Metastasis is a complicated multistage process that requires the coordination of multiple genes, including both metastasis stimulating genes and metastasis suppressor genes (22) . Genomic instability is one of the driving forces for tumor progression and metastasis development. Among all genetic alterations, inactivation of metastasis suppressor genes is one important factor contributing to the formation of tumor metastasis. Chromosome 11, in particular 11p, is one of the most common regions undergoing genetic alterations in human breast cancer (3, 4, 5) . A previous study demonstrated that a breast cancer metastasis gene or genes exists on chromosome 11 by the fact that the introduction of a normal copy of chromosome 11 into malignant breast cancer cells significantly suppressed their metastatic ability (6) .. The KAI1 gene, located on human chromosome 11p11.2, was initially identified as a metastasis suppressor gene for human prostate cancer (7) . Down-regulation of the KAI1 protein was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adhesion Characteristics of Murine Metastatic and Nonmetastatic Tumor Cells in Vitro. AU - Murray, J. Clifford. AU - Liotta, Lance. AU - Rennard, Stephen I.. AU - Martin, George R.. PY - 1980/2/1. Y1 - 1980/2/1. N2 - We have studied the attachment of mouse fibroblasts, transformed nonmetastatic fibroblasts, and metastatic fibrosarcoma cells to various substrates. The metastatic cells attach preferentially to type IV (basement membrane) collagen in the absence of serum, compared to type I collagen and plastic. In the presence of fibronectin, these cells attach well to both type I and type IV collagens. The normal and transformed fibroblasts attach to all these substrates, although the transformed fibroblasts attach more slowly. The ability to attach to type I collagen and plastic is correlated with the levels of fibronectin and collagen produced by these cells. The data indicate that the transformed and metastatic cells differ from normal cells in their attachment properties and ...
The purpose of these studies was to determine whether hematogenous clonal pulmonary melanoma metastases originate from the expansion of a single cell and if so, by extrapolation, metastasis can be considered a cloning process. Three different cell lines of murine K-1735 melanoma with different metastatic properties and unique karyotypes were injected i.v. into syngeneic C3H/HeN mice as multicell aggregates of individual cell lines or combinations of cell lines. Resultant solitary lung metastases were isolated in culture as individual lines and then karyotyped. Even when heterogeneous clumps of tumor cells were injected, the individual metastases exhibited a karyotype unique to one metastatic cell type. Furthermore, when cellular aggregates were composed of metastatic cells admixed with cells that were tumorigenic but nonmetastatic, the resultant metastases exhibited only the karyotype of the metastatic cells. This finding suggests that the presence of metastatic cells did not change the ...
A new study with mice shows that the "fight or flight" response to stress can promote breast cancer metastasis to the bone.. Researchers at the Vanderbilt University Center for Bone Biology demonstrated in mice that activation of the sympathetic nervous system - the "fight-or-flight" response to stress - primes the bone environment for breast cancer cell metastasis. The researchers were able to prevent breast cancer cell lesions in bone using propranolol, a cardiovascular medicine that inhibits sympathetic nervous system signals.. Metastasis - the spread of cancer cells to organs and bone - is more likely to kill patients than a primary breast tumor, said Florent Elefteriou, Ph.D., director of the Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology.. "Preventing metastasis is really the goal we want to achieve," he said.. Elefteriou and his colleagues learned in previous studies that the sympathetic nervous system stimulated bone remodeling, and that it used some of the same signaling molecules that have been ...
Cancer cell metastasis is one of the most critical steps in tumor development and is responsible for more than 80 of cancer related deaths. Among the molecules involved in promoting cancer metastasis, the role of the cell adhesion molecules, CD44 and CD146 are well known in promoting cancer cell motility and metastasis. Despite this knowledge, the molecular mechanism through which CD44 promotes tumor development and cell metastasis is still nascent. CD146 (MUC 18) was, first identified in highly metastatic melanomas. The absence of CD146 in normal melanocytes and its high expression in melanomas suggests its tumor promoting actions. Despite the association between CD146 expression and development of melanoma, its expression patterns and role in normal and metastatic breast tissues still remains controversial. This study aims to elucidate some of these discrepancies by presenting CD146 as a downstream target for CD44, in a way such that CD146 expression is related to CD44 and regulates the tumor ...
Most cancer deaths are due to spreading of the primary tumor to one or several secondary sites, in a process called metastasis. These metastases are often more difficult to treat than the primary tumor and their presence marks severe progression of the disease. Tumor cell metastasis involves cell migration through heterogenous microenvironments in tissues, along anatomical features such as blood vessels and nerves, and into and out of vasculature. Mounting evidence has accumulated, demonstrating that metastatic tumor cells can migrate via several modes or mechanisms of migration, and can switch between these modes depending on the specific features of the microenvironment. Our research in this area is focused on understanding how distinct physical and biochemical cues from the tumor cells microenvironment affect the phenotype, biological signaling, mechanical properties, and interactions with other cells during metastasis. We are interested in metastasis to the brain, which is especially ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biopsy of breast cancer metastases. T2 - BMC Cancer. AU - Shachar,Shlomit Strulov. AU - Mashiach,Tanya. AU - Fried,Georgeta. AU - Drumea,Karen. AU - Shafran,Noa. AU - Muss,Hyman B.. AU - Bar-Sela,Gil. PY - 2017/1/4. Y1 - 2017/1/4. N2 - Background: Discordance in hormone receptors (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary tumors and metastatic sites for breast cancer is well established. However, it is uncertain which patient-related factors lead to biopsy when metastases are suspected and whether having a biopsy impacts survival. Methods: The medical charts of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients diagnosed January 2000-August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A biopsy was defined as a procedure where tissue was obtained and assessed for both HR and HER2. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess patient characteristics related to biopsy and whether having a biopsy was associated with improved survival. Results: Of ...
Liver is the organ responsible for hematopoiesis during fetal life, which is also a target organ of metastasis for several cancers. In order to recognize the hepatic metastatic changes, obtain a...
Quantitative multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple-gene expression levels of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples. Candidate genes were selected from previous microarray data relevant to breast cancer markers that had the potential to serve as predictive markers for metastatic risk. This multiplex gene set included 11 candidate and 3 housekeeping genes, and the aim was to predict breast cancer progression based on lymph node involvement status.
We report a comprehensive analysis of breast cancer metastases by analyzing the full spectrum of metastatic lesions derived from 10 patients who died of metastatic breast cancer and underwent rapid autopsy. By comparing the primary neoplasms from these patients with their metastases and by comparing metastases from one site to another, we identified marked heterogeneity among breast cancer metastases, as well as markers which remained consistent among these lesions. Our results expand the existing body of knowledge regarding breast cancer metastases and have both biological and therapeutic implications.. With regard to distribution of metastases, we confirm the liver, bone, and lung as the most frequent sites of hematogenous dissemination. We also confirm the striking tendency of lobular carcinoma to metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract, as illustrated by cases MBC1 and MBC5. Case MBC5 is particularly instructive, as the invasive ductal carcinoma primary lost E-cadherin expression in most ...
We have investigated the antitumor effects of synthetic MMP inhibitor MMI270 against postoperative lung metastasis from colon cancer in nude rat. The KM12SM human colon cancer cells were injected into the cecal wall, and at 5 weeks after the injection, the cecum was removed including the tumor. Then, 30 mg/kg of MMI270 was administered perorally twice per day for 2 or 4 weeks, either immediately after removal or after week 2 after the removal. At week 7 after the removal, lung metastasis was significantly inhibited by the early administration of MMI270 immediately after the tumor removal but not by the late administration. The survival rates were significantly higher in the rats treated by early administration of MMI270 compared to the survival rate in untreated rats. Moreover, no lung metastasis was detected in some rats with 24-weeks survival treated by early administration. Lower microvessel density, lower PCNA Index and higher Apoptotic Index in the lung metastases of the rats treated with MMI270
UNLABELLED: Metastatic spread of cancer cells to the brain is associated with high mortality, primarily because current diagnostic tools identify only well-advanced metastases. Brain metastases have been shown to induce a robust glial response, including both astrocyte and microglial activation. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that this stromal response may provide a sensitive biomarker of tumor burden, in particular through the use of SPECT/PET imaging agents targeting the translocator protein (TSPO) that is upregulated on activated glia. Our goals, therefore, were first to determine the spatial and temporal profile of glial activation during early metastasis growth in vivo and second to assess the potential of the radiolabeled TSPO ligand (123)I-DPA-713 for early detection of brain metastases. METHODS: Metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1-green fluorescent protein cells were injected either intracerebrally or intracardially into female BALB/c mice to induce brain metastases.
Breast cancer cells with stem cell properties are key contributors to metastatic disease, and there remains a need to better understand and target these cells in human cancers. Here, we identified rare stem-like cells in patients tumors characterized by low levels of the proapoptotic molecule p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and showed that these cells play a critical role in tumor progression that is independent of clinical subtype. A signaling axis consisting of the integrin αvβ3, Src kinase, and the transcription factor Slug suppresses PUMA in these cells, promoting tumor stemness. We showed that genetic or pharmacological disruption of αvβ3/Src signaling drives PUMA expression, specifically depleting these stem-like tumor cells; increases their sensitivity to apoptosis; and reduces pulmonary metastasis, with no effect on primary tumor growth. Taken together, these findings point to PUMA as a key vulnerability of stem-like cells and suggest that pharmacological upregulation ...
Breast cancer cells with stem cell properties are key contributors to metastatic disease, and there remains a need to better understand and target these cells in human cancers. Here, we identified rare stem-like cells in patients tumors characterized by low levels of the proapoptotic molecule p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and showed that these cells play a critical role in tumor progression that is independent of clinical subtype. A signaling axis consisting of the integrin αvβ3, Src kinase, and the transcription factor Slug suppresses PUMA in these cells, promoting tumor stemness. We showed that genetic or pharmacological disruption of αvβ3/Src signaling drives PUMA expression, specifically depleting these stem-like tumor cells; increases their sensitivity to apoptosis; and reduces pulmonary metastasis, with no effect on primary tumor growth. Taken together, these findings point to PUMA as a key vulnerability of stem-like cells and suggest that pharmacological upregulation ...
The number of clinicians whose eyes glaze over as metastasis researchers dutifully recite the many steps of the metastatic process, and go on to examine tumor cell invasion in minute detail, signals either that we give boring lectures or that we have evoked the so what? response. Those who would favor the latter response might state that, even for the greater than 90% of patients without detectable distant metastases at surgery, it remains possible that tumor cells have already invaded out of the primary tumor and are sitting contentedly in distant sites undetected. Only growth and angiogenesis remain. Why study metastasis when it may be virtually complete by the time the patient walks into the clinic? Has the barn door been left open? Should we all drop our experiments and switch to antiangiogenesis projects?. Two reviews in this series have addressed this critical question, and arrived at similar answers. Investigators from Dr Ann Chambers laboratory have watched it all happen. She and ...
Cancer is a disease of cell growth, but most tumors only become lethal once they metastasize or spread from their first location to sites throughout the body. For the first time, researchers at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia report a single molecule that appears to be the central regulator driving metastasis in prostate cancer. The study, published online July 13th in Cancer Cell, offers a target for the development of a drug that could prevent metastasis in prostate cancer, and possibly other cancers as well.. "Finding a way to halt or prevent cancer metastasis has proven elusive. We discovered that a molecule called DNA-PKcs could give us a means of knocking out major pathways that control metastasis before it begins," says Karen Knudsen, Ph.D., Director of the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University, the Hilary Koprowski Professor and Chair of Cancer Biology, Professor of Urology, Radiation Oncology, and Medical Oncology at Jefferson.. Metastasis is thought of ...
Breast cancer (BCa) remains as the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. The majority of the deaths are due to its progression to metastatic BCa. Although Grb2-associated binding protein 1 (Gab1) has been implicated in tumor proliferation and metastasis in multiple tumors including colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and ovarian cancer, whether and how it regulates BCa metastasis are still poorly understood. Western blot assay and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were performed to assess expression of Gab1 in primary and metastatic BCa clinical samples. Biological function assay studies in vitro and in vivo were employed to investigate the functions of Gab1 during BCa metastasis. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assessment, western blot assay and immunofluorescence (IF) staining were carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism for the function of Gab1 on BCa metastasis. In this study, we found that expression level of Gab1 was increased significantly in BCa
SENP3 promotes gastric cancer cell metastasis in vivo(A) The efficiency of SENP3 overexpression in SGC7901-SENP3 cells used for tumorigenesis in nude mice. (B)
Background Metastasis is the most frequent cause of treatment failure and death in colorectal cancer. Early detection of tumors and metastases is crucial for improving treatment strategies and patient outcome. Development of reliable biomarkers and simple tests routinely applicable in the clinic for detection, prognostication, and therapy monitoring is of special interest. We recently identified the novel gene Metastasis-Associated in Colon Cancer 1 (MACC1), a key regulator of the HGF/Met-pathway. MACC1 is a strong prognostic biomarker for colon cancer metastasis and allows identification of high-risk subjects in early stages, when determined in patients primary tumors. To overcome the limitation of a restricted number of molecular analyses in tumor tissue, the establishment of a non-invasive blood test for early identification of high-risk cancer patients, for monitoring disease course and therapy response is strongly needed. Methodology/Principal Findings For the first time, we describe a non
Previously, we showed that a chemokine CCL2 recruits IMs to metastatic sites where they differentiate to MAMs (Qian et al., 2011). In this study, we revealed a novel role for CCL2 as a trigger of a prometastatic chemokine cascade involving CCL3 signaling via CCR1 that is required for efficient metastasis. These data illustrate a signaling relay that amplifies the pathology already in the system by promoting retention of recruited monocytes that stimulate tumor cell establishment at the metastatic site.. Our in vivo and in vitro results indicate that CCL2 can increase CCL3 expression in MAMs at the metastasis site. The CCL2-induced CCL3 expression is likely to be specific to the prometastatic macrophage lineage, as neutralization of CCL2 by antibodies significantly reduced Ccl3 expression in IMs and MAMs, but not in resident monocytes or macrophages. Consistent with this interpretation, expression of Ccl3 was highest in MAMs compared with other leukocytes in the tumor-bearing lung. Importantly, a ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Enhanced metastatic potential of tumor cells harvested from spontaneous metastases of heterogeneous murine tumors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the common reasons of cancer-related death with few biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1 protein SLC2A1, also known as glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), has been associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis in many human solid tumors. However, little is reported about its clinical significance and biological functions in GC. Here we observed a strong up-regulation of SLC2A1 in patients with GC and found that SLC2A1 was significantly correlated with depth of invasion and clinical stage. Additionally, over-expression of SLC2A1 in GC cells promotes cellular proliferation and metastasis in vitro and enhances tumor growth in vivo as well as enhancement of glucose utilization. Meanwhile, elevated SLC2A1 also contributes to tumor metastasis in vitro. Our results indicate SLC2A1 exhibits a pivotal role in tumor growth, metastasis and glucose metabolism, and also suggest SLC2A1 as a
A role for bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in promoting metastatic tumor growth is emerging, with important implications for therapeutic strategies to decrease tumor metastases. While previous work has shown accumulation of CD11b+ BMDCs in the lungs of mice bearing metastatic breast tumors, questions remain about the precise identity of these cells, the factors that regulate CD11b+ cell accumulation, and the potential long-term influence of CD11b+ cells on metastatic growth. We used transplantable (4T1, 4TO7, 67NR) and spontaneous (polyomavirus middle-T; PyVmT) mammary tumor models to study the identity, induction, longevity, and function of CD11b+ BMDCs in tissues. Using flow cytometry and ex vivo immune suppression assays, we established that metastatic mammary tumors induce splenic expansion and pulmonary accumulation of functional CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages (Mϕs). MDSCs suppress T cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells and ...
Next, they found that the Skp2 overexpression also results in more RhoA, and that both Skp2 and Myc were required for the metastasis-producing RhoA to be overexpressed. This cancer-promoting pathway is the second way Skp2 fuels cancer growth, Lin said. Skp2 has been shown to work through a separate E3 ligase pathway to destroy tumor-suppressing proteins, causing heightened cellular proliferation and the transition from normal cell to tumor.. "Skp2s E3 ligase activity is required for tumorigenesis, but not involved at all in metastasis," Lin said. Lin and colleagues also previously found that Skp2 blocks cellular senescence - a halt in cell division - in cancer cells.. The research team then found that Skp2 recruits two other proteins, p300 and Miz1, to join Myc and form the complex that transcribes RhoA. Experiments in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to the lung showed that deficiency of either Myc, Skp2 or Miz1 restricted metastasis, while overexpression of each of the three proteins ...
Read about how researchers discovered that a densely packed tumor environment triggers cancer spread by switching on metastasis genes.
Free Online Library: New candidate drug stops cancer metastasis and regenerates nerve cells. by Asian News International; News, opinion and commentary General interest Cancer Care and treatment Drug therapy Cancer metastasis Cancer treatment G proteins Metastasis Neurons
Many cancer cell types, as well as their metastases, express high levels of CD44. Whereas some tumors, such as gliomas, exclusively display CD44s, other neoplasms, including brain metastases, gastrointestinal cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, bladder cancer, uterine cervical cancer, breast cancer and non-Hodgkins lymphomas, additionally and sometimes preferentially express CD44 variants. Hence, CD44, particularly its variants, may be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers of at least some human malignant diseases. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated in animal models that upon transfection with CD44s, or CD44v cDNA, nonmetastatic tumor cells acquire metastatic potential. In addition, injection of reagents interfering with CD44-ligand interaction (e.g. CD44s- or CD44v-specific mAb) inhibit local tumor growth and metastatic spread in murine species. In this context, CD44 may confer a growth advantage on some neoplastic cells, and consequently could be used as a target for cancer therapy. The ...
A chip developed by mechanical engineers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) can trap and identify metastatic cancer cells in a small amount of blood drawn from a cancer patient. The breakthrough technology uses a simple ...
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease of rapidly dividing cells with multiple mechanisms of survival. In one such survival mechanism, cancerous cells metastasize to a location distal from the original tumor. The complex process of metastasis often requires a cell to undergo multiple transformative events. First, a cancerous cell must break down the extracellular matrix and break contacts with adjacent cells to migrate from the original tumor through a blood or lymphatic vessel wall. The cancerous cell then circulates through the bloodstream, adheres to the vessel wall at a distal location, and migrates through the blood vessel again. Ultimately, the metastatic cell establishes a new site for growth, forming a secondary tumor. Tumor metastases are typically found first in the lymph nodes near the primary tumor, and only later at other distal locations. Metastatic tumors often prove difficult to treat because they may continually metastasize to multiple locations. New metastatic mechanisms are ...
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease of rapidly dividing cells with multiple mechanisms of survival. In one such survival mechanism, cancerous cells metastasize to a location distal from the original tumor. The complex process of metastasis often requires a cell to undergo multiple transformative events. First, a cancerous cell must break down the extracellular matrix and break contacts with adjacent cells to migrate from the original tumor through a blood or lymphatic vessel wall. The cancerous cell then circulates through the bloodstream, adheres to the vessel wall at a distal location, and migrates through the blood vessel again. Ultimately, the metastatic cell establishes a new site for growth, forming a secondary tumor. Tumor metastases are typically found first in the lymph nodes near the primary tumor, and only later at other distal locations. Metastatic tumors often prove difficult to treat because they may continually metastasize to multiple locations. New metastatic mechanisms are ...
This increased metastatic cell line was derived using an in vivo selection process of highly metastatic cells from a population of poorly metastatic tumor cells, A375  (ATCC CRL-1619). The A375-M1 (ATCC CRL-3222) cell line was derived by i.v. injection of A375 cells into nude mice. Lung metastases were harvested and amplified in vitro as cell lines. The A375-M1 cell line was reinjected into mice for a second round of selection, lung metastases harvested and amplified in vitro as A375-M2 (ATCC CRL-3223) cells. The A375-M1 and A375-M2 cell lines were  transfected with a plasmid containing the ecotropic receptor for murine retrovirus and selected for neomycin resistance. This is useful for RNAse protection assays.
Bone metastases from breast cancer are common, causing significant morbidity. Preclinical data of dasatinib, an oral small molecule inhibitor of multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinases, suggested...
Metastasis causes the death of patients with solid cancers. The core molecular mechanism of metastasis remains largely unknown. The research of Dr. Zhang "John" Weihuas laboratory focuses on understanding the following metastasis-related molecular mechanisms:. 1. The tyrosine kinase independent function of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR.. 2. The impact of organ microenvironment on the energy metabolism of cancer metastasis.. 3. The role of intracellular ATP levels of cancer cells in the development of cancer metastasis.. ...
Metastases, or secondary tumours, cause around 90 per cent of all deaths from cancer. The ability to gain knowledge as soon as possible about the cancer cells tendency to spread and form metastases could save many lives.. The Cellrace research is based on studies of a biopsy on a specially designed nanosurface.. "It is not possible to study the cells movements and behaviour on a microscope slide, as that is not their natural environment. On our nanosurface, we have imitated critical properties from the environment in which they usually operate, i.e. in the body. There we can study them in real time", says Michael Andäng.. At present there is a prototype and the researchers have been able to show statistically significant differences between metastasising cells and non-metastasising cells.. "Now we are refining the product and preparing to collaborate with clinics. For example, we want to repeat the tests with recently obtained biopsies." ...
The second major focus of our research is the spread of cancer from its initial site of growth to other locations in the body (metastasis), which is a major factor influencing the likelihood of successful treatment. The formation of metastasis by tumour cells is thought to be dependent on the expression of specific phenotypes by individual tumour cells. Our research is examining metastatic phenotypes that are expressed only transiently and that may be induced by exposure of tumour cells to conditions, such as hypoxia, which occur in the tumour microenvironment. Recent clinical results have suggested that tumours that contain substantial hypoxic regions may be more likely to form metastases. We have found in animal model systems that exposure to hypoxia, both in vitro and in vivo, can cause transient increases in the metastatic potential of tumour cells and that exposure to transient hypoxic episodes may be particularly important for this increased metastatic potential. We are examining the ...
Colon cancer is one of the most frequent malignant diseases worldwide. About 50% of the patients develop distant metastasis. These patients have only few therapy options and very poor survival rates. Therefore cancer research focuses on the identification of novel molecular markers to provide a better prognosis of the metastatic risk. Identified high-risk patients would get access to an early, individualized therapy. MACC1 (metastasis associated in colon cancer 1) is a newly identified gene that is overexpressed in colon carcinomas and their distant metastases. The MACC1 domain structure is characteristic for proteins of the receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways. Aim of this study was the analysis of the cellular function of MACC1, its role in tumor progression and its evaluation as a molecular, prognostic marker for metastasis. MACC1 overexpressing tumor cells revealed higher migratory, invasive, and proliferative potential in in vitro assays. The impact of MACC1 on the metastatic ...
Endpoints:. - Response Rate, Disease control rate, The duration of overall response, Overall survival, PFS, Time to treatment failure, Quality of Life, Incidence of AEs, Frequency and nature of serious adverse reactions (SADRs), Premature withdrawals. Statistical methods:. Assuming a randomization ratio of 1:1, 282 deaths are required in order to achieve a power of 80% of detecting a hazard ratio of 0.72 in favour of one of the two sequences, translating in an increase of median survival time from 10 to 14 months, with a type I error of 5%, two-sided, using the Mantel-Cox version of the log-rank test. With a uniform accrual period of 3 years and a follow-up of 18 months, about 350 patients will be needed to reach the target number of events.. All statistical analyses will be based on an intention-to-treat approach. CONSORT rules will be applied to describe study flow and protocol deviations.. All OS and PFS curves will be drawn with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results will be presented as Hazard ...
Oligometastatic prostate cancer has been considered an intermediate state between localized disease and widespread metastases, but there is no
The most widely used staging system for colorectal cancer is the AJCC tumor, nodes, metastasis (TNM) classification system, which classifies patients into prognostic groups according to the depth of the primary tumor, presence of regional LN metastases, and evidence of distant metastases. Recently, the AJCC TNM stage was updated and the T and N stages were further specified to improve prognostic capacity. More emphasis has been made to the number of retrieved malignant LNs. Accordingly, pN1 (metastasis in 1 to 3 regional LNs) has been subdivided into pN1a (metastasis in 1 regional LN) and pN1b (metastasis in 2 to 3 regional LNs), and pN2 (metastasis in 4 or more regional LNs) has been subdivided into pN2a (metastasis in 4 to 6 regional LNs) and pN2b (metastasis in 7 or more regional LNs).11. However, the number of malignant LNs in rectal cancer depends on the number of retrieved LNs, which varies with treatment, patient, and tumor characteristics. There is, in practice, wide variation in the ...
BARCELONA - It is clinically feasible to measure breast tumor cells in a patients circulation, according to the findings of an observational study.. The next step is to determine whether the presence of these cells is truly predictive of impending recurrence or metastasis.. Breast cancer kills only if it metastasizes, so it is important to identify the earliest signs of metastasis. Measuring circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may be a key step in this direction, said Dr. Julia Jueckstock of the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, where the technique is being pioneered.. Earlier findings showing that CTCs can be measured in bone marrow samples suggest that the presence of tumor cells outside the primary tumor site are indeed predictive of metastasis and poor prognosis. But the difficulty of obtaining bone marrow makes this approach impractical for routine clinical use. Analysis of peripheral blood is potentially much more useful.. Dr. Jueckstock and her ...
SCC-S2/GG2-1/NDED (approved gene symbol TNFAIP8) is a transcription factor NF-kappaB-inducible, antiapoptotic, and oncogenic molecule. In this study, we examined the role of SCC-S2 in invasion and experimental metastasis. We demonstrate that expression of SCC-S2 cDNA in MDA-MB 435 human breast cance …
View Notes - Cancer Biology. Metastasis from 26CB 880 at University of Cincinnati. METASTASIS RANDOM DISTRIBUTION OF CANCER CELLS THROUGH THE VASCULAR SYSTEM OR GENETICALLY DETERMINED PROCESS OF
Metastatic cancer is the term used for any cancer that has spread from its original location to other parts of the body. This spreading may be present at the time of your cancer diagnosis or may develop later, during or after treatment. The most common areas for metastatic cancer are the liver, brain, lungs and bone.. There have been many recent advances in treatment options and supportive care for those with metastatic cancer. Legacy Cancer Institutes approach focuses not just on beating the disease but also on improving your quality of life.. Legacy Cancer Institute offers a variety of approaches to treat and/or support those with metastatic cancer. ...
The most deadly aspect of cancer is its ability to spread, or metastasize. Cancer cells initially group together to form a primary tumor. Once the tumor is formed, cells may begin to break off from this tumor and travel to other parts of the body. This process is metastasis. These cancer cells that travel through the body are capable of establishing new tumors in locations remote from the site of the original disease. Metastasis is a very complicated process that still has yet to be completely understood.. To metastasize, a cancer cell must break away from its tumor, invade either the circulatory or lymph system, which will carry it to a new location, and establish itself in the new site. The body has many safeguards to prevent cells from doing this, yet many cancer cells have the ability to overcome these safeguards. Research is now focused on understanding in what ways cancer cells have mutated to circumvent the bodys defenses and freely travel to other locations.. When cancer is diagnosed, ...
Patient has a known history of breast cancer and this represents osseous metastases. Absent pedicle sign refers to the destruction of one pedicle, it is said to give the frontal view of the vertebral body the appearance of a winking owl, hence ...
ago, on CT a new lymphadenopathy in the mediastinum and hematogenous metastatic spread in left lung was demonstrated. Chemotherapy with ... different from the previous specimen. No other metastases were found anywhere on CT and PET CT. The disease was staged as 3 A .... ...
Metastasis is defined as the spread of a tumor or cancerous cells from the primary site to one or more sites elsewhere in the body. Visceral metastasis is defined as the spread of cancer to viscera, the internal organs of the body, specifically those within the chest (as the heart or lungs) or abdomen (as the liver, pancreas, or intestines). Non-visceral organs are defined as any organ not considered visceral ...
... Metastatic seeding may be related to leakiness of tumor blood vessels, and factors dealing with dissolving the framework [matrix] around normal cells, so that cancer cells can get in and invade. Bills Cocktail cannot prevent metastases from occurring. However, by preventing blood vessel growth to the tumors, it can deprive metastases of growth. So…
This trial will investigate the efficacy and tolerability of adjuvant sunitinib after resection of lung, bone, or brain metastases in patients with renal
Sen, N., Gui, B., & Kumar, R. (2014). Role of MTA1 in cancer progression and metastasis. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, 33(4), 879-889.. ...