Define interconnect. interconnect synonyms, interconnect pronunciation, interconnect translation, English dictionary definition of interconnect. v. in·ter·con·nect·ed , in·ter·con·nect·ing , in·ter·con·nects v. intr. To be connected with each other: The two buildings interconnect. v. tr.
Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) refers to the observed phenomenon that functional connectivity changes over a short time. Dynamic functional connectivity is a recent expansion on traditional functional connectivity analysis which typically assumes that functional networks are static in time. DFC is related to a variety of different neurological disorders, and has been suggested to be a more accurate representation of functional brain networks. The primary tool for analyzing DFC is fMRI, but DFC has also been observed with several other mediums. DFC is a recent development within the field of functional neuroimaging whose discovery was motivated by the observation of temporal variability in the rising field of steady state connectivity research Functional connectivity refers to the functionally integrated relationship between spatially separated brain regions. Unlike structural connectivity which looks for physical connections in the brain, functional connectivity is related to similar ...
A system automatically routes interconnect of an integrated circuit design using variable width interconnect lines. For example, a first automatically routed interconnect may have a different width from a second automatically routed interconnect. The system will vary the width of the interconnect lines based on certain factors or criteria. These factors include current or power handling, reliability, electromigration, voltage drops, self-heating, optical proximity effects, or other factors, or combinations of these factors. The system may use a gridded or a gridless (or shape-based) approach.
Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were
Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were
Looking for Neutral Interconnect? Find out information about Neutral Interconnect. Network infrastructure where network service providers can freely exchange traffic without policy restrictions. Examples are the GIX at MAE-East , and the... Explanation of Neutral Interconnect
We examined cognitive flexibility in a large group of far from onset pre-HD gene carriers from the HD-YAS.28 We hypothesised that there may be a small impairment at the ED shifting stage in this early pre-HD group. We predicted that decreased intrinsic functional connectivity between fronto-striatal circuits would be associated with increased ED errors in the HC group (hypothesis 1). In the pre-HD group, we expected either a similar negative association in the same circuit as the HC (hypothesis 2) or that ED shifting would be associated with an alternative fronto-striatal circuit (hypothesis 3). Indeed, the pre-HD group exhibited mild cognitive inflexibility compared with controls. The results from the functional connectivity analysis support the first of these hypotheses in showing a negative correlation between ED errors and intrinsic functional connectivity between the ventrolateral PFC and ventral striatum in controls. By contrast, consistent with our third a priori hypothesis, the pre-HD ...
An electron beam projection system having a projection lens arranged so that upon pre-deflection of the electron beam the electron optical axis of the lens shifts to be coincident with the deflected beam. The projection system includes means for producing an electron beam, means for deflecting the beam, a magnetic projection lens having rotational symmetry for focusing the deflected beam and a pair of magnetic compensation yokes positioned within the bore of the projection lens means. The pair of correction yokes has coil dimensions such that, in combination, they produce a magnetic compensation field proportional to the first derivative of the axial magnetic field strength distribution curve of the projection lens. Upon application of current to the pair of compensation yokes the electron optical axis of the projection lens shifts to the position of the deflected beam so that the electron beam remains coincident with the shifted electron optical axis and lands perpendicular to a target.
Interconnected integrated circuits (16) packaged at a very high density are fabricated beginning with a plurality of substrates (50 or 400 or 500) where each substrate has metal edge contact sites (12 or 507). Several substrates are joined together in a stack (82 or 402 or 512) held together tightly by bolts (62) or by a thermoplastic adhesive (510). An interconnect pattern (250 or 423) electrically connects integrated circuits (16) on different substrates. Defective substrates are removable from the stack for repair by removing the bolts or by heating the adhesive to soften it sufficiently to allow removal of the individual substrate. The interconnect pattern, which is removed whenever a substrate is replaced, is reapplied after the removed substrate has been replaced.
A semiconductor device including a damascene superconducting interconnect, formed of a Ba-Cu-Ca-O superconducting material. A method of forming a superconducting damascene interconnect structure, and the structure made thereby, the method including forming a cavity in an interlevel dielectric; forming a barrier layer in the cavity; forming a seed layer in the cavity over the barrier layer; forming a Cu-Ba alloy layer; filling the cavity by depositing a Cu-Ca-O film; and annealing in oxygen flow to form a Ba-Cu-Ca-O superconductor on the barrier layer. In an alternate embodiment, no barrier layer is formed.
The present invention develops a bond pad interconnect in an integrated circuit device, by forming an aluminum pad; bonding a metal layer (such as copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), tungsten (W), gold (Au), silver (Ag) or platinum (Pt)) or a metal alloy (such as titanium nitride) to the aluminum bond pad by chemical vapor deposition or by electroless deposition; and adhering a conductive epoxy film to the metal layer, thereby forming a low resistive bond pad interconnect.
We introduce the combination of three-dimensional transient electro-thermal interconnect simulations for intrinsic thermo-mechanical stress problems. In order to study the development of thermal stresses we use a finite element simulator for the investigation on stresses of complex layered interconnect structures at different operating conditions. Together with the potential distribution we obtain the complete input data for accurate electromigration analysis.
An in situ transmission-electron-microscopy methodology is developed to observe time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in an advanced Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stack. A test structure, namely a tip-to-tip structure, was designed to localize the TDDB degradation in small dielectrics regions. A constant voltage is applied at 25 °C to the tip-to-tip structure, while structural changes are observed at nanoscale. Cu nanoparticle formation, agglomeration, and migration processes are observed after dielectric breakdown. The Cu nanoparticles are positively charged, since they move in opposite direction to the electron flow. Measurements of ionic current, using the Triangular-Voltage-Stress method, suggest that Cu migration is not possible before dielectric breakdown, unless the Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stacks are heated to 200 °C and above. ...
In order to fabricate practical free-space optical interconnect systems, a thorough understanding of the effect of optical misalignment on the power throughput of an optical link is required. Further, not only assembly tolerances (resulting in misalignment) but also component manufacturing tolerances that also introduce vignetting into the optical system need to be studied. We present a study of a wide variety of assembly and component manufacturing errors and their effect on the integrated power falling onto the detector for planar space variant optical systems. We also discuss the trends of the different misalignment sensitivities as the interconnect distance increases ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional connectivity of insular efferences. AU - Almashaikhi, Talal. AU - Rheims, Sylvain. AU - Jung, Julien. AU - Ostrowsky-Coste, Karine. AU - Montavont, Alexandra. AU - De Bellescize, Julitta. AU - Arzimanoglou, Alexis. AU - Kosal, Pascale Keo. AU - Guénot, Marc. AU - Bertrand, Olivier. AU - Ryvlin, Philippe. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Objectives: The aim of our study was to explore the functional connectivity between the insula and other cortical regions, in human, using cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) Experimental design: We performed intra-cerebral electrical stimulation in eleven patients with refractory epilepsy investigated with depth electrodes, including 39 targeting the insula. Electrical stimulation consisted of two series of 20 pulses of 1-ms duration, 0.2-Hz frequency, and 1-mA intensity delivered at each of the 39 insular bipoles. Rates of connectivity were reported whenever a noninsular cortical region was tested by at least ten ...
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A lithographic apparatus includes an illumination system configured to condition a radiation beam, a support for a patterning device, a substrate table for a substrate, a projection system, and a control system. The patterning device is capable of imparting the radiation beam with a pattern in its cross-section to form a patterned radiation beam. The projection system is configured to project the patterned radiation beam as an image onto a target portion of the substrate along a scan path. The scan path is defined by a trajectory in a scanning direction of an exposure field of the lithographic apparatus. The control system is coupled to the support, the substrate table and the projection system for controlling an action of the support, the substrate table and the projection system, respectively. The control system is configured to correct a local distortion of the image in a region along the scan path by a temporal adjustment of the image in that region, hereby reducing the intra-field overlay errors.
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-0792373148 Boundary-Scan Interconnect Diagnosis (Frontiers in Electronic Testing) Product Will Be Delivered Via
Vision systems satisfying the single viewpoint constraint are called central projection systems. The perspective camera is an example of a central projection system. The mapping of points in the scene into points in the image is linear in homogeneous coordinates, and can be described by a 3 × 4 projection matrix P (pin-hole model). Perspective projection can be modeled by intersecting a plane with a pencil of lines going through the scene points and the projection center O. There are central projection systems whose geometry can not be described using the conventional pin-hole model. Mt is composed of two lines m and l lying on the projective plane ℘2 . In this case the conic is said to be degenerate, the 3 ×3 symmetric matrix Ω is rank 2, and Equation (15) becomes ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢0 2 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 0 0 0⎥ t t ⎥. Γ(m, l) ⎢ Ω = ml + lm −→ ω = ⎢ (16) ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 2 0 0⎥ ⎣0 0 0 0 2 0⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 1 e D In a similar way a conic locus can be composed of a ...
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Development of structural connectivity and network characteristics (longitudinal analysis). Of 7 neonates, longitudinal assessment of brain development was poss
log in you can tag this publication with additional keywords A publication can refer to another publication (outgoing references) or it can be referred to by other publications (incoming references).. ...
Significantly reduced functional connectivity in depressed patients between cerebellar executive and default-mode seed regions (shown in the lower row) with cer
Grays Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, Expert Consult - Online and Print, 40e de Susan Standring PhD DSc en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 0443066841 - ISBN 13: 9780443066849 - Churchill Livingstone - 2008 - Tapa dura
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Dear Jean-Pierre, Chris and all, just a few comments regarding the current ontology spec: Since TargetAudienceAuthority is no longer a sub class of Contributor the object property targetAudienceAuthorityIs shouldnt be a sub property of contributorIs as well. Leaving this sub property relation would infer that the domain of property targetAudienceAuthorityIs is Contributor, since Contributor is domain of property contributorIs. As Chris wrote there is no direct connection between a MediaResource and the value of TargetAudienceAuthority, the same problem/pattern exists between a MediaResource and a given rating value. Since a rating value is directly related to a RatingProvider (via data property ratingValue), it is not expressible that the same RatingProvider rates different MediaResources (or MediaFragments) including different rating values. I propose to directly connect a rating value to a MediaResource and annotate this rating value with additional information (RatingProvider, etc.). A new ...
Strep-Tactin® Superflow® cartridges. Prepacked cartridges for direct connection to automated purification systems such as Äkta, peristaltic pumps or other FPLC/HPLC systems are availble for the different resin supports. More information here.
A Redditor found a direct connection between James Hardens play in away games and the citys quality of strip clubs. The better the strippers, the worse he plays. Hardens worst outings come against the Heat
This is a direct connection to the MS-DOS read function call, int 0x21, %ah = 0x3f. No conversion is done on the data; it is read as raw binary data. This function can be hooked by the See section File System Extensions. If you dont want this, you should use See section _dos_read. ...
The automation of business transactions can help enable savings, efficiencies and accuracy across the revenue cycle. We support both Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), for direct connection between provider and supplier, and Internet-commerce, which connects buyers and sellers via a common technology platform to place orders and receive invoices online. We are also part of the Global Healthcare Exchange (GHX), the first Internet (supplier) exchange for the healthcare industry.. ...
Perhaps others will chime in, but I cant think of anybody using the PS5 without issue through an AVR. Some with direct connections to a capable TV have...
Stellapps has really helped us in establishing the direct connection with farmers. It has helped us in improving the milk quality, transparency in collection process and monitoring through real time collection mechanism.. We want to thank Stellapps for helping us in accomplishing our mission of producing good quality dairy products for customers and economical empowerment of dairy farmers. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The mouse has become the mainstay of genetic and cancer research, and mouse imaging has allowed scientists to monitor tumor development or remission serially. The combination of mu/PET, which provides functional biological information (e.g. tumor uptake, gene expression, etc.) with mu/CT techniques, which provides the anatomical context for the functional information, has proved to be a very important tool for this. However, the radiation dose associated with these procedures can be high, and this limits their frequent use. While the radiation does not harm the animal, it may affect immune response mechanisms and change the experimental outcome. We hypothesize that 2D images may be sufficient in some scientific applications to provide the biological information necessary, in lieu of 3D image data sets that mu/CT and mu/PET provide. In this application, we propose the development of a hybrid two-dimensional imaging system for the mouse and other small animals. ...
Axon Cable is a specialist manufacturer of high specification space-grade interconnect with extensive heritage across a huge number of space applications. Axons space approved wires, cables, Mil-Bus networks, and micro-D connectors are present on an impressive list of launchers, satellite platforms, payloads, and rovers. Axons latest developments showcased at SmallSat, include their fast-latching, tool-less, miniature Micro-D and Versatys® Power D-Click connectors, already in orbit on the OneWeb mega-constellation; along with the latest and greatest in SpaceWire technology, the all-new MicroMach® High Data Rate range, capable of coping with SpaceWire rates in excess of 3.0 Gb/s. When combined with Axons already approved Low Mass SpaceWire cable, the MicroMach® SpaceWire links deliver an unbeatable combination of speed, mass (less than 0.5oz/ft) and flexibility. Axon continuously innovates in the field of Space interconnect - lookout for new products appearing regularly at ...
Sanmina designed the 78 connector ATM cable inter-connect system and helped the customer accelerate time to market by reducing the system design cycle from 14 months to 5.. ...
As a specialist in interconnect and process automation, Axon mechatronics, offers interconnect solutions such as continuous and piece part moulded and overmoulded. Axon mechatronics is ISO/TS 16949 approved. ...
As I am slowly coming back to life, I am re-firing and reconnecting various neural pathways. Its kind of hard to explain but some of me works and some of me doesnt. Anyhow, I am doing lots of hand eye coordination crafts and memory/organizational tasks (i. e.
Connectivity is no longer an interesting topic. Or is it? As the 5G era dawns, the potential use cases and impact of wireless/mobile connectivity have been attracting attention. Importantly, discussions focus not only on the value but also on the
For context, the analysis is based on the 2 x 2 x 2 mixed ANOVA example on page 26 of the CONN manual. There are pre- and post-treatment scans and so each subject has a set of components for the pre and a set for the post. Based on this I was assuming that CONN was running some sort of omnibus test across components, so the contrasts would be something like (using 3 components as an example ...
Packet Optical Networking Platforms with Connection-Oriented Ethernet provide worry-free connectivity between business locations and data centers to assure business continuity and enterprise information flow. Fujitsu data center connectivity solutions meet diverse customer business needs and provide the highest levels of network performance.
How can you have no more than 300 rows if you have 1800 inserts and no deletes ? Before asking for a solution, make sure you are describing the problem properly. No indexes - means every select/update will have to do a full tablescan, which means you must constantly be moving all the table blocks across the interconnect. If you cant isolate the activity to just one node you need to spread the contention as much as possible. If the table really is small and is going to stay small you could try implementing a single table hash cluster with one key per block, so two nodes will only compete for a block if they both want the same row at the same time. (With a single table hash cluster you can also avoid having to maintain an index and still get high precision access ...
This is Otherwise interconnect for actual reformist participants, which also lost prior three pharmacokinetics per free Health, Safety, and Nutrition for. This Business had Strictly longer than for inst st, who at the government Thus were closer to six expectations of multiplex source each assay. Throughout the giant course and into the likely Imaging.
A variety of 25G and 50G devices, switches, cables, interconnect and testers proved largely interoperable. Other companies looking to build 25G/50G product have a stable spec now available.
PCI Express is the latest I/O interconnect technology that will replace the existing PCI. With a bus bandwidth 4 times higher than that of AGP 8X interface, PCI Express x16 bus performs much better than AGP 8X in applications such as 3D gaming. PCI Express x1 also outperforms PCI interface with its exceptional high bandwidth up to 500MB/s. The high speed PCI Express interface creates new usages on desktop PCs e.g., Gigabit LAN, 1394b, and high-speed RAID systems ...
A low-k dielectric material with increased cohesive strength for use in electronic structures including interconnect and sensing structures is provided that includes atoms of Si, C, O, and H in which a fraction of the C atoms are bonded as Si-CH3 functional groups, and another fraction of the C atoms are bonded as Si-R-Si, wherein R is phenyl, -[CH2]n- where n is greater than or equal to 1, HC═CH, C═CH2, C≡C or a [S]n linkage, where n is a defined above.
This article explores and explains key issues related to modeling and simulation in this interconnect scheme, but its lessons apply to other designs as well
TY - JOUR. T1 - Resting state functional connectivity and task-related effective connectivity changes after upper extremity rehabilitation. T2 - a pilot study.. AU - Saleh, Soha. AU - Adamovich, Sergei V.. AU - Tunik, Eugene. PY - 2012/12/1. Y1 - 2012/12/1. N2 - In this study we investigated the effect of 2 weeks of robot-aided virtual reality therapy for the paretic upper limb in stroke patients on changes in brain activation. Brain activation was acquired during the resting state and during visually-guided hand movement. fMRI analysis focused on characterizing functional connectivity with ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) at rest and during execution of paretic hand movement. Two subjects who sustained a stroke more than 6 months ago participated. Before and after the training period, motor function was evaluated (Wolf Motor Function Test [WMFT], Jebsen Test of Hand Function [JTHF]). After the training period, clinical outcomes (WMFT and JTHF) improved in both subjects. The resting state ...
In the absence of external stimuli or task demands, correlations in spontaneous brain activity (functional connectivity) reflect patterns of anatomical connectivity. Hence, resting-state functional connectivity has been used as a proxy measure for structural connectivity and as a biomarker for brain changes in disease. To relate changes in functional connectivity to physiological changes in the brain, it is important to understand how correlations in functional connectivity depend on the physical integrity of brain tissue. The causal nature of this relationship has been called into question by patient data suggesting that decreased structural connectivity does not necessarily lead to decreased functional connectivity. Here we provide evidence for a causal but complex relationship between structural connectivity and functional connectivity: we tested interhemispheric functional connectivity before and after corpus callosum section in rhesus monkeys. We found that forebrain commissurotomy severely reduced
TY - JOUR. T1 - Default mode network alterations in individuals with high-trait-anxiety: An EEG functional connectivity study. AU - Della Marca, Giacomo. AU - Imperatori, Claudio. AU - Farina, Benedetto. AU - Adenzato, Mauro. AU - Valenti, Enrico Maria. AU - Murgia, Cristina. AU - Brunetti, Riccardo. AU - Fontana, Elena. AU - Ardito, Rita B.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Background: Although several researches investigated Default Mode Network (DMN) alterations in individuals with anxiety disorders, up to now no studies have investigated DMN functional connectivity in non-clinical individuals with high-trait-anxiety using quantitative electroencephalography (EEG). Here, the main aim was to extend previous findings investigating the association between trait anxiety and DMN EEG functional connectivity. Methods: Twenty-three individuals with high-trait-anxiety and twenty-four controls were enrolled. EEG was recorded during 5 min of resting state (RS). EEG analyses were conducted by means of the ...
There is striking overlap between the spatial distribution of amyloid-β pathology in patients with Alzheimers disease and the spatial distribution of high intrinsic functional connectivity in healthy persons. This overlap suggests a mechanistic link between amyloid-β and intrinsic connectivity, and indeed there is evidence in patients for the detrimental effects of amyloid-β plaque accumulation on intrinsic connectivity in areas of high connectivity in heteromodal hubs, and particularly in the default mode network. However, the observed spatial extent of amyloid-β exceeds these tightly circumscribed areas, suggesting that previous studies may have underestimated the negative impact of amyloid-β on intrinsic connectivity. We hypothesized that the known positive baseline correlation between patterns of amyloid-β and intrinsic connectivity may mask the larger extent of the negative effects of amyloid-β on connectivity. Crucially, a test of this hypothesis requires the within-patient comparison of
Three regions of the macaque inferior parietal lobule and adjacent lateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are distinguished by the relative strengths of their connections with the superior colliculus, parahippocampal gyrus, and ventral premotor cortex. It was hypothesized that connectivity information could therefore be used to identify similar areas in the human parietal cortex using diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography. Unusually, the subcortical routes of the 3 projections have been reported in the macaque, so it was possible to compare not only the terminations of connections but also their course. The medial IPS had the highest probability of connection with the superior colliculus. The projection pathway resembled that connecting parietal cortex and superior colliculus in the macaque. The posterior angular gyrus and the adjacent superior occipital gyrus had a high probability of connection with the parahippocampal gyrus. The projection pathway resembled the macaque inferior
A polymer film interconnect forms an electrical interconnect between a first pattern of electrical conductors on a first electrical component and a second pattern of electrical conductors on a second electrical component. The polymer film interconnect includes a thin, flexible, self-supporting dielectric polymeric film having a pattern of spaced apart thru-holes containing separate quantities of an electrically conductive bonding material capable of heat bonding to the first electrical conductors adjacent the first surface of the film and to the second conductors adjacent the second surface of the film. This provides a plurality of discrete electrically isolated conductive paths from the first pattern of electrical conductors through the film to the second pattern of electrical conductors on the opposite side of the film. The polymer film interconnect can be used for forming interconnects between a number of electrical components, including connections between an IC chip and a leadframe or
IMPORTANCE: Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is caused by rare genetic mutations in 3 specific genes in contrast to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), which has a more polygenetic risk profile. OBJECTIVE: To assess the similarities and differences in functional connectivity changes owing to ADAD and LOAD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed functional connectivity in multiple brain resting state networks (RSNs) in a cross-sectional cohort of participants with ADAD (n = 79) and LOAD (n = 444), using resting-state functional connectivitymagnetic resonance imaging at multiple international academic sites. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: For both types of AD, we quantified and compared functional connectivity changes in RSNs as a function of dementia severity measured by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. In ADAD, we qualitatively investigated functional connectivity changes with respect to estimated years from onset of symptoms within 5 RSNs. RESULTS: A decrease in functional
A direct connection multi-chip semiconductor element structure is proposed. A plurality of semiconductor chips are mounted and supported on a metal heat sink, such that heat generated by the chips during operation can be dissipated via the heat sink. A circuit structure is extended from the chips to provide direct electrical extension for the chips and improve the electrical performances. And exposed electrical connection terminals can be formed in the circuit structure extended from the chips to be directly electrically connected to an external electronic device.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Strategy-based reasoning training modulates cortical thickness and resting-state functional connectivity in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most useful methods to generate functional connectivity networks of the brain. However, conventional network generation methods ignore dynamic changes of functional connectivity between brain regions. Previous studies proposed constructing high-order functional connectivity networks that consider the time-varying characteristics of functional connectivity, and a clustering method was performed to decrease computational cost. However, random selection of the initial clustering centers and the number of clusters negatively affected classification accuracy, and the network lost neurological interpretability. Here we propose a novel method that introduces the minimum spanning tree method to high-order functional connectivity networks. As an unbiased method, the minimum spanning tree simplifies high-order network structure while preserving its core framework. The dynamic characteristics of time series are not lost with this approach, and the
Motor tasks, in our daily life, could be performed through execution and imagination. The brain response underlying these movements has been investigated by many studies. Neuroimaging studies have reported that both execution and imagination could activate several brain regions including supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor area (PMA), primary sensorimotor area (M1/S1), posterior parietal lobe (PPL), striatum, thalamus and cerebellum. These findings were based on the regional activation, and brain regions have been indicated to functionally interact with each other when performing tasks. Therefore further investigation in these brain regions with functional connectivity measurements may provide new insights into the neural mechanism of execution and imagination. As a fundamental measurement of functional connectivity, connection strength of graph theory has been used to identify the key nodes of connection and their strength-priorities. Thus, we performed a comparative investigation between ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cortical connectivity and memory performance in cognitive decline. T2 - A study via graph theory from EEG data. AU - Vecchio, F.. AU - Miraglia, F.. AU - Quaranta, D.. AU - Granata, G.. AU - Romanello, R.. AU - Marra, C.. AU - Bramanti, P.. AU - Rossini, P. M.. N1 - The article has been reported in 2015. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Functional brain abnormalities including memory loss are found to be associated with pathological changes in connectivity and network neural structures. Alzheimers disease (AD) interferes with memory formation from the molecular level, to synaptic functions and neural networks organization. Here, we determined whether brain connectivity of resting-state networks correlate with memory in patients affected by AD and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). One hundred and forty-four subjects were recruited: 70 AD (MMSE Mini Mental State Evaluation 21.4), 50 MCI (MMSE 25.2) and 24 healthy subjects (MMSE 29.8). Undirected and weighted ...
A semiconductor device has a substrate and semiconductor die disposed over a first surface of the substrate. A wire stud is attached to the first surface of the substrate. The wire stud includes a base portion and stem portion. A bonding pad is formed over a second surface of the substrate. An encapsulant is deposited over the substrate, semiconductor die, and wire stud. A portion of the encapsulant is removed by LDA to expose the wire stud. A portion of the encapsulant is removed by LDA to expose the substrate. An interconnect structure is formed over the encapsulant and electrically connected to the wire stud and semiconductor die. A bump is formed over the interconnect structure. A semiconductor package is disposed over the encapsulant and electrically connected to the substrate. A discrete semiconductor device is disposed over the encapsulant and electrically connected to the substrate.
The number of resting state functional connectivity MRI studies continues to expand at a rapid rate along with the options for data processing. Of the ...
article{MaScClMo07, author = {J{\o}rg Mayer and Heinz Georg Schuster and Jens Christian Claussen and Matthias M{\o}lle}, title = {Corticothalamic projections control synchronization in locally coupled bistable thalamic oscillators}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, pages = {068102}, volume = {99}, year = {2007}, abstract = {Thalamic circuits are able to generate state-dependent oscillations of different frequencies and degrees of synchronization. However, little is known about how synchronous oscillations, such as spindle oscillations in the thalamus, are organized in the intact brain. Experimental findings suggest that the simultaneous occurrence of spindle oscillations over widespread territories of the thalamus is due to the corticothalamic projections, as the synchrony is lost in the decorticated thalamus. In this Letter we study the influence of corticothalamic projections on the synchrony in a thalamic network, and uncover the underlying control mechanism, leading to a control method ...
A paper in the journal Heliyon titled: Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity is associated with eating behaviors and adiposity in children. The authors write: We hypothesized that unhealthy eating habits and adiposity among children are associated with functional connectivity between brain regions associated with impulsivity, response inhibition, and reward. You can find a good summary…
Liu, J.; Wannier, T.; Rouiller, E.M.; Jeanmonod, D.; Morel, A., 2000: Organization of thalamic projections to frontal motor areas m1, PMd, SMA and pre-SMA in relation to pallidothalamic pathways a multiple tracer study in monkey
In other words. . . . I always speak of the duality which exists everywhere. We put it towards technology-educationally, let us say-rather than towards humanity. And slowly I think many people are beginning to realize the importance of human beings. And a starving human being is a very important person, whether we know them or not. And I feel this greatly towards people.. PK: Well this. . . . Youre talking right now about a world view and a philosophy and I would like very much to wrap up later with that.. BW: Oh.. PK: Really what right now I was asking was about you specifically and the work itself and its connection to you; and basically I was trying to confirm what I think we were saying earlier-or what you were saying-that there is a direct connection, very direct connection between these things that you make. . . .. BW: Oh, yeah.. PK: . . . and your own life and experience.. BW: But definitely so. Because I feel we are what our life has been, and. . . .. PK: But we dont necessarily have ...
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The LightCONEX active blind mate optical interconnect for VPX systems includes a fixed plug-in module connector and a floating backplane connector.
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Reliability computer-aided design tool for full-chip electromigration analysis and comparison with different interconnect metallizations ...
We try to fit in one charity project a year at interconnect/it and this year it was the turn of the Plaza community cinema in Waterloo. Read on for the design…
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On stage at InterConnect 2017, IBM welcomes Twitters Chris Moody, IBMs Arvind Krishna and David Kenny as they discuss cloud technologies and the future.
Background Establishing appropriate neuronal circuitry is essential to proper function from the vertebrate nervous program. At E13.5(+1 DIV), the commissural projections shaped fascicles and crossed the midline in the handles. Enzyme treatment evidently did not influence the pioneer axons that got advanced as heavy fascicles normal towards the midline and beyond, on the contralateral VN. Projections Later, nevertheless, traversed the enzyme-treated matrix as unfasciculated fibers, deviated from the normal course crossing the midline at various angles and extending beyond the contralateral VN. This suggests that CSs also limit the course of the later projections, which otherwise would be attracted to alternative targets. Conclusions CS moieties in the early hindbrain therefore control the course and fasciculation of axonal projections and the timing of axonal arrival at the target. Background The establishment of correct neuronal circuitry is crucial for proper function of the vertebrate nervous ...
Diffusion-weighted imaging is often used as a starting point for in vivo white matter (wm) connectivity to reconstruct potential wm pathways between brain areas. In this study, we investigate the reproducibility of the connectivity matrix, resulting from different tractography parameters. We vary the number of streamlines used to construct the matrix in cortical to cortical connectivity and analyze its effects. We also compare the effect of probabilistic and deterministic local streamline tractography algorithms, seeding both from the wm and from wm-grey matter interface.
The brains of adults with autism may be wired differently from people without the disorder, and this abnormal pattern of connectivity may be
Explaining the work which is being published in Cerebral Cortex, Dr Kaiser, Reader in Neuroinformatics at Newcastle University, says: Long-distance connections are difficult to establish and maintain but are crucial for fast and efficient processing. If you think about a social network, nearby friends might give you very similar information - you might hear the same news from different people. People from different cities or countries are more likely to give you novel information. In the same way, some information flow within a brain module might be redundant whereas information from other modules, say integrating the optical information about a face with the acoustic information of a voice is vital in making sense of the outside world.. Brain pruned. The researchers at Newcastle, Glasgow and Seoul Universities evaluated the scans of 121 healthy participants between the ages of 4 and 40 years as this is where the major connectivity changes can be seen during this period of maturation and ...
A fault-tolerant, high-speed wafer scale system comprises a plurality of functional modules, a parallel hierarchical bus which is fault-tolerant to defects in an interconnect network, and one or more bus masters. This bus includes a plurality of bus lines segmented into sections and linked together by programmable bus switches and bus transceivers or repeaters in an interconnect network. By: 1) use of small block size (512K bit) for the memory modules; 2) use of programmable identification register to facilitate dynamic address mapping and relatively easy incorporation of global redundancy; 3) Use of a grid structure for the bus to provide global redundancy for the interconnect network; 4) Use of a relatively narrow bus consisting of 13 signal lines to keep the total area occupied by the bus small; 5) Use of segmented bus lines connected by programmable switches and of bus defects; 6) use of special circuit for bus transceivers and asynchronous handshakes to facilitate dynamic bus configuration; 7) use
Our results identify a novel set of regions in the rostral and dorsal striatum that concurrently exhibit structural and functional connectivity to orbitofrontal, lateral prefrontal, and posterior parietal regions of cortex. The location of these convergence zones is anatomically consistent with previous reports of parietal (Selemon and Goldman-Rakic, 1985, 1988; Cavada and Goldman-Rakic, 1991) and frontal (Haber et al., 1995; Averbeck et al., 2014) white matter projections, based on ex vivo nonhuman primate histology. Although the distribution of cortical regions associated with the striatal convergence zones differed to some degree between structural and functional connectivity measures, reflecting methodological limitations of each approach, a majority of cortical areas structurally connected to the convergence zones also showed strong functional connectivity. This supports the notion that these corticostriatal projections form an integrative functional circuit.. The current findings support a ...
0025] In FIG. 2A, interconnect transitional component 210 may include a microstrip line 212, a via 214, and a strip line 216. Microstrip line 212 may include a portion of the interconnect transitional component 210 that is disposed on an outer surface of a conductive plane, such as conductive plane 202, but electrically insulated from the conductive plane by non-conductive material (not shown). In some embodiments, microstrip line 212 may be disposed at least partially on a top or bottom surface of the electronic packaging structure 200. Microstrip line 212 may be used to connect the electronic packaging structure 200 with external signal sources/destinations and/or other electronic units. Via 214 may be a portion of the interconnect transitional component 210 that passes through one or more conductive planes, such as plane 202 of FIG. 2A, but electronically insulated from the conductive plane(s) being passed through by non-conductive material. For example, via 214 may pass conductive plane 202 ...
The enhancement of the original SC matrix is based on the addition of new links for pairs of nodes according to the corresponding FC between those nodes. The algorithm starts by first normalizing the maximal value of the empirical FC matrix (FCe) to 1. Then, the initial tolerance level is set to 1 and, starting with the original empirical SC matrix at the corresponding bifurcation (instability of the spontaneous state), the simulated FC matrix (FCs) is created. In doing this, the global scaling parameter G is adjusted such that the system works at the edge of the bifurcation where the spontaneous state loses stability (as shown by Deco et al., 2013, at that particular point the system optimally fits the FC and maximally reflects the underlying SC). Then, the tolerance is reduced (in our case by steps of 0.025, i.e., T = T − 0.025) and the simulated and empirical FC is checked for all connections. For all connections where ,FCeij − FCsij, , T, the identified SC links are redefined to be equal ...
Researchers report too many connections form between neurons in the cerebellum and learning difficulties are expressed in mice who lack the RNF8 gene.
What: Novel ways to probe brain function: beyond stationary functional connectivity measurements Where: BCBL auditorium Who: Thomas Bolton. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, School of Life Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland When: 12 PM
Extreme Networks designs, builds and implements sophisticated Ethernet solutions for the toughest challenges in network connectivity and IP-based communications.
ABSTRACT: Although the amygdala complex is a brain area critical for human behavior, knowledge of its subspecialization is primarily derived from experiments in animals. We here employed methods for large-scale data mining to perform a connectivity-derived parcellation of the human amygdala based on whole-brain coactivation patterns computed for each seed voxel. Voxels within the histologically defined human amygdala were clustered into distinct groups based on their brain-wide coactivation maps. Using this approach, connectivity-based parcellation divided the amygdala into three distinct clusters that are highly consistent with earlier microstructural distinctions. Meta-analytic connectivity modelling then revealed the derived clusters brain-wide connectivity patterns, while meta-data profiling allowed their functional characterization. These analyses revealed that the amygdalas laterobasal nuclei group was associated with coordinating high-level sensory input, whereas its centromedial nuclei ...
Ken Mogi1) & Yoshi Tamori2) In this paper, we discuss two fundamental aspects of cortical information processing. The first aspect concerns the principles of neural coding. We argue that unlike todays digital computer, the elementary coding units in the brain should be a cluster of bits connected via synaptic interaction (interaction-connected bits) rather than a set of bits which may not be interaction-connected. Specifically, it is not the mapping between patterns of neural firings and some concepts or objects but the internal relation between the neural activities that characterise the neural code. In other words, the code should be embedded in the dynamics of the system, rather than in an abstract lookup table. In order to establish this point, we review recent research directions in brain science, especially as regards cortical information representation, with an emphasis on the non-local character of the neural code. The second aspect concerns more systematic features of cortical ...
Neurosurgical management of brain tumours has entered a new paradigm where resection is extended into the peri-tumoural margin to minimise the potential for recurrence or malignant transformation. Maximising the resection whilst minimising harm is complicated by difficulty in determining the edge of the tumour and limitations in mapping the function of apparently normal brain tissue surrounding the tumour.. Our group aim to address the problem of accurately mapping cognitive functions in a way that is of value to surgeons by using connectomics to create functional and structural wiring diagrams of the brain. Connectomics uses white matter connectivity and the synchronicity of brain signals measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to model the brain as a continuously interacting communication networks. The way these brain networks are organized is intimately related to cognitive functions, and is believed to be sensitive to changes in these networks due to injury or surgery. Consequently, ...
To understand the importance of this improvement, we need to make a short excursion into network theory. This field of study maps various objects and the relationships among them into nodes and edges respectively: the nodes are points on a graph, the edges are lines connecting them. The resulting network can then be analyzed without reference to how those objects relate, considering only which objects relate (are connected by an edge) to which, how many relationships (edges) each object has, looking at averages, loops, path lengths between nodes without direct connections, and so on. Obviously, creating a bunch of new edges, connecting previously unconnected nodes, will change the characteristics of the network. It will be more tightly connected, and potentially modules that were only distantly connected will now be cross-talking ...
We appreciate the opportunity to help further Mayor Jacksons vision for properly connecting downtown to Clevelands greatest natural resource, the lake, Dee and Jimmy Haslam said. Lakefront connectivity has long been a complicated issue for our region, and a long-term solution has been elusive. Our preliminary vision, led by a landscape architect with experience around the world, intends to create a transformational pedestrian pathway unlocking public spaces and significant development opportunities on the lakefront. It would create year-round destinations accessible to our entire region, provide direct connections to nature and result in substantial economic development while driving density and engagement in the lakefront neighborhood our community shares. We recognize that there is a long road ahead for a project of this magnitude. ...
Extracranial brain tissue without a direct connection to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneous embryonic defect, usually on occipital or parietal areas of the scalp. It is also known as heterotopic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain (CEB).
Biological and social networks are composed of heterogeneous nodes that contribute differentially to network structure and function. A number of algorithms have been developed to measure this variation. These algorithms have proven useful for applications that require assigning scores to individual nodes-from ranking websites to determining critical species in ecosystems-yet the mechanistic basis for why they produce good rankings remains poorly understood. We show that a unifying property of these algorithms is that they quantify consensus in the network about a nodes state or capacity to perform a function. The algorithms capture consensus by either taking into account the number of a target nodes direct connections, and, when the edges are weighted, the uniformity of its weighted in-degree distribution (breadth), or by measuring net flow into a target node (depth). Using data from communication, social, and biological networks we find that that how an algorithm measures consensus-through ...