Quantification of total neurite length of small neurons. Bar graphs with error bars represent mean ± SD. *p|0.05, **p|0.01, ***p|0.001.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nerve and fibroblast growth factors as modulators of pancreatic beta cell plasticity and insulin secretion.. AU - Hiriart, M.. AU - Vidaltamayo, R.. AU - Sánchez-Soto, M. C.. PY - 2001/2/1. Y1 - 2001/2/1. N2 - Trophic factors such as nerve and fibroblast growth factors are important modulators of beta cell physiology. These two factors induce the extension of neurite-like processes in primary cultures of adult rat beta cells. Moreover, both NGF and FGF enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion. Since beta cells synthesize NGF and pancreatic islet cells produce FGFs, it is possible that autocrine/paracrine interactions may be major regulators of insulin secretion, and impairment of these interactions could lead to pathological states such as diabetes mellitus.. AB - Trophic factors such as nerve and fibroblast growth factors are important modulators of beta cell physiology. These two factors induce the extension of neurite-like processes in primary cultures of adult rat beta ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nerve growth factor stimulates neurite regeneration but not survival of adult auditory neurons in vitro. AU - Lefebvre, P. P.. AU - Van De Water, T. R.. AU - Staecker, H.. AU - Weber, T.. AU - Galinovic-Schwartz, V.. AU - Moonen, G.. AU - Ruben, Robert J.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Injury to either the peripheral or central nervous system results in the accumulation of growth factors at the wound site. Some of these growth factors have been shown to participate in the neural repair process. Adult auditory neurons grown in dissociated spiral ganglion cell cultures are injured (i.e. bilateral axotomy) as a result of the initial preparation of these cultures. Therefore, cell cultures of dissociated spiral ganglia provide a model for the study of repair processes of adult auditory neurons (e.g. effects of exogenous growth factors on the process of neuritogenesis by injured neurons). Auditory neurons do not survive in these dissociated ganglion cell cultures when only exogenous NGF ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatiotemporally controlled navigation of neurite outgrowth in sequential steps on the dynamically photo-patternable surface. AU - Edagawa, Yoshikuni. AU - Nakanishi, Jun. AU - Yamaguchi, Kazuo. AU - Takeda, Naoya. PY - 2012/11/1. Y1 - 2012/11/1. N2 - A great number of the neurites interconnect neuronal cells in a brain to form the complicate neural circuits, whose structures are dynamically changed with changing the numbers and destinations of the neurites. Fabricating a model of neural network in vitro is one of the promising methods to precisely assay the signal transmission and processing within the circuit as well as to examine behaviors of individual cells. In this study, aiming to fabricate the dynamically alterable neural network in vitro, the chemically modified surface with the photo-reactive self-assembled monolayer was applied to navigate the neurite outgrowth activities of differentiated PC12 cell in the spatially and temporally controlled manner. Numbers of the cell ...
4. Syntheses of structurally-simplified and fluorescently-labeled neovibsanin derivatives and analysis of their neurite outgrowth activity in PC12 cells. Imagawa, H., Saijo, H., Yamaguchi, H., Maekawa, K., Kurisaki, T., Yamamoto, H., Nishizawa, M., Oda, M., Kabura, M., Nagahama, M., Sakurai, J., Kubo, M., Nakai, M., Makino, K., Ogata, M., Takahashi, H., Fukuyama, Y. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 22, 2089-2093 ...
The synaptotagmin (syt) proteins have been widely studied for their role in regulating fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane. Here we report that syt-17, an unusual isoform of unknown function, plays no role in exocytosis, and instead plays multiple roles in intracellular membrane trafficking. Syt-17 is localized to the Golgi complex in hippocampal neurons, where it coordinates import of vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum to support neurite outgrowth and facilitate axon regrowth after injury. Further, we discovered a second pool of syt-17 on early endosomes in neurites. Loss of syt-17 disrupts endocytic trafficking, resulting in the accumulation of excess postsynaptic AMPA receptors and defective synaptic plasticity. Two distinct pools of syt-17 thus control two crucial, independent membrane trafficking pathways in neurons. Function of syt-17 appears to be one mechanism by which neurons have specialized their secretory and endosomal systems to support the demands of synaptic
To screen for chemical toxicity in human or mouse stem cell lines (undifferentiated or differentiated) by quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) at NCGC, or by using lower throughput assays at NIEHS. Initially, the project focuses on fostering collaborations with stem cell technology providers and assessing control compounds and subsets of NTP chemicals using various assay approaches. Stem cell technology platforms and model systems shown to be useful for in vitro toxicology screening will be employed with larger sets of chemicals for hazard identification and chemical prioritization for toxicity testing. Data have been generated on a library of 80 predominantly developmental neurotoxicants evaluated for effects on neurite outgrowth in a human stem cell-derived neural cell population, cytotoxicity in different neural populations derived from human stem cells, and effects on the beating of human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes. Dose-response analysis has been carried out on the data from ...
MicroRNAs are important in the development, functioning, and pathophysiology of the central nervous system. Here, we show that increasing the levels of microRNA-320 (miR-320) for 3 days markedly increases neurite length, and at 4 days, reduces the total cell number in Neuro-2A cells. In-silico analysis of possible miR-320 targets identified cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-19 kDa (ARPP-19) and semaphorin 3a as potential targets that could be involved. ARPP-19 was validated by showing reduced mRNA and protein levels when miR-320 was overexpressed, whereas miR-320 had no effect on semaphorin 3a expression. ARPP-19 is known to inhibit protein phosphatase-2A activity, which inhibits mitosis and induces neurite outgrowth, making this the likely mechanism. Thus, increased levels of miR-320 lead to decreased levels of ARPP-19, increased neurite length, and fewer total cells. These data suggest that miR-320 could play a role in neuronal development and might be a target to enhance neuronal regeneration ...
Author contributions. Conceptualization: B.d.S., E.S.P., R.K.M., M.S., G.M., H.W.; Methodology: B.d.S., B.K.I., E.S.P., A.D., L.F.S., J.M., J.W., M.S., P.J.O.; Software: A.D., L.F.S.; Validation: B.d.S., B.K.I., E.S.P., H.B.S.G., R.K.M., S.J.A., H.W.; Formal analysis: B.d.S., E.S.P., A.D.; Investigation: B.d.S., B.K.I., E.S.P., H.B.S.G., C.W., J.W., M.S., S.J.A., H.W.; Resources: H.W.; Data curation: A.D., L.F.S.; Writing - original draft: B.d.S., H.W.; Writing - review & editing: B.K.I., R.K.M., S.C.S., S.J.A., G.M., H.W.; Visualization: B.d.S., H.W.; Supervision: S.J.A., G.M., H.W.; Project administration: B.d.S., E.S.P., J.W., H.W.; Funding acquisition: H.W. ...
Amyloid-β plaque accumulation in Alzheimers disease (AD) is associated with dystrophic neurite formation and synapse loss in principal neurons, but interneuron pathology is less clearly characterised. We compared the responses of neuronal processes immunoreactive for either neurofilament triplet (NF+) or calretinin (CR+) to fibrillar amyloid (Aβ) plaques in human end-stage and preclinical AD, as well as in APP/PS1 and Tg2576 transgenic mouse AD models. Neurites traversing the Aβ plaque core, edge or periphery, defined as 50, 100 and 150% of the plaque diameter respectively, in human AD and transgenic mouse tissue were compared to age-matched human and wild-type mouse controls. The proportion of NF+ neurites exhibiting dystrophic morphology (DNs) was significantly larger than the proportion of dystrophic CR+ neurites in both human AD and transgenic mice (p
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Laura Civiero, Maria Daniela Cirnaru, Alexandra Beilina, Umberto Rodella, Isabella Russo, Elisa Belluzzi, Evy Lobbestael, Lauran Reyniers, Geshanthi Hondhamuni, Patrick A Lewis, Chris Van den Haute, Veerle Baekelandt, Rina Bandopadhyay, Luigi Bubacco, Giovanni Piccoli, Mark R Cookson, Jean-Marc Taymans, Elisa Greggio].
Mani inhibits neurite outgrowth. Expression of Mani in PC12 cells inhibits Ngf (100 ng/ml)-induced neurite outgrowth and modulates the expression of pivotal cel
PHENOTYPE: Homozygous mutation of this gene results in neonatal lethality and heterozygous mice have decreased body weights. Mice homozygous for a knockout allele exhibit impaired neurite development. [provided by MGI curators ...
Sensory neuron from an adult dorsal root ganglion immunostained for Growth Associated Protein (GAP43) shown in red. Neurites are growing in between st...
Fucose galactose carbohydrates have been shown to induce neuronal outgrowth. The invention includes methods of inducing neuronal outgrowth using carbohydrates, assemblies, and polymers bearing fucose-
Neurosphere cultures and sectioning for immunocytochemistry. Embryonic NSCs were cultured as neurospheres from tissue dissected from the ganglionic eminence of E14 CD-1 mice, as we have described recently in detail (Shimazaki et al., 2001). Morning of vaginal plug was designated E0.5. NSCs were cultured in the presence of FGF-2 (20 ng/ml; R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) always together with heparin sulfate (HS) (2 μg/ml; Sigma, St. Louis, MO) or EGF (20 ng/ml; Peprotech) or TGFα [20 ng/ml; Invitrogen (San Diego, CA) or Peprotech]. Second generation (pass 1) 7 d in vitro (DIV) neurospheres were differentiated intact in the RGC outgrowth assay (as described below) or were treated as follows. Neuropheres were rinsed in basal media, dissociated, and plated at a density of 200,000 cells per milliliter onto poly-l-ornithine-coated coverslips for 30 min in 300 μl of basal media in 24-well plates (Nunc, Naperville, IL) to allow the cells to settle and subsequently be assessed for the presence of ...
Current efforts toward achieving a cure for HIV are focused on developing strategies to eliminate latently infected CD4+ T cells, which represent the major barrier to virus eradication. Sensitive, precise, and practical assays that can reliably characterize and measure this HIV reservoir and can reliably measure the impact of a candidate treatment strategy are essential. PCR-based procedures for detecting integrated HIV DNA will overestimate the size of the reservoir by detecting replication-incompetent proviruses; however, viral outgrowth assays underestimate the size of the reservoir. Here, we describe the attributes and limitations of current procedures for measuring the HIV reservoir. Characterizing their relative merits will require rigorous evaluation of their performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, etc.) and their relationship to the results of clinical studies.. ...
NGF induces neuronal differentiation by modulating [Ca2+]and the Akt pathway. by tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, either the [Ca2+]chelator(1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-alters neurite outgrowth through changes in the NGF-dependent transductional pathways (6, 9). In truth, the Ca2+ ion is definitely regarded as an essential essential second messenger in development cones because, depending on its focus level, it modulates the price, motility, […]. Read More ». ...
Protease nexin-1 (PN-1) is a cell-secreted protein that inhibits certain proteases, particularly thrombin, by forming SDS-stable complexes with the catalytic site serine of the protease. PN-1 was recently shown to be identical to a glial-derived neurite-promoting factor/glial-derived nexin present in rat brain. Its neurite outgrowth activity depends on inhibition of thrombin, presumably because thrombin brings about neurite retraction. Here we show that human brain contains PN-1 and that PN-1 activity in brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) was only 14% of control values (total of 14 AD patients and 7 control individuals). PN-1 activity in the hippocampus, a region with marked neuropathology in AD, was 15% of control values (10 AD patients and 4 control individuals). Western blot analysis indicated a large decrease in free PN-1 protein and an increase in PN-1-containing complexes that comigrated with PN-1-thrombin complexes. Northern blot analysis indicated that PN-1 mRNA levels ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - N-cadherin and integrins. T2 - Two receptor systems that mediate neuronal process outgrowth on astrocyte surfaces. AU - Tomaselli, Kevin J.. AU - Neugebauer, Karla M.. AU - Bixby, John L.. AU - Lilien, Jack. AU - Reichard, Louis F.. PY - 1988/3. Y1 - 1988/3. N2 - Receptor-mediated interactions between neurons and astroglia are likely to play a crucial role in the growth and guidance of CNS axons. Using antibodies to neuronal cell surface proteins, we identified two receptor systems mediating neurite outgrowth on cultured astrocytes. N-cadherin, a Ca2+-dependent cell adhesion molecule, functions prominently in the outgrowth of neurites on astrocytes by E8 and E14 chick ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons. β1-class integrin ECM receptor heterodimers function less prominently in E8 and not at all in E14 neurite outgrowth on astrocytes. The lack of effect of integrin β1 antibodies on E14 neurite out-growth reflects an apparent loss of integrin function, as assayed by E14 neuronal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calpain-mediated generation of a truncated form of collapsing response mediator protein (CRMP-2) promotes neurite degeneration. AU - Koji, Fukui. AU - Ekatherina, Touma. AU - Tatsuro, Koike. AU - Saito, Makoto. PY - 2007/11/3. Y1 - 2007/11/3. M3 - Article. JO - Society for Neuroscience Abstract. JF - Society for Neuroscience Abstract. ER - ...
Quantifying the number of neurites per cell and the average segment length roughly grouped the amacrine cells into clusters (Figs. 3D, 3E) suggesting the existence of more than one cell subpopulation in our cultures. To address this observation, and ask whether in vitro amacrine cells retain morphologic diversity analogous to that exhibited in vivo, we performed a principal component analysis. This is a multivariate analysis method that reduces our original seven variables into fewer components when (and if) these variables are highly correlated. We found that three components were able to explain 90% to 99% of the variance in the samples analyzed (Table 2). Component 1, which accounted for approximately 53% of the variability in amacrine cell neurite growth, described a variable largely based on total neurite growth capacity, with a spectrum running from short, simple cells on one end to long, complex neurite morphologies on the other (example cells in Fig. 4). Component 2, which explained 24% ...
3. How does Tm4 mediate these changes? Tropomyosins are a type of actin binding protein and are found in both muscle and non muscle cells. In non muscle cells many tropomyosin isoforms are present, where they play an important role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and functional characteristics of the actin filaments.[4] The diagrams studied this week examine the Tm4 isoform. Tm4 is expressed embryonically and when neurons were cultured Tm4 was present in growth cones as well as in areas where neurite growth occured. Thus TM-4 can be seen to play a vital role in neurite development and synaptic plasticity.[5] This is reflected in our results where Group A, the Tm4 group was found have an increased number of neurites, increased branching and more overlapping cells. This allows more connections to be formed assisting interaction and development. In contrast group B, the control group had fewer interactions seen with less branching and less overlapping of neurites. These results suggest, Tm4 ...
3. How does Tm4 mediate these changes? Tropomyosins are a type of actin binding protein and are found in both muscle and non muscle cells. In non muscle cells many tropomyosin isoforms are present, where they play an important role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and functional characteristics of the actin filaments.[4] The diagrams studied this week examine the Tm4 isoform. Tm4 is expressed embryonically and when neurons were cultured Tm4 was present in growth cones as well as in areas where neurite growth occured. Thus TM-4 can be seen to play a vital role in neurite development and synaptic plasticity.[5] This is reflected in our results where Group A, the Tm4 group was found have an increased number of neurites, increased branching and more overlapping cells. This allows more connections to be formed assisting interaction and development. In contrast group B, the control group had fewer interactions seen with less branching and less overlapping of neurites. These results suggest, Tm4 ...
Video articles in JoVE about neurotrophin 3 include Subcutaneous Neurotrophin 4 Infusion Using Osmotic Pumps or Direct Muscular Injection Enhances Aging Rat Laryngeal Muscles, Dissection and Culture of Chick Statoacoustic Ganglion and Spinal Cord Explants in Collagen Gels for Neurite Outgrowth Assays, Improved 3D Hydrogel Cultures of Primary Glial Cells for In Vitro Modelling of Neuroinflammation, Production and Use of Lentivirus to Selectively Transduce Primary Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells for In Vitro Myelination Assays, Transplantation of Schwann Cells Inside PVDF-TrFE Conduits to Bridge Transected Rat Spinal Cord Stumps to Promote Axon Regeneration Across the Gap, Utilization of Microscale Silicon Cantilevers to Assess Cellular Contractile Function In Vitro, Isolation and Culture of Dissociated Sensory Neurons From Chick Embryos, Unilateral Pyramidotomy of the Corticospinal Tract in Rats for Assessment of Neuroplasticity-inducing Therapies, Lectin-based Isolation and Culture of
Declines in cognitive function are common during aging even in the absence of disease. Increased glial activation and inflammation during normal brain aging are implicated in neuron atrophy which may lead to cognitive impairments. Mechanisms underlying glial activation and their consequences on synaptic plasticity are explored in this thesis.; Macrosialin, a marker for activated for activated microglial cells, increases with age in various brain regions. These age-related increases could be attenuated with caloric restriction. In vitro studies showed that oxidized low density lipoproteins and inflammatory stimuli regulate macrosialin expression.; Apolipoproteins (Apo) E and J increase in several disease models and normal brain aging. However, basal Apo J secretion decreases with age in mixed glial cells originated from neonatal, young, and old animals. ApoE levels did not change significantly. While neonatal mixed glia were unaffected by the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, ...
Aggregating proteoglycans (PG) bearing chondroitin sulfate (CS) side chains affiliate with hyaluronan and different secreted proteins to create a organic of extracellular matrix (ECM) that inhibits neural plasticity in the central anxious system (CNS). actions from the ADAMTSs affects neurite outgrowth in cultured neurons. Transfection of major rat neurons with ADAMTS4 cDNA induced much longer neurites if the neurons had been grown on the monolayer of astrocytes that secrete inhibitory PGs or on laminin/poly-l-lysine substrate by itself. Similar outcomes had been discovered when neurons had been transfected using a build encoding a proteolytically inactive stage mutant of ADAMTS4. Addition of recombinant ADAMTS4 or ADAMTS5 proteins to immature neuronal civilizations also improved neurite extension within a dose-dependent way an effect proven reliant on the activation of MAP ERK1/2 kinase. These outcomes claim that ADAMTS4 enhances neurite outgrowth with a system that will not need proteolysis ...
As previously stated, a neurite growing in vivo is surrounded by thousands of extracellular signals which in turn can be modulated by hundreds of intracellular pathways. It is therefore not surprising that it is not yet understood what determines neurite fate in vivo. It is known that 60% of the time the first neurite that protrudes from the cell body will become the axon.[6] 30% of the time, a neurite not destined to become the axon protrudes from the cell body first. 10% of the time, the neurite that will become the axon protrudes from the cell body simultaneously with one or more other neurites.[6] It has been proposed that a minor neurite could extend outward until it touches an already developed axon of another neuron. At this point, the neurite will begin to differentiate into an axon. This is known as the touch and go model.[6] However, this model does not explain how the first axon developed. Whatever extracellular signals may be involved in inducing axon formation are transduced through ...
Summary: By using a novel approach to stimulate and guide the growth cones of hippocampal neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution, we reveal a function for the soluble form of PrP to promote fast neurite outgrowth. ...
The main pathological changes of Alzheimers disease (AD) include neurite outgrowth impairment and amyloid-beta protein-induced hippocampal neuronal injury.
In vitro assays to measure neuronal growth are a fundamental tool used by many neurobiologists studying neuronal development and regeneration. The quantification of these assays requires accurate measurements of neurite length and neuronal cell numbers in neuronal cultures. Generally, these measurem …
ASY, foocen, Foocen, Human NogoA, KIAA0886, My043 protein, Nbla00271, Nbla10545, Neuroendocrine-specific protein, Neuroendocrine-specific protein C homolog, Neurite outgrowth inhibitor, neurite growth inhibitor 220, Nogo protein, NOGO-A, Nogo-B, NOGOC, Nogo-C, NOGORTN4-B1, NSP, NSP-CL, NI220/250, reticulon 4, reticulon 5, reticulon-4, Reticulon-5, reticulon-5, RTN4-A, RTN4-B2, RTN4-C, RTN-X, RTN- ...
The daf-2 gene encodes an insulin-like growth factor/IGF-1 receptor that regulates C. elegans embryonic and larval development. It has previously been shown that DAF-2 inhibits neurite regeneration of the GABAergic motor neurons and PVD sensory neurons in an age-dependent fashion (Bryne et al., 2014; Kravtsov et al., 2017). Following injury, the posterior lateral microtubule (PLM) neurons are capable of regenerating through axonal fusion, a highly efficient regrowth mechanism in which separated fragments fuse back together (Ghosh-Roy et al., 2010; Neumann et al., 2011; Neumann et al. 2015; Abay et al., 2017). We previously established that a critical event for axonal fusion to occur is the exposure of injury-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) save-me signals (Neumann et al., 2015). The level of PS exposed increases with advancing age (Abay et al., 2017). To determine if daf-2 is involved in this age-dependent modulation of PS exposure, we visualised and quantified the level of PS exposed after ...
Inflammation increases neuronal activity, gene expression and sensory nerve (neurite) outgrowth in neurons involved in thermal -- but not physical- sensations in mice.
We established that cells from Ewing tumors form neurites in response to Wnt-3a and have begun to define the mechanisms that account for this effect. Frizzled3...
In PC12D cells, nerve growth factor (NGF) increased the proportion of neurite-bearing cells and made neurites longer. A methanol… Expand ...
Collapsin-response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are highly expressed in the developing brain where they play major roles in axonal outgrowth, neurite differentiation, and apoptosis (1). Their continued expression in areas of high synaptic remodeling such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, and the olfactory system suggests that these proteins may also be involved in adult brain plasticity (2). CRMP-1 was initially identified as a dihydro-pyrimidinase expressed exclusively in brain (3); later studies have shown that it is involved with neurotrophin (NT) 3-induced neurite formation and outgrowth (4). CRMP-1 localization switches from axonal to somatodendritic when neurons reach functional maturity, suggesting that it is involved in early neuronal differentiation as well as in later processes related to the survival or death of the newly generated neurons (5). ...
Spiegelman, B M.; Lopata, M A.; and Kirschner, M W., "Aggregation of microtubule initiation sites preceding neurite outgrowth in mouse neuroblastoma cells." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 2478 ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Hank Cheng, David A Davis, Sina Hasheminassab, Constantinos Sioutas, Todd E Morgan, Caleb E Finch].
These pictures were taken on Colbys very own Zeiss microscope. Neurite growth is patent in the first and third photos. The neurons in the middle photo seem to have some dying neurites. ...
May play a role in the development of the nervous system such as in neurite outgrowth and elongation (PubMed:24067532). May be involved in motor axon growth and guidance (By similarity).
Affiliation:公益財団法人総合花巻病院(臨床研究部),神経内科,神経内科部長, Research Field:Neurology,Neurology, Keywords:aging,α7nAChR,PC12,tau,cell cycle,老化,neurite outgrowth,重症筋無力症,extracellular-signal-regulated kinase,胸腺, # of Research Projects:7, # of Research Products:18, Ongoing Project:メッセンジャーRNAの網羅的解析による重症筋無力症クリーゼの病態解明
J:140116 Zhao J, Iida A, Ouchi Y, Satoh S, Watanabe S, M6a is expressed in the murine neural retina and regulates neurite extension. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1623-30 ...
Le cours dintroduction à la neuroéthique offert à lIRCM, programme conjoint avec la Faculté médecine de lUniversité de Montréal
To investigate the role of Akt in nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation, PC12 cells ectopically expressing wild-type or dominant-inhibitory forms of Akt were analyzed. NGF-induced neurite outgrowth was greatly accelerated in cell
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peroxisomes exist in growth cones and move anterogradely and retrogradely in neurites of PC12D cells. AU - Ishikawa, Tetsuya. AU - Kawai, Chikage. AU - Sano, Mamoru. AU - Minatogawa, Yohsuke. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Localization and movement of peroxisomes have been investigated in neurites of a subline of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells (PC12D cells). The cells were transfected with a construct encoding the green fluorescent protein and bearing the C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 SKL motif (-Ser-Lys-Leu-COOH). Peroxisomes were detected as green punctate fluorescent signals. Many peroxisomes were observed in neurites of PC12D cells, especially in neural terminal-like structures, growth cones, varicosities, and branch points. Growth cones containing many peroxisomes were active, since they extended several long filopodias. Existence of peroxisomes in growth cones and neuronal terminal-like structures suggests that peroxisomes might have some role in neuronal ...
Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42), small-molecular weight G-proteins of the Ras super family, have been implicated in cellular processes such as cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell cycle control (32,33). Active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) Rho conformations function as regulators in a myriad of signal transduction events. Studies conducted in primary neuronal cultures suggest that Rho GTPases play a central role in growing axons and neuronal processes. In general, Rac1 and Cdc42 enhance axonal extension, whereas RhoA enhances process retraction (34,35). One common denominator found in neurite outgrowth inhibition, extension, and retraction is that all three display actin rearrangement within growth cones (36). Using the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y in our previous studies, we have shown that Rac1 mediates retinoic acid-induced neurite formation and neuronal marker expression (23).. In the present study, we selected cortical neurons as a model system for clarifying the role of ...
Effective therapeutic interventions for injuries of the central nervous system such as spinal cord injury are still unavailable, having a great impact on the quality of life of victims and their families, as well as high costs in medical care. Animal models of spinal cord injury are costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive, making them unsuitable for screening large numbers of experimental conditions. Thus, culture models that recapitulate key aspects of neuronal changes in central nervous system injuries are needed to gain further understanding of the pathological and regenerative mechanisms involved, as well as to accelerate the screening of potential therapeutic agents. In this study we differentiated adherent cultures of dissociated human fetal spinal cord neural precursors into postmitotic neurons which we could then detach from culture plates and successfully freeze down in a viable state. When replated in neuronal medium without neurodifferentiating factors, these ready-to-use human spinal cord
... 3 times by MTT assay. Activation of TrkB and signaling substances was confirmed by European blot evaluation SU-5402 downstream. Intravitreal shots of 29D7 had been performed after optic nerve axotomy and following RGC success was quantified using β-III tubulin immunostaining. Regeneration was evaluated using retrograde fluorogold tracing within an optic nerve-peripheral nerve graft model. Outcomes. Just like brain-derived neurotrophic element (BDNF) the 29D7 antibody highly promoted RGC success and neurite development in vitro weighed against medium only or control IgG. Forskolin which weakly backed RGC success alone potentiated the result of 29D7. Intravitreal shot of 29D7 improved RGC success however not regeneration in vivo 14 days after optic nerve damage. Conclusions. Collectively these results demonstrate the prospect of antibody-mediated TrkB agonism like a potential restorative method of enhance RGC success after optic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The economics of neurite outgrowth - The addition of new membrane to growing axons. AU - Futerman, Anthony H.. AU - Banker, Gary A.. PY - 1996/4. Y1 - 1996/4. N2 - Recent studies have shown that axonal growth is disrupted by treatments that block the synthesis of membrane components or their delivery by microtubule-based transport. This implies that a continuous supply of newly synthesized membrane components is necessary to sustain growth. In contrast, no clear consensus has yet been achieved about the site of insertion of new membrane components in the membrane of the growing axon, despite the application of new and refined biophysical and molecular techniques to the study of this issue. Until the site of insertion of new membrane components is resolved, little progress can be made in defining the feedback mechanisms by which the supply of new membrane components is co-ordinated with the demands of growth, particularly in cases where the dynamics of neurite growth change from ...