新規高感度定量法を用いた小胞体ストレス応答性因子 mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor とその paralog の性状解 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cooperative regulation of nerve growth factor synthesis and secretion in fibroblasts and astrocytes by fibroblast growth factor and other cytokines. AU - Yoshida, Kazunari. AU - Gage, Fred H.. PY - 1992/1/8. Y1 - 1992/1/8. N2 - Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) enhances nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis by astrocytes obtained from various brain regions. NGF secretion by fibrous-shaped astrocytes transformed by dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) pretreatment was less than that by untreated astrocytes. However, aFGF also enhanced NGF secretion by fibrous-shaped astrocytes. The effects of various kinds of intracellular signaling modulators on NGF synthesis were examined. None of the following second messenger effectors had an effect on NGF synthesis: protein kinase C (PKC) agonist (phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)) or antagonist (sphingosine (SP)). LiCl, and ionomycin (Iono). Further, increases of intracellular cAMP by forskolin (FK) or db-cAMP have no significant effect on NGF ...
Beta-nerve growth factor (NGF) is a protein necessary for the survival and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons that appears to be produced by the target tissues of these neurons in vivo. Both denervation and the culture of explants of one model target, the rat iris, leads to an increase in the NGF content, suggesting that innervating neurons may regulate a step in synthesis or turnover of NGF. To determine whether there is a change in synthesis controlled at the mRNA level, the rat iris has been assayed for its content of NGF mRNA after surgical and chemical denervation and after explant into culture. Using a sensitive blot hybridization assay, a large, rapid increase in the content of NGF mRNA was observed upon explant of the rat iris. The increase was readily detectable within 1 h, reached a maximum increase of 10- to 20-fold by 6 to 12 h, and was still evident after 3 d in culture. The distribution of NGF mRNA in different areas of the iris does not change during this time. This ...
Recombinant Human Nerve growth factor-beta (rHu beta-NGF) is a potent neurotrophic factor, which supports the growth and survivability of nerve and/or glial cells. The active form of rHu beta-NGF is a dimer, formed by two identical subunits, which is held together by strong hydrophobic interactions. Recombinant human Nerve Growth Factor beta produced in CHO is a homodimer, glycosylated, polypeptide chain of 2 identical 119 amino acids and a molecular mass of 16,950 Dalton ...
MANF, also known as ARMET, was initially identified as a protein containing an arginine-rich region that was highly mutated in a variety of tumors. More recently it was identified as a mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor with selectivity for dopaminergic neurons, similar to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and CDNF. In rat brain slices, MANF enhanced nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid release. Like GDNF and CDNF, MANF has selective neuroprotective activity for dopaminergic neurons suggesting that it may be indicated for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Expression of MANF has also been shown to be induced during ER stress, suggesting that it may play a role in protein quality control during ER stress. This antibody does not cross-react with CDNF. ...
Background: Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17) belongs to the family of neurodegenerative diseases caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion. In SCA17, polyQ expansion occurs in the TATA box binding protein (TBP) and leads to the misfolding of TBP and the preferential degeneration in the cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Currently there is no effective treatment for SCA17. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a recently identified neurotrophic factor, and increasing MANF expression ameliorated SCA17 neuropathology in TBP-105Q knock-in (KI) mouse model, indicating that MANF could be a therapeutic target for treating SCA17. Methods: In this study, we screened a collection of 2000 FDA-approved chemicals using a stable cell line expressing luciferase reporter, which is driven by MANF promoter. We identified several potential candidates that can induce the expression of MANF. Of these inducers, piperine is an agent that potently induces the luciferase expression or MANF expression. ...
Although protein-misfolding-mediated neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to aging, how aging contributes to selective neurodegeneration remains unclear. We established spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17) knockin mice that inducibly express one copy of mutant TATA box binding protein (TBP) at different ages by tamoxifen-mediated Cre recombination. We find that more mutant TBP accumulates in older mouse and that this accumulation correlates with age-related decreases in Hsc70 and chaperone activity. Consistently, older SCA17 mice experienced earlier neurological symptom onset and more severe Purkinje cell degeneration. Mutant TBP shows decreased association with XBP1s, resulting in the reduced transcription of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), which is enriched in Purkinje cells. Expression of Hsc70 improves the TBP-XBP1s interaction and MANF transcription, and overexpression of MANF ameliorates mutant TBP-mediated Purkinje cell degeneration via protein kinase C ...
The behavioral effects of human nerve growth factor (NGF) were assessed in Fischer-344 rats of two ages: 4 months old (4MO) and 23 months old (23MO). Recent memory was tested in delayed alteration (T maze), reference memory in a place discrimination (water maze), and sensorimotor skills in a battery of sensorimotor tasks. Each rat was preoperatively trained in each task, given either a control procedure (CON), or continuous infusion of human NGF via an osmotic minipump, and retested again 3 weeks later. Two doses of NGF were delivered: 40 micrograms and 160 micrograms (total amount infused over a period of 4 weeks). In 23MO-NGF rats, both doses improved performance in the recent memory task, and in some measures of the place learning task, but had no effect on sensorimotor skills. In 4MO-NGF rats, the low dose impaired performance in the recent memory task, but not in the place discrimination or in the sensorimotor tasks. These data indicate that human NGF can reverse age-related cognitive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of nerve growth factor on catalase and glutathione peroxidase in a hydrogen peroxide-resistant pheochromocytoma subclone. AU - Jackson, George R.. AU - Sampath, Deepa. AU - Werrbach-Perez, Karin. AU - Perez-Polo, J. Regino. PY - 1994/1/14. Y1 - 1994/1/14. N2 - Stepwise selection in increasing H2O2 concentrations was used to obtain a PC12 cell variant designated HPR. This variant was stably resistant to H2O2 as compared with the parental PC12 cell line. HPR cells responded to nerve factor (NGF) by further enhancing H2O2 resistance. This variant was subcloned by limiting dilution to obtain the line referred to as HPR-C, which was stably resistant to H2O2 toxicity and retained NGF responses, including morphologic changes and further reduction of H2O2 toxicity. When compared with the parental PC12 line, the HPR-C subclone did not have higher levels of catalase or glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity or mRNA expression (as assessed by PCR analysis of cDNA reverse ...
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The goal of this work was to develop a growth factor delivery system for use in nerve regeneration that would provide localized release of beta-nerve growth factor (b-NGF) and other members of the neurotrophin family in a controlled manner. Although b-NGF does not bind heparin with high affinity, we postulated that a basic domain found at the surface of native b-NGF could interact with heparin and slow its diffusion from a heparin-contg. delivery system. To test this hypothesis, we used a heparin-contg. fibrin-based cell ingrowth matrix consisting of three components, namely an immobilized heparin-binding peptide, heparin and a neurotrophin with low heparin-binding affinity. The heparin-binding peptide contained a factor XIIIa substrate and was covalently cross-linked to fibrin matrixes during polymn. This cross-linked heparin-binding peptide served to immobilize heparin within the matrix, and this immobilized heparin interacted with the neurotrophin and slowed the passive release of the growth ...
Biological and immunological properties of recombinant human, rat, and chicken nerve growth factors (NGFs) were studied and compared. Recombinant NGF proteins were produced in a transient expression system using COS cells and levels of secreted NGF protein were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of conditioned media from in vivo [35S]cysteine-labeled cell cultures. Antigenic differences among the three NGFs were studied by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation of secreted cell products using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against purified mouse NGF, and by a two-site enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with a monoclonal antibody against mouse NGF. Although all three NGFs were recognized equally well in the immunoblotting, only one-third of the chicken NGF protein could be detected by immunoprecipitation or by the EIA as compared to the rat and human NGFs. Thus, changes in the three-dimensional structure of the NGF molecule are most likely responsible for the antigenic ...
In an effort to overcome this drawback, the Tuszynski research team has recently conducted a study of ex vivo gene therapy with nerve growth factor. Similarly, in clinical trials where human nerve growth factor gene were grafted into the fibroblasts harvested from each patient and that were transplanted back into the basal forebrain area …
The receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF) has been purified to near homogeneity from octylglucoside extracts of A875 melanoma cell membranes by the use of repetitive affinity chromatography on NGF-Sepharose. Elution of purified receptor (NGF receptor) was accomplished with 0.15 M NaCl, pH 11.0, containing phosphatidylcholine and octylglucoside. Chromatography on two columns of NGF-Sepharose yielded a 1500-fold purification of the receptor, as assessed by 125I-NGF binding, and permitted recovery of 9% of the total binding activity in the soluble extract. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding of 125I-NGF provided similar Kd values for NGF receptors in soluble extracts of A875 membranes (2.2 nM) and with purified NGF receptor (3.1 nM). Examination of NGF receptor after electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels revealed the presence of two major peptides, of Mr = 85,000 and Mr = 200,000. Affinity labeling experiments, done with 125I-NGF and A875 cells, soluble extracts of A875 cell
Materials and Methods: Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats (n = 30) were used as a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and Wistar rats were used as a control (n = 15). GK rats were assigned randomly into two groups (n = 15/group): the diabetes mellitus group (saline only) and the nerve growth factor group (received nerve growth factor treatment). One titanium implant was placed in each rats left tibia. Immediately postoperatively, nerve growth factor group rats were injected with nerve growth factor (0.4 μg/ day) intramuscularly around the implant, daily for 7 days. Diabetes mellitus and control group rats received normal saline in an identical manner. Rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks following implant surgery ...
AlphaLISA no-wash assay kit for detection and quantitation of human Beta-Nerve Growth Factor (β-NGF) in serum, culture media, or buffered solution.
The first patient has been enrolled in the phase I/II REPARO study, the first international clinical trial evaluating the ophthalmological use of a topical solution of recombinant human Nerve Growth Factor (rhNGF) for the treatment of moderate to severe neurotrophic keratitis (NK). Full Story →. ...
As I mentioned before, the driver has a struct called an NTFS_ATTR_CONTEXT which keeps track of information related to attributes. The main purpose of the structure is to keep vital information about the attribute cached in memory, but its also just a convenient way to pass information about attributes between functions and the driver relies on it quite extensively. Previously, whenever the driver prepared an attribute context, it would allocate just enough memory to hold the members of the context, including a copy of the attribute record (i.e., the attribute header for non-resident attributes or the entire attribute for resident attributes). The problem came when I needed to start changing the length of an attribute record to enable write-support. As I said before, I tried to work around the limitations of the existing code, which was a mistake. Last week I refactored NTFS_ATTR_CONTEXT so its "Record" member would be a pointer to an NTFS_ATTR_RECORD, not the record itself. This means I can ...
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Up to now, treatments for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy have been symptomatic, relying on pain-modifying agents or membrane-stabilizing drugs. Because nerve growth factor is important in the development and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons and their outgrowths, it is proposed that recombinant human nerve growth factor may provide a specific restorative treatment for HIV-associated painful sensory neuropathy.. Patients are randomized to receive either rhNGF at one of two doses or placebo, administered subcutaneously twice weekly for 18 weeks. Patients are stratified into three groups within their regimens by use of didanosine, zalcitabine, or stavudine as follows: current use vs. discontinued between 8 and 26 weeks before randomization vs. never used or discontinued use at least 26 weeks before randomization. Patients will assess their pain daily using the Gracely Pain Scale. AS PER AMENDMENT 5/6/97: After completion of the double-blind phase (18 weeks on treatment followed by 4 ...
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The pioneering investigations of Levi-Montalciniand coworkers established that nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important physiological regulator of neurons of the peripheral nervous system. No doubt...
Neurotrophins are a family of 4 growth factors that regulate neuronal development and function. Neurotrophins were initially discovered as inhibitors of neuronal apoptosis, but this family also mediates neurogenesis, neuronal cell fate, and synaptic plasticity. Neurotrophins are secreted by neurons and activate either the p75 or Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Both initiate downstream signaling and ultimately increase expression of target genes. Trk receptors activate genes involved in cell growth, whereas p75 receptors activate apoptotic genes. Neurotrophins are also used during neuronal differentiation processes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Additional neuropeptides and growth factors involved in neurogenesis and cell growth also signal in a similar manner to neurotrophins. Dysregulation of neurotrophin secretion and function can cause memory impairments and reduced nociception (pain). Neuronal differentiation via iPSCs is currently under intense study, as this field ...
The 154 publications listed below are selected by Cambridge Neuroscience members. This list is not exhaustive.. HENTSCHEL HG, BARLOW HB,FOLDIAK P (1989), "Path planning by a mobile vehicle using VLSI design automation algortithms." In Esprit project P 940, Depth and Motion Analysis. Report R 4 3 1 Motion Planning and Tracking. Horace Barlow. Adams RJ, Pollard TD (1989), "Membrane-bound myosin-I provides new mechanisms in cell motility." Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 14(2):178-82 Details Richard Adams. Adams RJ, Pollard TD (1989), "Binding of myosin I to membrane lipids." Nature 340(6234):565-8 Details Richard Adams. Allen LS, Hines M, Shryne JE, Gorski RA (1989), "Two sexually dimorphic cell groups in the human brain." J Neurosci 9(2):497-506 Details Melissa Hines. Allen SJ, Dawbarn D, Spillantini MG, Goedert M, Wilcock GK, Moss TH, Semenenko FM (1989), "Distribution of beta-nerve growth factor receptors in the human basal forebrain." J Comp Neurol 289(4):626-40 Details Michel Goedert. Annett LE, ...
Micropatterning of biological cues is important for the guided formation of neuronal outgrowth and neuronal differentiation. Nerve growth factor (NGF) was micropatterned in a three-dimensional collagen sponges by using micropatterned ice lines that were composed of collagen and NGF. The micropatterned ice lines were prepared by a dispersing machine. PC12 cells were cultured in the NGF-micropatterned collagen sponges and showed micropatterned neurite outgrowth. The neurite outgrowth followed the micropattern of NGF with more neurite outgrowth in the collagen/NGF lines than in the regions between the collagen/NGF lines. The micropattern of the NGF and the neurite network of the PC12 cells can be manipulated by controlling the micropattern of the NGF. The three-dimensional porous scaffolds prepared by this method will have a potential application for the regeneration and repair of the nervous system. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2012 ...
Rossino, P., Gavazzi, I., Timpl, R., Aumailley, M., Abbadini, M., Giancotti, F., et al. (1990) Nerve Growth Factor Induces Increased Expression of a Laminin-Binding Integrin in Rat Pheochromocytoma PC12 Cells. Experimental Cell Research, 189, 100-108.
Researchers have been studying this approach in different animal models of neurodegeneration. At AAIC, Elisa Konofagou of Columbia University in New York reported that focused ultrasound helped deliver neurotrophic factors into the brain in a mouse model of Parkinsons disease. First, Konofagou presented findings from the MPTP injection model, in which dopaminergic neurons wither following administration of this neurotoxin. After injecting microbubbles into the blood, she targeted sound waves to the substantia nigra and striatum, the areas most prone to degeneration in PD. She then injected either saline or the neurotrophic protein neurturin, or an adeno-associated virus expressing glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Other mice were given these treatments without ultrasound. By the time of treatment, about 40 percent of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra had died. Konofagou reported that when given together with ultrasound, either growth factor restored about 75 percent of ...
In article ,39bn5p$gik at news.uni-c.dk,, emil2345 at inet.uni-c.dk (Soren Vestergaard) says: , ,As I am re-reading the literature on neurotrophic factors I have come to ,understand that NGF also has action on the mast cells. It is widely known ,that NGF is resposable for the differentiation and growing of the sensory ,and symphatic nervous system, but perhaps this trophic molecule also has ,a more generel inpact on the immunological system. , ,If anyone has any input on this I would be very pleased to se some ideas ,put forwards. Thanks. , ,Soren ,e-mail: emil2345 at inet.uni-c.dk ,DK - Denmark You might want to look at Thorpe et al. Mechanisms of lymphocyte activation by nerve growth factor. Ann NY Acad Sci 594:78-83 (1990 ...
BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (BDNF). BDNF is the dominant factor (compared to other neurotrophic factors) in the brain. This holds true not only to the variety of brain structures, but also to the BDNF expression level. According to our data [16, 17], BDNF expression in the brain structures of rats is much higher than that of GDNF. According to current estimations, the human BDNF gene is located in the p14 region of chromosome 11 (in rats and mice these are chromosomes 3q33 and 2qE3, respectively) and contains 12 exons, nine of which have specific promoters (I-VIII 5′ exons spliced to the common 3′ IX exon). This gene structure is observed both in humans [18] and in rodents [19], but the number of exons varies (9 in mice and 10 in rats). Transcripts of template RNA as well as BDNF protein are widely present in the neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum [20].. BDNF is notable by structural and functional complexity, which is based on (i) the presence of several promoters in the ...
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor. Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery ...
Keeping cells alive Another promising option is to use compounds known to protect neurons from further damage. However, getting these compounds to the correct part of the brain is proving a huge challenge. Infusing Growth Factor into the brain Another pioneering surgical treatment involves implanting a pump filled with GDNF in a patients abdomen. This sends a daily dose of growth factor into the dopamine deficient area of their brain.. The growth factor, called GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor) encourages the recovery of damaged neurons. ...
Genetically engineered neural stem cell (NSC) lines are promising vectors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinsons disease (PD). Neurturin (NTN), a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, has been demonstrated to act specifically on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, suggesting its therapeutic potential for PD. In our previous work, we demonstrated that NTN-overexpressing c17.2 NSCs exerted dopaminergic neuroprotection in a rat model of PD. In this study, we transplanted NTN-c17.2 into the striatum of the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD model to further determine the regenerative effect of NTN-c17.2 on the rat models of PD. After intrastriatal grafting, NTN-c17.2 cells differentiated and gradually downregulated nestin expression, while the grafts stably overexpressed NTN. Further, an observation of rotational behavior and the contents of neurotransmitters tested by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the regenerative effect
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of transplanting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), genetically modified to express glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), to the contused rat spinal cord, and to subsequently ...
The proliferation, differentiation and survival of neuronal and glial cells are affected by a number of neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and others. In a previous study, we observed the effects of `SEMAX® (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro), the physiologically active analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone(4-10), on neuronal cell survival in vitro. We hypothesized that these effects may be mediated by the regulation of expression of some neurotrophic factors. To test this hypothesis we analyzed NGF and BDNF gene expression in glial cells obtained from the basal forebrain of newborn rats, following in vitro treatment with `SEMAX®. We observed changes in mRNA levels for both the NGF and BDNF genes. The greatest increase in expression was found after 30 min of `SEMAX® administration. At this time, BDNF mRNA level was increased eight-fold in comparison with control, and NGF mRNA level was increased five-fold. 2001 Elsevier Science ...
Tissue injury generates endogenous factors that heighten our sense of pain by increasing the response of sensory nerve endings to noxious stimuli. Bradykinin and nerve growth factor (NGF) are two such pro-algesic agents that activate G-protein-coupled (BK2) and tyrosine kinase (TrkA) receptors, respectively, to stimulate phospholipase C (PLC) signalling pathways in primary afferent neurons. How these actions produce sensitization to physical or chemical stimuli has not been elucidated at the molecular level. Here, we show that bradykinin- or NGF-mediated potentiation of thermal sensitivity in vivo requires expression of VR1, a heat-activated ion channel on sensory neurons. Diminution of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) levels through antibody sequestration or PLC-mediated hydrolysis mimics the potentiating effects of bradykinin or NGF at the cellular level. Moreover, recruitment of PLC-gamma to TrkA is essential for NGF-mediated potentiation of channel ...
Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance. Mediates axon repulsion of neuronal growth cones in the developing nervous system upon ligand binding. Axon repulsion in growth cones may be caused by its association with DCC that may trigger signaling for repulsion (By similarity). Functions as netrin receptor that negatively regulates vascular branching during angiogenesis. Mediates retraction of tip cell filopodia on endothelial growth cones in response to netrin (By similarity). It also acts as a dependence receptor required for apoptosis induction when not associated with netrin ligand (PubMed:12598906). Mediates apoptosis by activating DAPK1. In the absence of NTN1, activates DAPK1 by reducing its autoinhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-308 thereby increasing its catalytic activity (By similarity ...
Alzheimers is often described as a disease of progressive plaque formation and of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, but long before the first plaque forms, a little known cellular process plays a crucial role. That process involves a discovery in 1992 of something called a dependence receptor whose role in Alzheimers and other diseases is now fully proven, yet little known outside the high priesthood of research. The discovery, not even 30 years ago, of the first dependence receptor pulled back the curtains on a process with profound implications for our understanding of how Alzheimers begins and progresses. That said, you will be forgiven if the title didnt tip you off to the groundbreaking discovery inside. "Induction of apoptosis by the low-affinity NGF receptor" appeared in the journal Science in July 1993 and while the idea of a receptor certainly wasnt new, the manner in which this receptor functions was completely different. Note - Even though the article was published 2 years ...
NGF binds to and activates the protein tyrosine kinase gp 140prototrk. Expression of this receptor is required for at least some responses to NGF. Three outstanding issues are addressed in the present work. First, we determined whether expression of gp 140prototrk is required for all neuronal NGF responses. Second, we examined the role of gp 140prototrk in NGF binding and internalization. Third, we addressed the utility of NGF-nonresponsive PC12nnr5 cells for study of the NGF mechanism. In contrast to wild-type PC12 cells, PC12nnr5 cells do not express endogenous gp 140prototrk. We therefore asked whether they possess other defects that compromise NGF signaling pathways. To answer these questions, we transfected PC12nnr5 cells with a cDNA encoding full- length human gp 140prototrk and isolated cell lines permanently expressing the receptor. Introduction of trk rescued all of the many and varied NGF responses assessed, including enhanced protein tyrosine phosphorylation, induction of ...
Neurotrophins have been implicated in positive and negative modulation of the susceptibility of neural tumors to chemotherapeutic agents (Cortazzo et al., 1996; Kim et al., 1999;Schor, 1999). NGF, the first neurotrophin described, has been found to variably induce or prevent apoptosis of normal and neoplastic neural cells, depending upon the method by which apoptosis is induced and which of the two known NGF receptors (p75 or TrkA) is involved in mediating the response to NGF (Bredesen and Rabizadeh, 1997; Bredesen et al., 1998).. In addition, previous studies have demonstrated the multiple roles of the p75 receptor (Frade and Barde, 1998) and have suggested that its predominant role varies from cell type to cell type (Cortazzo et al., 1996). What determines the function of p75 in different cell types or in the same cell at different times in its development remaines unclear (Fundin et al., 1997). Several studies have indicated that p75 binding to TrkA, TrkB, or TrkC enhances the affinity of the ...
Higher level of protein from the gene called brain-derived neurotrophic factor may provide a buffer for the brain and protect it against the effects of the plaques.
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of knowledge concerning its neurochemical aspects. There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Nerve growth factor (NGF) are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression through binding and activating their cognate receptors trk B and trk A respectively. The present study was performed to examine whether the expression profiles of BDNF and/or trk B as well as NGF and/or trk A were altered in postmortem brain in subjects who ...
After Treatment, Biopsy, Cold, Gene, Growth, Growth Factor Receptors, Inflammation, Injury, Leprosy, Methods, Nerve Growth Factor, Nerve Growth Factor Receptors, Nerve Regeneration, Neurons, Nociception, Occupation, Pain, Patients, Regeneration, Sensation
TY - JOUR. T1 - Directing NGFs actions. T2 - Its a rap. AU - Stork, Philip J.. PY - 2005/4/1. Y1 - 2005/4/1. N2 - Epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor (NGF) lead to significantly different temporal patterns of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase activation, and differential regulation of Ras and Rap1 have been implicated in mediating this temporal specificity. Now Sasagawa et al. derive a computational model that incorporates the known signalling interactions and identifies key points of regulation that control these processes.. AB - Epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor (NGF) lead to significantly different temporal patterns of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase activation, and differential regulation of Ras and Rap1 have been implicated in mediating this temporal specificity. Now Sasagawa et al. derive a computational model that incorporates the known signalling interactions and identifies key points of regulation that control these processes.. UR - ...