaneous fluctuations and homeostatic regulation all contribute to this continuous reconfiguration of neuronal networks. However, despite the malleability of individual cells, both behaviour and function of neural circuits are generally found to be stable and reliable. This suggests that neuronal plasticity is somehow orchestrated across the network, in order not to destabilize the global functioning. To date, however, a mechanism for maintaining such group stability has not been identified. The present work was aimed to address this issue by using long-term in vitro recordings and subsequent model-based analysis of stability.. Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were recorded with high-density multi-electrode arrays over several days, revealing that in vitro preparations exhibit the desired global stability accompanied by local ...
TVB has been designed following a computational modeling paradigm that permits the model-based inference of network-based mechanisms on different brain scales that underlie the generation of macroscopic neuroimaging signals such as fMRI, EEG and MEG. TVB incorporates a biologically realistic, large-scale connectivity of brain regions in the primate brain, that is, the information of white matter neural fibre tracts as identified by tractography based methods (Hagmann et al., 2008, Honey et al., 2009, Bastiani et al., 2012), obtained from CoCoMac neuroinformatics database (Kötter, 2004, Kötter and Wanke, 2005), or from the recently structural connectivity datasets made available thanks to the Human Connectome Project (Essen and Ugurbil, 2012). Also, a realistic cortex model , as extracted from MRI data, is included. This approach allows a detailed spatial sampling, in particular of the cortical surface, resulting in suitable spatial support for an approximation of the neural activity as in ...
Aug 10-18, 2017: [http://www.umich.edu/~dinov/ Ivo Dinov], [http://www.med.monash.edu.au/psych/bmh/people/alex.html Alex Fornito], [https://findanexpert.unimelb.edu.au/display/person24599 Andrew Zalesky], [http://gablab.mit.edu/index.php/14-sample-data-articles/157 Satrajit Ghosh], and [https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Eric_Tatt_Wei_Ho Eric Tatt Wei Ho] are organizing a INCF/IBRO Neuroscience Summer School for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. [http://wiki.socr.umich.edu/index.php/SOCR_News_IBRO_INSF_Malaysia_2017 Dr. Dinov will be lecturing on (1) Statistical Computing, (2) High-Throughput Processing of Big Neuroscience Data, and (3) Neuroimaging-genetics]. The Summer Neuroscience School is part of the [https://www.incf.org International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF)]/[http://ibro.info/ International Brain Research Organization] [http://ibro.info/events/applications-open-for-ibro-aprc-school-on-neuroinformatics-and-brain-network-analysis/ IBRO-APRC School on ...
Aug 10-18, 2017: [http://www.umich.edu/~dinov/ Ivo Dinov], [http://www.med.monash.edu.au/psych/bmh/people/alex.html Alex Fornito], [https://findanexpert.unimelb.edu.au/display/person24599 Andrew Zalesky], [http://gablab.mit.edu/index.php/14-sample-data-articles/157 Satrajit Ghosh], and [https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Eric_Tatt_Wei_Ho Eric Tatt Wei Ho] are organizing a INCF/IBRO Neuroscience Summer School for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. [http://wiki.socr.umich.edu/index.php/SOCR_News_IBRO_INSF_Malaysia_2017 Dr. Dinov will be lecturing on (1) Statistical Computing, (2) High-Throughput Processing of Big Neuroscience Data, and (3) Neuroimaging-genetics]. The Summer Neuroscience School is part of the [https://www.incf.org International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF)]/[http://ibro.info/ International Brain Research Organization] [http://ibro.info/events/applications-open-for-ibro-aprc-school-on-neuroinformatics-and-brain-network-analysis/ IBRO-APRC School on ...
The Human Brain Project: neuroinformatics tools for integrating, searching and modeling multidisciplinary neuroscience data, Shepherd, Gordon M., Mirsky Jason S., Healy Matthew D., Singer Michael S., Skoufos Emmanouil, Hines Michael S., Nadkarni Prakash M., and Miller Perry L. , Trends in neurosciences, Volume 21, p.460-468, (1998) ...
This readme and the code were contributed by Timothee Masquelier [email protected] Aug 2013 This code was used in: Masquelier T and Deco G (2013) Network bursting dynamics in excitatory cortical neuron cultures results from the combination of different adaptive mechanisms. PLoS ONE Feel free to use/modify but please cite us if appropriate. We use the Brian simulator described in: Goodman D, Brette R (2008) Brian: a simulator for spiking neural networks in python. Front Neuroinformatics 2:5 and available at: http://www.briansimulator.org/ This code has been tested with: - Brian 1.4.0 - Python 2.6 - Mac OS and Linux Main file: main.py (should be called like that python -i main.py) Calls param.py to set the parameters (see comments there), launches the simulation and plots the results. The current values in param.py corresponds to the baseline simulation in the paper (1 min of simulated time). Many more options are provided (with no guaranty), eg sparse connectivity, inhomogeneous ...
When alert states are considered in isolation, the insular cortex controlateral to the noxious stimulation was the only cortical area to be significantly activated. The insular cortex is among the brain areas that are most frequently reported as activated in response to noxious stimulation. 16,17,19,21-23 More intriguing is the lack of activation in other brain areas, in particular the thalamic nuclei and the ACC. This is in contrast to other reports of functional neuroanatomy of the central processing of noxious stimuli. 5,16,17 These negative results may be caused by various factors. Despite the restricted number of observations per subject in alert states (eight scans per subject), a lack of statistical power is unlikely to be relevant here because there were 110 residual degrees of freedom in our (categoric) design matrix. Furthermore, significant activation in ACC was found in the HS alone, where the number of observations is even fewer (four scans per subject). We already pointed out the ...
Dates and venue:. 25.01.16 - 05.02.16, 09:00 - 14:00, KS 00.009 Bio II/III. In this practical course, first practical experience in basic neurobiology will be gained in the following areas: · measuring physiological properties of neurons and neuronal networks in simple model systems, including handling measurement equipment, live tissue and incorporating key principles of experiment design and data analysis. · comparative and functional neuroanatomy in rodents and humans on the basis of fixed tissue specimens and models, providing insight into basic mechanisms and cytoarchitecture of the mammalian brain.. Credits and requirements:. ...
Multivariate genetic analysis lets you simultaneously consider multiple traits in identical and non-identical twins to draw conclusions about heritability. Here I explain what this means, how this framework is implemented and how it can be mixed with other techniques, such as EEG, MRI and TMS. Before we can make any attempt of mixing MGA with…
6 July 2012. This one-day workshop will bring together neuroscientist and clinicians to discuss the synergic integration between the computational methods and technologies used in neuroscience, in order to organise, manage and access the neuroscientific knowledge. Update: Registrations extended until the 28th of June. Go to related site. ...
... - Ask a question about Neuroscience, start a discussion about Neuroscience, share your opinion about Neuroscience, or write an online rev
NeurOne is an innovative monitoring solution for neuroscientific measurements. The system was specially developed for the needs of medical professionals an
Anyone whos been with someone for more than a few months knows that your relationship changes over time. But why exactly does this happen? We looked at why your relationship changes over time from a neuroscientific, psychological, and physiological standpoint.
同一抄録内でAND検索を行う場合は、半角スペースでキーワードを区切ってください。複数のカテゴリにわたる検索条件を入力した場合はAND検索になります ...
同一抄録内でAND検索を行う場合は、半角スペースでキーワードを区切ってください。複数のカテゴリにわたる検索条件を入力した場合はAND検索になります ...
Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to both operations and safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This publication is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry operating organizations and provides practical information on knowledge loss risk management. The information provided in this publication is based upon actual experiences of Member State operating organizations and is intended to increase awareness of the need to develop a strategic approach and action plans to address the potential loss of critical knowledge and skills; to provide processes and, in conducting risk assessments, to determine the ...
Looking for online definition of paracentral gyrus in the Medical Dictionary? paracentral gyrus explanation free. What is paracentral gyrus? Meaning of paracentral gyrus medical term. What does paracentral gyrus mean?
Glucose dysregulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) can result in physiological complications, such as neuropathies (1), and has also been linked to an increased risk for cognitive deficits and psychological dysfunction (2,3). Neuroanatomical insult from dysglycemia may be particularly consequential in early childhood, which is a period of dynamic brain development that includes rapid myelination of neurons as well as maturation, modification, and pruning of synapses (4). Although the effects of metabolic perturbations in T1D on central nervous system structure are not fully understood, neuronal damage is generally believed to be a consequence of both hyper- and hypoglycemic states. More specifically, nonenzymatic glycation of neural tissue is believed to lead to increased oxidative stress during hyperglycemia (5), and ultimately neurodegradation, while cell death may be instigated through deficiencies in insulin-sensitive signaling pathways (6). Conversely, energy deprivation during hypoglycemia may ...