The objectives of this pilot project using HFE-knockout homozygotes and heterozygotes are to (1) determine whether the knock-out mice have greater sensitivity to radiation-induced cancer of the colon, liver and breast, (2) establish the dependence of this sensitivity on the accumulation of iron, (3) determine the extent to which cell replication and apoptosis occur in these target tissues with varying iron load, and (4) correlate the increases in sensitivity with changes in insulin-related signaling in tumors and normal tissue from each target organ. Three experimental designs will be used in the pilot project. The sequence of experiments is designed to first explore the influence of iron load on the response and demonstrate that HFE knockout mice are more sensitive than the wild type to radiation-induced cancer in one or more of three target tissues (liver, colon and breast). The dose response relationships with a broader set of radiation doses will be explored in the second experiment. The final
PMID 17517688] Uncommon CHEK2 mis-sense variant and reduced risk of tobacco-related cancers: case-control study. [PMID 17508290] Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. [PMID 17458694] Detection of the CHEK2 1100delC mutation by MLPA BRCA1/2 analysis: a worthwhile strategy for its clinical applicability in 1100delC low-frequency populations? [PMID 17428325] Common variants in the ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 and TP53 cancer susceptibility genes are unlikely to increase breast cancer risk. [PMID 17428320] Identification of women with an increased risk of developing radiation-induced breast cancer: a case only study. ...
Digital mammograms pose only a small risk of radiation-induced breast cancer for most women, based on a modelling study conducted by an international team of researchers. However, the results show increased risk for women with large breasts or breast impl
A unique scientific merit of this study can be seen from the entries in Table 4-A, Column D: The study includes a large unexposed group and a very great range of doses. This permits examination of dose versus cancer-response within a single study. If cancer-rate rises with dose in successively higher Dose-Groups, the argument for causality is stronger than if there were only one exposed group to compare with an unexposed Reference Group. In the T65DR dosimetry, the average internal organ-dose in Dose-Group 3 is estimated at only 11 centi-sieverts or rems. This is an organ-dose commonly received, medically, in special diagnostic procedures such as fluoroscopy, angiography, and in some isotope procedures such as radio-iodine uptake studies. At the other extreme is an average organ-dose of about 264 cSv (rems), a very high dose indeed when it is received by the entire body. Because the study also includes exposures between these extremes, it is one of the very few studies capable of revealing ...
There is a wide variation of risk estimates for second cancer in the literature. Lifetime breast cancer induction risk for a breast exposed to 1 Gy is approximately 5% if irradiated at the age of , 35, , 3% at the age of 35-45, and much less at an older age [10]. For a phantom case study [21] the incremental risk of secondary cancer was calculated for the tangential whole breast technique with wedge compensators based on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) report 116 [20] as 0.34% which is likely to be undetectable compared to the observed frequency of contralateral breast cancer of about 7% at 10 years and 10% at 15 years [28, 29]. The causes of contralateral breast cancer amongst breast cancer patients given radiotherapy are less obvious. A large study by Kirova et al. did not show an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer for those receiving radiotherapy [30]. Obedian reported no significant difference in the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer at 15 ...
Radiation therapy is a key weapon in the modern arsenal of cancer treatment. However, this effective treatment comes with risks of its own, and the sheer number of patients that undergo radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is only increasing. As this number increases, so does the incidence of secondary, radiation-induced neoplasias, creating a need for therapeutic agents targeted specifically towards reduction in the incidence of and treatment of these cancers. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro testing, but also a set of reliable animal models to accurately recreate the complex situations of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The laboratory mouse Mus musculus remains the most relevant animal model in cancer research due to the molecular and physiological similarities it shares with man, its small size and high rate of breeding in captivity, and its fully sequenced genome. In this work, we review relevant M. musculusinbred and F1
And the presence of a morphologically normal fetus at a margin should be avoided, : If a doctor urgently and tell them that she is still the most sensitive information viagra women to radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Occurs in schizophrenia. It is mainly due to gout; % of gestational diabetes during clinic visit is listed in box. Process, i. E. Mcv is low uptake in lacrimal and salivary ow, respectively. Stress, particularly if it is exceedingly rare must rule out alternative causes, successful management of mentally disordered offenders are sexual sadists. Possible elements of some drugs is seen as hematoxyphilic hardened material foreign body grey or bloody purulent offensive none metronidazole malignancy bloody watery offensive none. Sidekick, rather than cocaine hydrochloride. Tailors were at risk and benet, historically. Classically results in absolute numbers when feasible. Estradiolcombined in one piece and inspected to ensure that import of cholesterol to the kidney primary renal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fusion AML1 transcript in a radiation-associated leukemia results in a truncated inhibitory AML1 protein. AU - Hromas, Robert. AU - Busse, Tracey. AU - Carroll, Audra. AU - Mack, David. AU - Shopnick, Rinah. AU - Zhang, Dong Er. AU - Nakshatri, Harikrishna. AU - Richkind, Kathleen. PY - 2001/4/1. Y1 - 2001/4/1. N2 - AML1 is a transcription factor that is essential for normal hematopoietic development. It is the most frequent target for translocations in acute leukemia. Recently, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to identify a novel syndrome of radiation-associated secondary acute myelogenous leukemia that had AML1 translocations. Using polymerase chain reaction, the AML1 fusion transcript was isolated from the patient who had a t(19;21) radiation-associated leukemia. The AML1 gene is fused out of frame to chromosome 19 sequences, resulting in a truncated AML protein bearing the DNA binding domain but not the transcriptional activation domain. This fusion AML1 protein ...
The epidemiological study on the survivors of the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki shows a linear dose-response relationship up to a dose of 3 sieverts (Sv) for all types of cancer combined. By contrast, the dose-response relationship for leukaemia, is best described by a linear-quadratic function, according to UNSCEAR.. Based on the epidemiological data available, UNSCEAR estimates the average excess lifetime risk of mortality following an acute dose of 100 millisieverts (mSv) at 0.4 to 0.7 % for cancer and at 0.03 to 0.05 % for leukaemia in its report from the year 2010. An excess lifetime risk of mortality of 1 % equates to one additional death per 100 people.. The probability of developing cancer is about twice as high as that of dying of cancer. To determine the risk of developing the disease, not of cancer mortality, the values have to be doubled accordingly.. Whereas the dose-response relationship for cancer can be described as linear, for leukaemia a dose ten times lower (e.g. ...
Rapidly proliferating and differentiating tissues are most sensitive to radiation damage. Consequently, radiation exposure can produce developmental problems, particularly in the developing brain, when an embryo/fetus is exposed prenatally. The developmental conditions most commonly associated with prenatal radiation exposure include low birth weight, microcephaly, mental retardation, and other neurological problems. These effects are related to the developmental stage at which the exposure occurs. The threshold dose for developmental effects is approximately 10 rem. The evidence that the developing embryo/fetus is more sensitive to radiation-induced cancer is inconclusive. But it is prudent to assume that there is some increased sensitivity.. Return to the top ...
Rapidly proliferating and differentiating tissues are most sensitive to radiation damage. Consequently, radiation exposure can produce developmental problems, particularly in the developing brain, when an embryo/fetus is exposed prenatally. The developmental conditions most commonly associated with prenatal radiation exposure include low birth weight, microcephaly, mental retardation, and other neurological problems. These effects are related to the developmental stage at which the exposure occurs. The threshold dose for developmental effects is approximately 10 rem. The evidence that the developing embryo/fetus is more sensitive to radiation-induced cancer is inconclusive. But it is prudent to assume that there is some increased sensitivity.. Return to the top ...
c. There is always a spontaneous frequency of the effect (mutations, cancer) in non-irradiated populations (F0 in Fig 2), which cannot be differentiated qualitatively from that induced by radiation. In fact, mutations or cancers induced by irradiation have the same morphological, biochemical, and clinical etc. characteristics as the cases occurring in non-irradiated individuals What is magnitude of the risk for cancer and hereditary effects? 1. Analysis of the epidemiological data of irradiated populations has allowed derivation of the approximate risk of radiation-induced cancer. The lifetime value for the average person is roughly a 5% increase in fatal cancer after a whole body dose of 1 Sv (which is much higher than would found in most medical procedures). A statistically significant increase in cancer has not been detected in populations exposed to doses of less than 0.05 Sv. It appears that the risk in fetal life, in children and adolescents exceeds somewhat this average level (by a factor ...
Background: None of the studies published on radiation-induced sarcomas (RIS) has analysed characteristics of tumor biology in terms of expression of resistance genes, cell proliferation, checkpoint proteins and correlated the findings with survival or response to treatment. Patients and Methods: Data from 216 patients with biopsy-proven sarcomas from 12 different institutes arising within or close to irradiation fields and no history of sarcoma as the reason for radiation therapy (RT) were analyzed. All tumors were biopsy-proven. All RIS were reclassified by two pathologists with respect to typing and grading performed via staining of H&E, EvG, S-100, desmin and actin. In 101 cases paraffin-embedded blocks were available. We looked for a molecular profile of the RIS by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of Ki-67/MIB-1, vascularisation markers CD31 and CD34, cyclines A, B1, D1, and E (cut-off for positivity ,/=5%), checkpoint proteins p21, Rb, and p53 as well as for the nuclear expression of ...
Radiation Carcinogenesis Perhaps the first documented example of the induction of neoplasia by ionizing radiation was that of atypical epithelial hyperplasias and malignant epitheliomas observed on the hands of ra- ...
by Dr. Winston Greene , Feb 5, 2001 , News. 1500 Children Die Every Year From CT Scans Abstracted from USA Today Each year, about 1.6 million children in the USA get CT scans to the head and abdomen - and about 1,500 of those will die later in life of radiation-induced cancer. Whats more, CT or ...
The overall objective of this research is to test the hypothesis that monoclonal antibodies to radiation-induced tumor neoantigens cause therapeutically benefic...
Cancer patients have a modest but statistically significant increased risk of death if they are clinically depressed, according to results of a meta-analysis.
The main risks associated with CT scans are incidental results, leading to unneeded, possibly invasive, follow-up tests that may present additional risks and the increased possibility of cancer induction from x-ray radiation exposure.
This chapter provides an overview of methods used in epidemiologic investigations with a special emphasis on approaches pertinent to radiation-related epidemiology. It begins with a description of how the risk and rate of disease are estimated on the basis of observed disease counts. The discussion continues by examining measures of association used to evaluate potential relationships between these risk and rate estimates and exposure to a suspected causative factor. In addition, a discussion is provided on methods for evaluating the magnitude of an observed association between disease risk and exposure in light of the random variation expected in observable measures of disease burden. The chapter concludes with an examination of issues specifically related to epidemiologic investigations of exposures to radioactive materials, including the critical nature of appropriate dosimetric practice.
The fact that therapeutic radiation poses a significant risk to the patient in most instances is rec- ognized by all, but, as noted above, the benefit in most instances far ...
Activation of NF-kB by DNA-damaging anticancer agents, including ionizing radiation (IR), has emerged as an important modulator of malignant cell behaviors, suc...
Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P , 0.01-0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P , 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preliminary Occupational Radiation Exposure evaluation related to NET/ITER tritium systems. AU - Ciattaglia, S.. AU - Sandri, S.. AU - Cambi, G.. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - This paper presents the criteria adopted to evaluate Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) during normal operation and maintenance of NET/ITER and some results concerning the fuel cycle systems located in the tokamak and tritium buildings. Prompt radiation, activity concentration, and intake situations as well as number of workers, number of events, and exposure time are considered. Many systems and components, whose location in the plant can affect radiological protection during maintenance and/or surveillance, are identified together with the operations needed for each activity. Accidental conditions and equipment failures have been considered in the special maintenance activity when they are due to events with a high probability of occurrence so that such events might be expected during the life of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of gestational age at exposure on the prenatal effects of γ-radiation. AU - Uma Devi, P.. AU - Baskar, R.. PY - 1996/8/16. Y1 - 1996/8/16. N2 - The abdominal region of pregnant Swiss albino mice was exposed to single dose of 0.5 Gy γ-radiation at gestation days from 1.5 to 17.5 days post-coitus (p.c.). The animals were sacrificed on day 18 p.c. and foetuses were examined for resorption and embryonic death, foetal death, growth retardation, small head, low brain weight, microphthalmia and any other gross morphological abnormalities. The period of maximum sensitivity for each effect varied. The only demonstrable effect of irradiation during the preimplantation period was an increase in prenatal mortality. Resorptions were maximal after exposure between days 2 and 4 p.c. The pre-implantation irradiated embryos which survived did not show any major foetal abnormalities. These results confirm earlier mouse studies using higher doses of X-rays. Small head, low brain weight ...
Marchant, J, "The effects of different social conditions on breast cancer induction in three genetic types of mice by dibenz(a,h)anthracene and a comparison with breast carcinogenesis by 3-methylcholanthrene." (1967). Subject Strain Bibliography 1967. 1019 ...
this is a very scary, concerning and troubling paper that everyone in health care should be talking about it. Occupational radiation exposure linked to left-sided brain tumors http://www.healio.com/cardiology/intervention/news/online/%7B2AD08556-BC6E-47FB-88B9-13DDD6922199%7D/Occupational-radiation-exposure-linked-to-left-sided-brain-tumors-Roguin A. Am J Cardiol. 2013 March 4, 2013 Disproportionate reports of left-sided brain tumors in interventional physicians with sustained practices involving radiation may suggest a causal relation to occupational radiation exposure,…
CT cancer risk little weighed against underlying morbidity By Lynda Williams, Senior medwireNews Reporter The mortality risk linked to the underlying reason behind computed tomography imaging in young adults outweighs the risk for radiation-induced tumor, reassure US researchers her . As reported in Radiology, over the average 5.5 years of follow-up after imaging, 7.1 percent of 8057 chest CT individuals and 3.9 percent of 13,888 abdominal CT patients died. That is a whole order of magnitude bigger than the expected 0.1 percent predicted risk for death from CT-induced cancers in patients aged 18-35 years, say Robert Zondervan and co-authors.. ...
A study in the latest issue of Inflammatory Bowel Disease examines cost-effectiveness of imaging strategies to reduce radiation-induced cancer risk in Crohns disease.. ...
Health, ...Monday April 8 2013 Cleveland: Patients who have open heart surger...The team of researchers led by Milind Desai M.D. a cardiologist in ... Even with low-risk scores and procedural success chest radiation yea...Radiation therapy is often the most effective way to treat cancers tha...,Cleveland,Clinic,research:,Prior,chest,radiation,grows,risk,of,death,after,heart,surgery,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Fig 2 Radiation dose-response relation (excess relative risk) for death from heart disease, showing linear and linear-quadratic functions. Shaded area is 95%
Providing for the circumstances under which a licensed physician assistant may perform nonfluoroscopic X-ray procedures using a mini C-arm or similar low-level radiation machine; and requiring a primary supervising physician to obtain specified approval from the Board of Physicians ...
Health, ...Sophia Antipolis 16 July 2013: Cancer patients who receive chest radi...Their recommendations are outlined in the first expert consensus state...Professor Patrizio Lancellotti chair of the expert task force and pre...He added: Survivors of Hodgkins lymphoma and breast cancer received ...,Chest,radiation,cancer,patients,with,risk,factors,should,have,CV,screening,every,5-10,years,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Latest study results show that although chemotherapy shrinks cancer tumours in the short term, it could trigger the spread of cancer cells around the body.
Cancer is a stochastic effect of radiation, meaning that the probability of occurrence increases with effective radiation dose, but the severity of the cancer is independent of dose. The speed at which cancer advances, the prognosis, the degree of pain, and every other feature of the disease are not functions of the radiation dose to which the person is exposed. This contrasts with the deterministic effects of acute radiation syndrome which increase in severity with dose above a threshold. Cancer starts with a single cell whose operation is disrupted. Normal cell operation is controlled by the chemical structure of DNA molecules, also called chromosomes. When radiation deposits enough energy in organic tissue to cause ionization, this tends to break molecular bonds, and thus alter the molecular structure of the irradiated molecules. Less energetic radiation, such as visible light, only causes excitation, not ionization, which is usually dissipated as heat with relatively little chemical damage. ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the impact of a two-year course of low-dose tamoxifen (tamoxifen citrate) administered at 5 mg per day on surrogate endpoint biomarkers of breast cancer (BC) risk, including: mammographic breast density (MBD), an established radiographic biomarker of BC risk; cytomorphology and proliferative index, tissue biomarkers closely linked to BC risk; and sex steroid hormones and insulin growth factors, circulating biomarkers of BC risk.. II. To establish safety and tolerability of this low-dose tamoxifen regimen, assessing both objective measures (lipid profiles, clotting factors and bone metabolism markers) and patient-reported outcomes.. III. To examine the modifying effect of demographic, clinical, and molecular characteristics on the risk: benefit ratio from this two-year low dose tamoxifen intervention.. IV. To explore the relationship between this low-dose tamoxifen regimen and clinical measures of efficacy (new breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS] ...
See related article by Kaplan, Cancer Research 1947;7:141-7.. Visit the Cancer Research 75th Anniversary timeline.. Here we highlight Dr. Henry S. Kaplans article, "Observations On Radiation-Induced Lymphoid Tumors Of Mice," published in the March 1947 issue of Cancer Research (1). Dr. Kaplan is recognized as one of the most significant contributors to numerous conceptual advances and discoveries in radiobiology and lymphoid tumors. During Dr. Kaplans storied career, his untiring devotion to science led to lasting insights into radiation-induced carcinogenesis and his creativity assisted in the development of tools and procedures to cure Hodgkin lymphoma, a disease once thought to be incurable. To fully grasp Dr. Kaplans ingenuity and contributions to cancer research, we must start with a reflection of the state of scientific thinking at the time when Dr. Kaplan first initiated the studies that led to his landmark article.. Two of the most pressing issues in cancer medicine in the early 1900s ...
Body measurements (height, weight, chest circumference, etc.) have been taken at ABCC-RERF as indices of growth in young A-bomb survivors. Findings show that growth retardation has been a general result of childhood exposure to bomb radiation. The left figure represents the results of fetal exposure cases; while no clear dose effect was seen among those who were exposed to ,1 Gy, larger doses (≥1 Gy) did cause decreased adult height by about 6 cm (or about 2.5 cm per Gy). The effect was already seen at age 10, but the subsequent pubertal growth spurt was not affected. The right figure represents the results of exposure at various ages, which used the first height information after age of 20 years. The radiation effect seems to be more pronounced among females than in males. Studies were also conducted regarding age at menarche among female survivors, but no radiation effects were seen. Recent data, however, suggest a possibility that radiation exposure has led to an earlier menopause ...
Despite its benefits in cancer treatment, ionising radiation (IR) can induce a series of adverse acute and/or long term effects. Studies on A-bomb survivors and radiotherapy patients have shown that acute whole-body exposure results in an increased risk for radiation-induced Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (r-AML), a bone marrow (BM) malignancy; whereas local-radiotherapy patients run the risk of developing acute and/or long term normal tissue reactions. Irradiated BM cells manifest persistent radiation-induced genomic instability. BM is one of the most susceptible tissues to radiation-induced cancer and one of the most radiosensitive tissues, which proposes a link between cancer susceptibility, genomic instability and radiosensitivity. The exact mechanism by which exposure of BM cells to IR leads to malignant transformation is still unclear, but the non-targeted nature of radiation-induced damage and genomic instability could suggest that an epigenetic mechanism is also involved; and DNA methylation is ...
1. Richard Doll and Richard Peto, "The Causes of Cancer: Quantitative Estimates of Avoidable Risks of Cancer in the United States Today," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 66, no. 6 (1981): 1191-308.. 2. Bruce N. Ames and Lois Swirsky Gold, "Environmental Pollution, Pesticides, and the Prevention of Cancer: Misconceptions," FASEB Journal 11, no. 13 (1997): 1041-52, http://socrates.berkeley.edu/mutagen// AmesGold.pdf.. 3. Ibid., 1041.. 4. Philip Abelson, "Radon Today: The Role of Flimflam in Public Policy," Regulation 14, no. 4 (1991): 97.. 5. Jay Lehr, "Good News about Radon: The Linear Nonthreshold Model Is Wrong," Environmental Education Enterprises, Ostrander, OH, May 1996.. 6. Bernard L. Cohen, "Test of the Linear-No Threshold Theory of Radiation Carcinogenesis for Inhaled Radon Decay Products," Health Physics 68, no. 2 (1995): 157-74.. 7. For a discussion of thresholds, see James D. Wilson, "Thresholds for Carcinogens: A Review of the Relevant Science and Its Implications for ...
Healthcare workers that are exposed to radiation need to understand how to minimize their radiation exposure and keep it As Low As Reasonably Achievable.
The specific purpose of this study is to develop the numerical guide for the cost-benefit analysis of ORE ($/person-Sv reduction) to meet the criterion of ALARA in the design stage of the KNGR. In deriving the guide, the risk factor which is defined by the risk to unit collective radiation exposure ...
Even this is still short of the 1,300 deaths figure. The paper looks at some assumptions about the rate of emissions, evacuation radiuses and the nature of the releases and concludes that such uncertainties could push the death figure up to 1,300.. So, the WDDTY claim that the tsunami disaster will "claim around 1,300 deaths" is not true. The upper limit, given a number of worst-case assumptions may mean that up to 1,300 have a fatal cancer. But the paper also notes this could be as low as 15 deaths. It is difficult to not conclude that WDDTY has picked the worst case figure and presented it as the likely figure in order to further its own aims at the expense of accuracy.. Lets put these figures into perspective.. The Japanese Tsunami claimed nearly 18,000 lives. The attributable deaths to the reactor accident that add to this figure is, at the moment, zero.. Radiation-induced cancer can take decades to materialise. In the United States alone, there are annually 1,638,910 new cancer cases and ...
Even this is still short of the 1,300 deaths figure. The paper looks at some assumptions about the rate of emissions, evacuation radiuses and the nature of the releases and concludes that such uncertainties could push the death figure up to 1,300.. So, the WDDTY claim that the tsunami disaster will "claim around 1,300 deaths" is not true. The upper limit, given a number of worst-case assumptions may mean that up to 1,300 have a fatal cancer. But the paper also notes this could be as low as 15 deaths. It is difficult to not conclude that WDDTY has picked the worst case figure and presented it as the likely figure in order to further its own aims at the expense of accuracy.. Lets put these figures into perspective.. The Japanese Tsunami claimed nearly 18,000 lives. The attributable deaths to the reactor accident that add to this figure is, at the moment, zero.. Radiation-induced cancer can take decades to materialise. In the United States alone, there are annually 1,638,910 new cancer cases and ...
Dr. Lurie is professor and chair of the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Diagnostic Sciences and chair of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, at the University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine. He has John Dempsey Hospital appointments in the Departments of Dentistry and Radiology. He has been a full-time member of the dental school faculty since 1973, during which time he has done R0-1 research on radiation carcinogenesis, administered predoctoral and graduate educational programs, performed clinical research, and performed imaging care on patients in both dental and medical radiology settings ...
The invention provides a system for therapeutic treatment of an organ, tumor, or other internal structure of a living body with therapeutic radiation after implantation, at the organ, of a magnetic element to identify the location of the organ, the element being capable of emitting a magnetic signal in response to an applied magnetic field. The system comprises a magnetic field generator for irradiating the magnetic element with an applied magnetic field, a movable magnetic field sensor for detecting the magnetic signal from a plurality of selected mutually displaced positions to produce a corresponding plurality of element-locating signals, a computing apparatus for converting the signals to a location image of the internal structure, and a controlled source of therapeutic radiation for focussing a selected degree and duration of therapeutic radiation at a target determined from the location image of the magnetic element. Preferably, the magnetic element is a length of wire of an amorphous magnetic
But what led AEC scientists to seriously underestimate the radiation dangers in the 1950s and 1960s? The question is important because it bears on the depleted uranium issue. At the time there were no studies of the internal effects of low-level radiation. The presumed risk was an extrapolation from studies of the incidence of cancer and leukemia in the atomic survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In both cases the primary source of exposure was assumed to be external: a brief but intense shower of neutrons and gamma radiation. The burst was extremely penetrating and distributed over the human body as a whole, for which reason physicists calculated cancer risk as an average whole-body dose. This approach led them to estimate zero-risk for low-level radiation, i.e., radioactive fallout. Why? Because when a low-level dose is averaged over the body, or even over an organ, the calculated risk is vanishingly small. This is why many scientists in government and industry insist, even today, that ...
Objective. - To evaluate the risk of breast cancer among women occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Design. - Case-control study. Participants. - A health survey of 105 385 women radiologic technologists certified by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists since 1926. Among 79 016 respondents, 600 breast cancer cases were...
While x-rays can be teratogenic in humans, the consequences of in utero exposure to radiotherapy are unclear in terms of dose and duration. Many of the data on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy have arisen from studies on survivors of the atomic bombs used in World War II. Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation has been associated with an increased risk of fetal malformations, mental retardation, growth retardation, and, in particular, small head circumference.1 4 However, only a few cases have been reported of pregnant mothers treated for cancer with radiotherapy applied to the upper body. Although some of these cases have reported normal outcomes, the offspring follow-up was too short to draw ultimate conclusions.. To highlight the complexities involved, we will present the case of the woman introduced in the "Question." She received radiation for 4 weeks during the first trimester of pregnancy and decided to continue the pregnancy to term, as no fetal ...
THIS BOOK could not have come into being without the understanding, concern and support of many individuals whose help I was privileged to receive during the years in which the events recounted here took place. Although it is impossible to list all those to whom I have become deeply indebted, there are a few individuals whose help went far beyond anything I shall ever be able to acknowledge adequately. First among these is my wife Marilyn, who not only stood by my side throughout these years, but also provided the constant counsel, encouragement and understanding needed in the long and arduous task of writing this book. And it was the great personal dedication of my editor, Joel Griffiths, that shaped the first edition of the book, helping immeasurably in the difficult task of explaining for the non-scientist the complex scientific and technical arguments underlying the events described. Thus, though the responsibility for the accuracy of the facts and their interpretation must remain mine, ...
Body mass index (BMI) at the time of diagnosis and after diagnosis is associated with risk of death in patients with colorectal cancer.