In recent decades, the incidence of autism has reached epidemic proportions. The ever-mounting burden of disease from autism spectrum disorders highlights the urgency of developing effective treatment options. However, this remains a formidable task. Although autism is characterized by core symptoms, such as impaired communication, social interactions and stereotyped behaviors, it presents heterogeneously. This makes diagnostics challenging and might suggest diverse underlying pathologies. Fortunately, research is beginning to elucidate the neurophysiological basis of autism, namely, reduced neural inhibition, increasing the excitation/inhibition ratio (Rubenstein and Merzenich, 2003). In addition, individuals with autism exhibit an increased intertrial variability in response to sensory stimuli when probed with neuroimaging methods (Dinstein et al., 2012).. What are the perceptual consequences of such physiological effects in individuals with autism? Neural inhibition plays a fundamental role ...
Spatial suppression during motion perception reflects reduced neural response magnitudes in visual areas but is not primarily driven by neural inhibition.
Cortical processing reflects the interplay of synaptic excitation and synaptic inhibition. Rapidly accumulating evidence is highlighting the crucial role of inhibition in shaping spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity and thus underscores how a better knowledge of inhibitory circuits is ne …
Cortical neurons receive balanced excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents. Such a balance could be established and maintained in an experience-dependent manner by synaptic plasticity at inhibitory synapses. We show that this mechanism provides an explanation for the sparse firing patterns observed in response to natural stimuli and fits well with a recently observed interaction of excitatory and inhibitory receptive field plasticity. ... Our results suggest an essential role of inhibitory plasticity in the formation and maintenance of functional cortical circuitry ...
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I) To install on a local machine: 1) install anaconda python, includes ipython, numpy, matplotlib https://docs.continuum.io/anaconda/install add additional ipyparallel package: conda install ipyparallel 2) download neuron from: http://www.neuron.yale.edu/ftp/neuron/versions/alpha/nrn-7.4.rel-1390.tar.gz or install from mercurial cd ~/neuron hg clone http://www.neuron.yale.edu/hg/neuron/nrn -r Release 7.4 hg clone http://www.neuron.yale.edu/hg/neuron/iv following tips from: http://www.neuron.yale.edu/neuron/download/compilestd_osx http://www.neuron.yale.edu/phpBB/viewtopic.php?f=4&t=3051#p12584 and making sure to execute these commands before running make: export CFLAGS=-Qunused-arguments export CXXFLAGS=-Qunused-arguments cd nrn/src/nrnmpi sh mkdynam.sh 3) Install btmorph from http://btmorph.readthedocs.org/en/latest/readme.html#installation 4) Make sure ~/neuron/nrnenv includes: export IDIR=/Applications/NEURON-7.4 export IV=$IDIR/iv export N=$IDIR/nrn export CPU=x86_64 export ...
Figure 2. Actin and myosin movement in relaxed muscle versus contracted muscle. The less contact between actin and myosin, the less force produced.. One study by Fletcher and Jones (2004) on 97 male rugby union players showed a significant decrease in sprint times for the passive static stretch group. This could be due the mechanical impact of stretching on the muscle, kinematic differences, or neural inhibition which decreases the neural drive to muscle. Dynamic stretching focuses on moving through a range of motion repeatedly and mimics motion that will occur during exercise. Fletcher and Jones (2004) study showed more beneficial performance results from active dynamic stretching prior to sprinting though. The active dynamic stretch group of rugby players improved their sprint times significantly.. These results could be explained by information in a systematic review of studies on stretching and exercise by McGowan et al. (2015). This review showed that dynamic stretching increases the ...
Inhibitory circuitry is responsible for sharpening the functional tuning of primary sensory cortical neurons (Liu et al., 2011; Li et al., 2014). We found that DE cross-modally increases inhibition in both L4 and L2/3 of A1 via distinct mechanisms (Figs. 4, 5). We found potentiation of evoked IPSCs from PV+ interneurons without changes in mIPSCs in A1-L4, but only mIPSC frequency was increased in A1-L2/3. The specific potentiation of PV+-IPSCs in A1-L4 is of interest in light of a recent report showing that PV+ interneuron-mediated inhibition is exquisitely balanced to the strength of excitatory synapses in each principal neuron (Xue et al., 2014). Therefore, potentiation of PV+-IPSCs may reflect this process to match inhibitory strength to the potentiation of TC and recurrent excitatory synapses on A1-L4 neurons after DE. The lack of a change in PV+-IPSCs in A1-L2/3 may then be due to the opposite regulation of excitatory FF and intracortical synaptic strengths, which may not produce a net ...
The most typical and well known inhibitory action in the cortical microcircuit is a strong inhibition on the target neuron by axo-somatic synapses. However, it has become clear that synaptic inhibition in the cortex is much more diverse and complicated. Firstly, at least ten or more inhibitory non-pyramidal cell subtypes engage in diverse inhibitory functions to produce the elaborate activity characteristic of the different cortical states. Each distinct non-pyramidal cell subtype has its own independent inhibitory function. Secondly, the inhibitory synapses innervate different neuronal domains, such as axons, spines, dendrites and soma, and their IPSP size is not uniform. Thus cortical inhibition is highly complex, with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological modes. Moreover, the functional significance of the various inhibitory synapse innervation styles and their unique structural dynamic behaviors differ from those of excitatory synapses. In this review, we summarize our current understanding
Reviewer 1:. This is well-written paper that presents a very relevant study on the effect of tumors on brain dynamics. Using rigorous methods and a state-of-the-art pipeline the authors show a disruption on the local inhibition in the tumour areas (all code and preprocessing pipeline is available). This paper will have a positive impact in the both clinical and research community. Here there are some suggestions that may improve the final manuscript:. Data was corrected for participants motivation, level of emotional distress, lesion volume, age and sex. Where the interaction between those confounders considered (age x gender, age x lesion volume, etc.)? I dont mean that they should be included (all combination will considerably reduce the degrees of freedom) but the authors should specify whether interaction were included or not.. In glioma patients, tumor regions were defined as those cortical areas of the individual FreeSurfer parcellation that showed (at least partial) overlap with the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Martine R Groen, Ole Paulsen, Enrique Pérez-Garci, Thomas Nevian, J Wortel, Marinus P Dekker, Huibert D Mansvelder, Arjen van Ooyen, Rhiannon M Meredith].
Cerebral cortex contains two major types of neurons: interneurons that are inhibitory and principal neurons that are excitatory, all interconnected within the same network.
A fundamental property of neuronal circuits is the ability to adapt to altered sensory inputs. It is well established that the functional synaptic changes underlying this adaptation are reflected by structural modifications in excitatory neurons. In contrast, the degree to which structural plasticity in inhibitory neurons accompanies functional changes is less clear. Here, we use two-photon imaging to monitor the fine structure of inhibitory neurons in mouse visual cortex after deprivation induced by retinal lesions. We find that a subset of inhibitory neurons carry dendritic spines, which form glutamatergic synapses. Removal of visual input correlates with a rapid and lasting reduction in the number of inhibitory cell spines. Similar to the effects seen for dendritic spines, the number of inhibitory neuron boutons dropped sharply after retinal lesions. Together, these data suggest that structural changes in inhibitory neurons may precede structural changes in excitatory circuitry, which ...
The cytoarchitectonic similarities of different neocortical regions have given rise to the idea of canonical connectivity between excitatory neurons of different layers within a column. It is unclear whether similarly general organizational principles also exist for inhibitory neocortical circuits. Here we delineate and compare local inhibitory-to-excitatory wiring patterns in all principal layers of primary motor (M1), somatosensory (S1) and visual (V1) cortex, using genetically targeted photostimulation in a mouse knock-in line that conditionally expresses channelrhodopsin-2 in GABAergic neurons. Inhibitory inputs to excitatory neurons derived largely from the same cortical layer within a three-column diameter. However, subsets of pyramidal cells in layers 2/3 and 5B received extensive translaminar inhibition. These neurons were prominent in V1, where they might correspond to complex cells, less numerous in barrel cortex and absent in M1. Although inhibitory connection patterns were stereotypical,
Tonic inhibitory conductances mediated by GABAA receptors have now been identified and characterised in many different brain regions. Most experimental studies of tonic GABAergic inhibition have been carried out using acute brain slice preparations but tonic currents have been recorded under a variety of different conditions. This diversity of recording conditions is likely to impact upon many of the factors responsible for controlling tonic inhibition and can make comparison between different studies difficult. In this review, we will firstly consider how various experimental conditions, including age of animal, recording temperature and solution composition, are likely to influence tonic GABAA conductances. We will then consider some technical considerations related to how the tonic conductance is measured and subsequently analysed, including how the use of current noise may provide a complementary and reliable method for quantifying changes in tonic current.
The human brain is made up of around 100 billion nerve cells, each of which is connected to other cells by several hundred to thousands of synapses. Apart from our organ and physiological functions, the way we think, act and feel are controlled by the synaptic transmission of information - many quadrillion impulses occur every second. Excitatory synapses that pass the information between cells and inhibitory synapses that limit and change the flow of information are needed for this huge flow of data to run on regulated tracks.. Any disruption to the function of the inhibitory synapses shows how important the suppression of unwanted signals is: there is increased excitation of the brain, such as is seen in epilepsy. Moreover, in order to learn or to remember, the brain needs nerve cells that regulate the activity of other nerve cells. The majority of these inhibitory synapses dock onto the receiver unit of the target cell, the dendrites. Until now, however, there has been no research into exactly ...
Although neuronal activity can be modulated using a variety of techniques, there are currently few methods for controlling neuronal connectivity. We introduce a tool (GFE3) that mediates the fast, specific and reversible elimination of inhibitory synaptic inputs onto genetically determined neurons. GFE3 is a fusion between an E3 ligase, which mediates the ubiquitination and rapid degradation of proteins, and a recombinant, antibody-like protein (FingR) that binds to gephyrin. Expression of GFE3 leads to a strong and specific reduction of gephyrin in culture or in vivo and to a substantial decrease in phasic inhibition onto cells that express GFE3. By temporarily expressing GFE3 we showed that inhibitory synapses regrow following ablation. Thus, we have created a simple, reversible method for modulating inhibitory synaptic input onto genetically determined cells.. ...
Involvement of bidirectional modification at excitatory synapses in experience-dependent cortical maturation has been supported by various experimental data in visual cortex. Experiments using slice p
Inhibitory synapses release an inhibitory neurotransmitter that produces a transient hyperpolarisation called an Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential (IPSP). The mechanism is not dissimilar to that described above, except that the neurotransmitter acts on a different ligand-gated channel that opens the channel to potassium and/or chloride ions. The equilibrium potential of the IPSP is between -70 and -90 mV. As a result, when the membrane is already depolarised, the ion movements hyperpolarise the post-synaptic membrane. ...
View Homework Help - Assignment 4.docx from BIO 3303 at University of Ottawa. 1. 2. 3. 4. What is lateral inhibition? What is the role of the horizontal neurons in lateral inhibition? What would
TY - CHAP. T1 - Three Dimensional Crystal Structure of Dipeptide-Chymotrypsin Complex Revealed a Novel Inhibitory Interaction. AU - Maeda, Iori. AU - Kashima, Akiko. AU - Inoue, Yoshihisa. AU - Sugio, Shigetoshi. AU - Nose, Takeru. AU - Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki. PY - 1997/3. Y1 - 1997/3. M3 - Chapter (peer-reviewed). SP - 229. EP - 232. BT - Peptide Chemistry 1996. ER - ...
These are transplanted inhibitory neurons (green) successfully incorporated into the hippocampus of a mouse with traumatic brain injury.
Interneuron is a different kind of health+care IT organisation. Unlike typical companies we have a different purpose. Interneuron is a Community Interest Company (CIC) and we exist primarily for the benefit of those in need of health and social care. To this purpose we are committed to being open, ethical and accountable. Interneuron is: PROFESSIONALInterneuron…
This impact was no for a longer time noticed after 48 hours. Remedy with one,25(OH)2D3 also had related inhibitory influence of NF-kB action (info not proven).
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Specific Primary Aims include:. Aim # 1. The investigators explore the feasibility of using the TMS to investigate the cortical excitability and to inhibit meth cue craving in meth dependent population. The investigators anticipate that meth elevates cortical excitability measured by motor threshold, causes changes of cortical silent period, and RC. The investigators also anticipate that paired pulse measures (short-interval intracortical inhibition, short-interval intracortical facilitation and long-interval intracortical inhibition) will be different from healthy control, which are more directly linked to glutamatergic cortical facilitation and GABAergic inhibition, respectively.. Aim # 2. Given the change of the cortical excitability in meth users, the investigators will use inhibiting TMS (1 Hz) over medial prefrontal cortex to study whether TMS can be used to reduce cue craving. The investigators hypothesize that repetitive TMS reduce meth cue craving in meth dependent population compared ...
Optical silencing of activity provides a way to test the necessity of neurons in behaviour. Two light-gated anion channels, GtACR1 and GtACR2, have recently been shown to potently inhibit activity in cultured mammalian neurons and in Drosophila. Here, we test the usefulness of these channels in larval zebrafish, using spontaneous coiling behaviour as the assay. When the GtACRs were expressed in spinal neurons of embryonic zebrafish and actuated with blue or green light, spontaneous movement was inhibited. In GtACR1-expressing fish, only 3 μW/mm2 of light was sufficient to have an effect; GtACR2, which is poorly trafficked, required slightly stronger illumination. No inhibition was seen in non-expressing siblings. After light offset, the movement of GtACR-expressing fish increased, which suggested that termination of light-induced neural inhibition may lead to activation. Consistent with this, two-photon imaging of spinal neurons showed that blue light inhibited spontaneous activity in spinal neurons of
Pulsed infrared (IR) light has been used in multiple animal models to inhibit neural activity. Duke et al. reported inhibition associated with a temperature increase of ~8°C in Aplysia californica buccal nerve 2 (BN2). There is no evidence that the current irradiation schemes alters nerve functionality, however lower temperatures provide a safer environment for sustained inhibition. Inhibition paradigms use a single optical fiber to deliver IR light, resulting in a single hotspot within the nerve. One proposed method for decreasing peak temperatures is to use a lower radiant exposure over a greater area, effectively heating the nerve more evenly. Preliminary computational modeling suggests that using two axially adjacent optical fibers reduces peak temperatures required for infrared neural inhibition (INI). This hypothesis is being validated in vitro in Aplysia. Pleural abdominal nerves were dissected out, and suction electrodes were applied to electrically stimulate and record neural activity. ...
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Experimental studies have demonstrated that the GABAergic system modulates acetylcholine release and, through GABA(A) receptors, tonically inhibits cholinergic activity. Little is known about the effects of GABA on the cholinergic activity in the human central nervous system. In vivo evaluation of s …
Appropriate growth and synaptic integration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are essential for functional neural circuits in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of primary cilia function following the selective loss of ciliary GTPase Arl13b in interneurons impairs interneuronal morphology and synaptic connectivity, leading to altered excitatory/inhibitory activity balance. The altered morphology and connectivity of cilia mutant interneurons and the functional deficits are rescued by either chemogenetic activation of ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling or the selective induction of Sstr3, a ciliary GPCR, in Arl13b-deficient cilia. Our results thus define a specific requirement for primary cilia-mediated GPCR signaling in interneuronal connectivity and inhibitory circuit formation ...
The expression once bitten, twice shy is an illustration of how a bad experience can induce fear and caution. How to effectively reduce the memory of aversive events is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Scientists in China are reporting that by transplanting mouse embryonic interneurons into the brains of mice and combining that procedure with training to lessen fear, they can help to reduce the fear response. The study is being published in Neuron.
Unbiased functional proteomics reveal that protein interactions are a key regulator of the strength of synaptic inhibition in neurons of the central nervous system.
Supplementary MaterialsSupporting information. and impaired cue-based learning.10 Examination of MSNs electrophysiology in brain slices revealed decreased tonic GABAergic inhibition and increased glutamatergic excitation, which advertised enhanced firing rates Rabbit polyclonal to HSD17B13 observed in vivo.10 In addition, GPR88 re-expression normalized these impaired behaviors and electrophysiological properties, indicating that GPR88 dysfunction may contribute to abnormal behaviors observed in basal ganglia-associated disorders… More →. ...
EWOD 1 (1 pt): Short interval: Run: 4 rounds of 90s on, :60s off EWOD 2 (1 pt): Long interval: Run: Repeat 800m, recover 2:00 until form/pace deteriorates. EWOD 3 (2 pts): Choose ONE of the following ...
2014-15 MPFI Seminar Series Fundamental to understanding brain function is gaining an appreciation of how the it is assembled. Inhibitory interneurons
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory modulation of cutaneous vascular responses by endogenous galanin in the pigeon. AU - Sántha, P.. AU - Pierau, Friedrich Karl. AU - Jancsó, G.. PY - 1999/9/24. Y1 - 1999/9/24. N2 - The possible role of endogenous galanin in modulation of cutaneous vascular responses was studied in pigeons. Chemically induced plasma extravasation and regional skin blood flow changes were measured simultaneously with a capillary perfusion technique and a laser Doppler imager, respectively. Perfusion with both histamine and bradykinin increased plasma protein extravasation which was dose-dependently and significantly augmented by co-administration of M35, a specific galanin antagonist. This effect of M35 was abolished after chronic cutaneous denervation. In intact but not denervated skin, M35 increased the vasodilatatory effect of histamine, too. It is suggested that galanin-containing nerves may play an inhibitory efferent role in the modulation of cutaneous inflammatory responses. ...
A model or hybrid network consisting of oscillatory cells interconnected by inhibitory and electrical synapses may express different stable activity patterns without any change of network topology or parameters, and switching between the patterns can be induced by specific transient signals. However, little is known of properties of such signals. In the present study, we employ numerical simulations of neural networks of different size composed of relaxation oscillators, to investigate switching between in-phase (IP) and anti-phase (AP) activity patterns. We show that the time windows of susceptibility to switching between the patterns are similar in 2-, 4- and 6-cell fully-connected networks. Moreover, in a network (N = 4, 6) expressing a given AP pattern, a stimulus with a given profile consisting of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing signals sent to different subpopulations of cells can evoke switching to another AP pattern. Interestingly, the resulting pattern encodes the profile of the switching
Fig. 1. Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced ACF in the colon of rats by polyethylene glycols (PEG) of various molecular weights given at 5% in the drinking water for 30 d (see Methods, study 5). Data from two sequential experiments are shown here, and are plotted as percent of control values, i.e., 135 ± 33 and 81 ± 13 ACF in the first (hatched bars) and second (empty bars) experiment, respectively. Molecular weights are given in dalton, or kilodalton (k). Data are mean and SD from 10 rats (control groups), 4 rats (hatched bars), or 8 rats (empty bars). A star indicates that P , 0.01 compared with respective control value (Dunnetts test made on the actual numbers of ACF).. ...
Renshaw cell properties have been studied extensively for over 50 years, making them a uniquely well-defined class of spinal interneuron. Recent work has revealed novel ways to identify Renshaw cells in situ and this in turn has promoted a range of studies that have determined their ontogeny and organization of synaptic inputs in unprecedented detail. In this review we illustrate how mature Renshaw cell properties and connectivity arise through a combination of activity-dependent and genetically specified mechanisms. These new insights should aid the development of experimental strategies to manipulate Renshaw cells in spinal circuits and clarify their role in modulating motor output.
The amygdala is under inhibitory control from the cortex through the activation of local GABAergic interneurons. This inhibition is greatly diminished during heightened emotional states due to dopamine release. However, dopamine excites most amygdala interneurons, suggesting that this dopaminergic gate may be mediated by an unknown subpopulation of interneurons. We hypothesized that this gate is mediated by paracapsular intercalated cells, a subset of interneurons that are innervated by both cortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic afferents. Using transgenic mice that express GFP in GABAergic interneurons, we show that paracapsular cells form a network surrounding the basolateral complex of the amygdala. We found that they provide feedforward inhibition into the basolateral and the central amygdala. Dopamine hyperpolarized paracapsular cells through D1 receptors and substantially suppressed their excitability, resulting in a disinhibition of the basolateral and central nuclei. Suppression of the ...
Presynaptic inhibition should give rise to a computationally powerful mechanism for pattern classification. Beiser & Houk (1998) found that, since the equilibrium potential for postsynaptic GABAergic inhibition (ECl in figure 3b) is between the down- and up-state of spiny neurons, this mechanism for mediating competition between neighbouring spiny neurons is quite sensitive to spontaneous membrane potential and to model parameters. It performed better than feed-forward inhibition, but it was not optimal. Presynaptic inhibition has no equilibrium potential-it just reduces the synaptic input regardless of the membrane potential of the spiny neuron (figure 3b). This presynaptic advantage reflects a qualitative principled effect that should be robust to parameter selection.. We modelled a minimal network of recurrent loops from cortex through basal ganglia and back to cortex that encodes the serial order of two visual cues, A and B (figure 4). The reader is also referred to the implementation ...
The nervous system is built from a large number of different neuron types, and their connectivity is accurately tuned to support normal nervous system function. These same neuronal circuits must also remain plastic in postembryonic life in order to adapt to changing environmental and/ or behavioural requirements. Plasticity in function is constrained by homeostatic regulation, maintaining circuit activity at pre-determined set levels of activity. Thus, synaptic efficacy, membrane excitability, and the balance of excitatory and inhibitory drive are continuously balanced, contributing to the stability of neuronal function over time. The cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie this shift in synaptic drive so far remain elusive ...
Translational inhibition due to CHEAP RETIN-A the fact that the path of the excitation occurs Br neuron. recurrent inhibition Carried intercalary brake cells (Renshaw). Axons of buy nolvadex online canada motor neurons often give collaterals (branches), ending with Renshaw cells. Renshaw cell axons terminate on the body or dendrites of the motor neuron, forming inhibitory synapses. Arousal that occurs in motor neurons travel in a straight path to the skeletal muscle, as well as collaterals to inhibitory neurons, which send impulses to motoneurons and inhibits them. The stronger the motor neuron excitation, the more excited Renshaw cells and the more intense they exert their inhibitory effect, which protects nerve cells from overstimulation. lateral inhibition ...
Translational inhibition due to CHEAP RETIN-A the fact that the path of the excitation occurs Br neuron. recurrent inhibition Carried intercalary brake cells (Renshaw). Axons of buy nolvadex online canada motor neurons often give collaterals (branches), ending with Renshaw cells. Renshaw cell axons terminate on the body or dendrites of the motor neuron, forming inhibitory synapses. Arousal that occurs in motor neurons travel in a straight path to the skeletal muscle, as well as collaterals to inhibitory neurons, which send impulses to motoneurons and inhibits them. The stronger the motor neuron excitation, the more excited Renshaw cells and the more intense they exert their inhibitory effect, which protects nerve cells from overstimulation. lateral inhibition ...
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
abstract = {Electrophysiological data from in vivo and slice preparations show that inhibitory neurons had shorter duration action potentials (AP) than excitatory neurons. However, this criterion has not yet been established in dissociated cultured neurons. In the present study, we used a high-density CMOS microelectrode array to extracellularly investigate neural signals in primary dissociated cultures of rat neocortex, and we characterized AP waveforms to discriminate excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The CMOS array offers the possibility to acquire comprehensive spatio-temporal neural activity patterns with 11,011 electrodes in about 2×1.75 mm2 area at 20-kHz sampling rate. The waveforms of APs were investigated around cell bodies of neurons, which were classified into either excitatory neurons or inhibitory neurons on the basis of MAP2 and GABA immunostaining images. Consistent with previous in vivo and slice studies, we demonstrated that AP waveforms of inhibitory neurons had shorter ...
Central vagal neurons receive both glycinergic and GABAergic inhibitory inputs at early postnatal timepoints, but adult vagal efferent motoneurons receive only inhibitory GABAergic synaptic inputs. This surely points to the loss of glycinergic inhibit
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This is interesting. So you think that there is no actual afterlife-one chance to make whatever impact on the world that you want? Or that your intangible impact becomes tangible? Maybe Im reading into it wrong, but it did make me think, and was very poetically written ...