Read "Sporamin-mediated resistance to beet cyst nematodes (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) is dependent on trypsin inhibitory activity in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Figure 4B shows the polarized SFS of clade C on a double-logarithmic scale such that power laws show as straight lines. At frequencies ,20%, the observed SFS is compatible with a 1/k decay as expected in neutrally evolving populations of constant size (Wakeley 2008). At higher frequencies, however, the SFS decreases much more rapidly, before increasing again for alleles close to fixation. Similar U-shaped SFS have been observed in plants (Cao et al. 2011). At intermediate derived allele frequencies between 20% and 40%, the slope of the SFS is compatible with 1/k2, indicated as a dashed line in Figure 4B. The 1/k2 behavior and the nonmonotonicity are expected if the dominant force changing allele frequencies is selection at linked (genetic draft) loci regardless of whether this variation is positively or negatively selected (Braverman et al. 1995; Neher and Shraiman 2011; Neher and Hallatschek 2013).. Compared to the almost 100-fold variation in the SFS between singletons and alleles at ...
Responsibility for (1) the accuracy of statements of fact, (2) the authenticity of scientific findings or observations, (3) expressions of scientific or other opinion and (4) any other material published in the journal rests solely with the author(s) of the article in which such statements, etc., appear. The Journal, its owners, publishers, editors, reviewers and staff take no responsibility for these matters.. Submission of an eLetter also indicates that the author agrees to abide by the Journals policies. Authors must declare any competing interests upon submission.. The Company of Biologists applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License to all articles and associated material published in BiO.. We reserve the right to edit or remove eLetters once published.. Unprofessional submissions will not be considered or responded to.. ...
We report the results of a small-scale expressed sequence tag project performed on the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Approximately 1400 genes were sequenced, 70% from a cDNA library generated from dissected basal bulbs (containing the pharyngeal gland cells) and 30% from cDNA libraries generated from whole mixed stage nematodes. A large portion of the bulb library (48%) was composed of proteins with no matches in the database. Further analysis of these genes revealed that a total of 51 contigs were present, half of which encoded novel secreted proteins. By contrast, the whole nematode library contained more housekeeping and nematode-specific genes. Only one of the novel genes from the whole nematode library had a predicted signal peptide at the N-terminus. Genes encoding transthyretin-like proteins were abundant in the bulb library and in situ hybridisation confirmed that one of these is expressed in the basal bulb. Genes encoding a variety of proteases, which were shown using in situ
For the upcoming WS249 release, a set of new papers have been added to the WormBase database. Some papers of interest to the parasite community are shown below.. Winter AD, Weir W, Hunt M, Berriman M, Gilleard JS, Devaney E, Britton C.Diversity in parasitic nematode genomes: the microRNAs of Brugia pahangi and Haemonchus contortus are largely novel. BMC Genomics. 2012 Jan 4;13:4.. miRNA genes are referenced from the WBPaper00040579 entry.. Winter AD, Gillan V, Maitland K, Emes RD, Roberts B, McCormack G, Weir W, Protasio AV, Holroyd N, Berriman M, Britton C, Devaney E. A novel member of the let-7 microRNA family is associated with developmental transitions in filarial nematode parasites. BMC Genomics. 2015 Apr 22;16(1):331.. referenced genes: let-7, Bm6643, Bm5914, Bma-tag-97, Bma-mir-5364. Cinkornpumin JK, Wisidagama DR, Rapoport V, Go JL, Dieterich C, Wang X, Sommer RJ, Hong RL. A host beetle pheromone regulates development and behavior in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus. Elife. 2014 Oct ...
The efficiency with which the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys dasguptae attached to a range of plant parasitic nematodes was studied. Rotylenchus spp. and criconematid species retained many more detachable adhesive knobs than did other plant parasitic nematodes. More adhesive knobs were found on the anterior end of Rotylenchus robustus than on any other part of the body. The knobs attached only to one of the species tested in the genera Longidorus, Xiphinema, Trichodorus and Paratrichodorus. Tests with a range of fluorescent lectins indicated that only a restricted number of carbohydrate moieties were present on the cuticle of R. robustus whereas none were found on Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Saturating fungus and nematodes with these lectins or their specific carbohydrates did not affect the subsequent adhesion of A. dasguptae to the cuticle of R. robustus.
Plant parasitic nematodes are devastating pests on many crops. Juveniles (J2) of cyst nematodes invade the roots to induce a syncytium. This feeding site is their only source of nutrients. Male nematodes leave the roots after the fourth molt to mate with females. The females stay attached to their syncytia throughout their life and produce hundreds of eggs, which are contained in their bodies. When the females die their bodies form the cysts, which protect the eggs. Cysts can survive for many years in the soil until favorable conditions induce hatching of the juveniles. The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii is a pathogen of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) but can also complete its life cycle on Arabidopsis roots growing on agar plates under sterile conditions. We present here protocols for a stock culture of H. schachtii and an infection assay on agar plates.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plant ectoparasitic nematodes prefer roots without their microbial enemies. AU - Piśkiewicz, A.M.. AU - de Milliano, M.J.K.. AU - Duyts, H.. AU - Van der Putten, W.H.. N1 - Reporting year: 2009 Metis note: 4464;CTE; MTI ; TE file:///L:/Endnotedatabases/NIOOPUB/pdfs/PDFS2009\Piskiewicz_ea_4464.pdf. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Root-feeding nematodes are major soil-borne pests in agriculture. In natural ecosystems, their abundance can be strongly controlled by natural enemies. In coastal foredune soil, the abundance of the ectoparasitic nematode Tylenchorhynchus ventralis is controlled by local interactions with soil microorganisms. If not controlled, T. ventralis reduces growth and performance of the host plant Ammophila arenaria. In the present study, we examine if the nematodes may sense the presence of soil microorganisms and, if so, they are able to actively avoid their enemies. First, using Petri dishes with agar medium we examined if T. ventralis can choose between A. ...
1. Bongers, T. 1990. The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species compostion. Oecologia 83:14-19.. 2. Bongers, T., and Bongers, M. 1998. Functional diversity of nematodes. Appl. Soil Ecol. 10:239-251.. 3. Cooke, R. C. 1963. Ecological characteristics of nematode-trapping fungi Hyphomycetes. Ann. Rev. Appl. Biol. 52:431-437.. 4. Doran, J. W., Sarrantonio, M., and Liebig, M. A., eds. 1996. Soil health and sustainability, Adv. Agron. 56:1-54.. 5. Ettema, C. H. 1998. Soil nematode diversity, species coexistence and ecosystem function. J. Nematol. 30:159-169.. 6. Ferris, H., Bongers, T., and deGoede, R. G. M. 2001. A framework for soil food web diagnostics: Extension of the nematode faunal analysis concept. Appl. Soil Ecol. 18:13-29.. 7. Ferris, H., and Matute, M. M. 2003. Structural and functional succession in the nematode fauna of a soil food web. Appl. Soil Ecol. 23:93-110.. 8. Ferris, H., Venette, R. C., and Lau, S. S. 1996. Dynamics of ...
Here is the situation: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the worst pest of soybeans in the U. S. A. including Missouri.Fortunately, this pest can be managed, but farmers must take steps before planting soybean this year to protect against soybean cyst nematode.The first step is to test the soil for SCN.
Here is the situation: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the worst pest of soybeans in the U. S. A. including Missouri.Fortunately, this pest can be managed, but farmers must take steps before planting soybean this year to protect against soybean cyst nematode.The first step is to test the soil for SCN.
Soybean cyst nematode is the most economically significant pest of soybeans in Iowa and has been found in 98 of the 99 Iowa counties. Infested soybean plants often show no symptoms other than reduced yield. The 62-page field guide is designed as a resource for agronomists and farmers to manage soybean cyst nematode. ...
Iowa crop producers and agronomists are well aware of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the plant-parasitic nematode that is widespread through the Midwest and can seriously reduce soybean yields. And many people are aware of other plant-parasitic nematodes that can cause significant yield reductions on corn. But most crop professionals probably are unaware that there is a corn cyst nematode that has been in the northeastern United States since 1981. And just recently, a new cyst nematode species that reproduces on corn was discovered in Tennessee.
Symbiosis takes place across the domains of life. In the plant-parasitic nematode, Xiphinema americanum species complex, the bacterial endosymbiont, identified as Candidatus Xiphinematobacter americanum, lives in the gut epithelia of mature female nematodes and moves to the ovaries and uterus where it is transmitted to the eggs. This suggests that the symbiont may be vertically transmitted. PCR followed by DNA sequencing was conducted on three loci, using nematode samples from across North America. Two loci were sequenced from the symbiont and the third from the mitochondrial DNA of the nematode. Using these sequences, phylogenetic trees were constructed for the nematode and the symbiont to provide new insights into the taxonomy of the nematode species, and to shed light on the potential for coevolution between the worm and its endosymbiont. A mitochondrial tree was constructed to examine nematode evolution. Mitochondrial phylogenetic analysis for the nematode built from work that suggested ...
Plants mount defense responses during pathogen attacks, and robust host defense suppression by pathogen effector proteins is essential for infection success. 4E02 is an effector of the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing the effector-coding sequence showed altered expression levels of defense response genes, as well as higher susceptibility to both the biotroph H. schachtii and the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, indicating a potential suppression of defenses by 4E02. Yeast two-hybrid analyses showed that 4E02 targets A. thaliana vacuolar papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP) Responsive to Dehydration 21A (RD21A), which has been shown to function in the plant defense response. Activity-based protein profiling analyses documented that the in planta presence of 4E02 does not impede enzymatic activity of RD21A. Instead, 4E02 mediates a re-localization of this protease from the vacuole to the nucleus and cytoplasm, which is likely to prevent the ...
Barker, K.R., G.A. Pederson, and G.L. Windham. 1998. Plant and Nematode Interactions. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.. Bird, A.F. and J. Bird. 1991. The Structure of Nematodes, Second edition.Academic Press Inc. London.. Blaxter, M.L., P. De Ley, J.R. Garey, L.X. Liu, P. Scheldeman, A. Vierstraete, J.R. Vanfleteren, L.Y. Mackey, M. Dorris, L.M. Frisse, J.T. Vida, K.W. Thomas, K.W. 1998. A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum nematoda. Nature 392:71-75.. Campbell, J.F. and H.K. Kaya. 1999. How and why a parasitic nematode jumps. Nature 397: 485-486.. Chen, Z.X., and D.W. Dickson. 2004. Nematology: Advances and Perspectives Vol. 1: Nematode Morphology, Physiology and Ecology. CABI:Walllingford.. Chen, Z.X., S.Y. Chen, and D.W. Dickson. 2004. Nematology: Advances and Perspectives Vol. II: Nematode Management and Utilization. CABI:Wallingford.. Fisher, J.M. and D.J. Raski. 1967. Feeding of Xiphinema index and X. diversicaudatum. Proceeding of the Helminthological Society of Washington ...
Join us April 10, 2018, at 3:00 p.m. Eastern for an interactive webinar dedicated to updates on soybean cyst nematode.During this free 60-minute sessi...
In 1992 a Concerted Action Programme (CAP) was initiated by Peter Sijmons with the purpose of intensifying collaborations between 16 European laboratories working on plant-parasitic nematodes. The fou
Heterodera schachtii (Beet cyst eelworm, Sugarbeet nematode) is a plant pathogenic nematode. It infects more than 200 different plants including economically important crops such as sugar beets, cabbage, broccoli, and radish. H. schachtii is found worldwide. Affected plants are marked by stunted growth, wilting, yellowing, decreased yields, and death. While there are many methods of control, crop rotation with non-susceptible plants is preferred. In the early 1800s, "beet fatigue" was used to describe the decreased sugar beet yields which occurred after repeated planting on the same field. At first, this decrease was believed to be the result of nutrient depletion, but in 1859 the botanist H. Schacht discovered nematode cysts on the roots of affected plants and hypothesized that they were responsible for the disease. It wasnt until 1871 that another researcher, Schmidt, created the genus Heterodera, and named the nematode H. schachtii in honor of its discoverer. Chemicals released from a ...
My background experience is in cytology, physiology and ultrastructure of plants and nematodes; cytochemical and immunocytochemical analysis of both ROS (H2O2, O2-) and enzymes (peroxidases, lipoxygenases) involved in the resistant response in plant-nematode interaction.. Of particular interest is elucidation of the role played by nematode oesophageal secretions in modifying and regulating the function, metabolism, and phenotype cells to form sophisticated feeding sites in their hosts; cytochemical and immunocytochemical studies of reorganization of cytoskeleton elements (actin, tubulin) during compatible response in plant-nematode interaction ...
The corn cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera zeae is a plant parasitic nematode that feeds on corn Zea mays. The CCN has a limited economic impact worldwide due to its high soil temperature requirements. CCN was first described from a population in India in 1970. It was later reported in Egypt and Pakistan. In India the CCN is considered to be one of the four economically important cyst nematodes. The first report of the species in the Western hemisphere came in 1981 from four colonies in Maryland, Harford, Cecil, Kent, and Queen Annes counties. These four counties were placed under quarantine. The nematode was later identified from Cumberland Co., VA, over 170 miles from the nearest known infested field in Maryland. In Virginia the nematode was restricted to a 3 by 2.5 mile strip of land along the Appomattox River. The cysts of CCN are light brown in color and lemon shaped. The cysts also have a zig-zag pattern on the cyst wall with four prominent finger-like bullae below the underbridge. The ...
Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN) are considered to be quarantine pests because, if not managed, they can reduce yields of potatoes and other host crops such as tomatoes and eggplants by up to 80 per cent.
... (PCN) is a microscopic, worm-like organism which feeds on the roots of potatoes, tomatoes and other plants of the Solanaceae family.
AbeBooks.com: Potato Cyst Nematodes: Biology, Distribution and Control (9780851992747) by R J Marks; Bill B Brodie and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
The TALEN approach works in C. briggsae Lo et al. 2013,Wood et al. 2011, Wei et al. 2013. The CRISPR/Cas9 method is now implemented in C. briggsae and other species. Using the same plasmids as in C. elegans is possible, at least in C. briggsae: see Culp et al. in biorxiv. Using Cas9 protein and synthetic guide RNA may overcome problems of germ line silencing and of inadequate promoters or 3UTR in other species. See Witte et al. 2015 in Pristionchus pacificus. This method has been successfully used in several Caenorhabditis species (Marie Delattre). ...
Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) place a heavy burden on agriculture throughout the world. This burden is accentuated by a lack of effective and safe methods for the control of these crop pests, with many nematicides having been banned due to unacceptable non-target toxicity. Few alternatives have emerged to fill this gap. Fluensulfone is a newly registered nematicide that has a favourable toxicity profile relative to previously used nematicides. Fluensulfone has proven efficacy in the field against a range of nematode species. The mode of action of fluensulfone is however currently unknown. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fluensulfone on nematodes and to gain insight into its mechanism of action. Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism with well characterised genetics, neurophysiology and behaviour. C. elegans has proven useful in previous mechanism of action studies on anthelmintics. Fluensulfone was found to have nematicidal activity against C. elegans but at ...
Citation: Replogle, A., Wang, J., Bleckmann, A., Hussey, R.S., Baum, T.J., Sawa, S., Davis, E.L., Wang, X., Simon, R., Mitchum, M.G. 2010. Nematode CLE signaling in Arabidopsis requires CLAVATA2 and CORYNE. Plant Journal. 65:430-440. Interpretive Summary: Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are agriculturally-important pests causing significant yield losses on many crop plants. Recent studies revealed that cyst nematodes secret CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like proteins that are required for successful nematode infection. However, the host receptors that interact with nematode-secreted CLE peptides have not been identified. In this study, we used the model plant Arabidopsis, a host for the sugarbeet cyst nematode, to investigate a role for CLV2 and CORYNE (CRN) in nematode CLE signaling. Our results revealed for the first time that CLV2 and CRN are required for perceiving nematode CLE signals to promote successful nematode parasitism. This study provides new knowledge in nematode CLE-mediated parasitism, ...
All variety descriptions have been prepared in accordance to the best of our knowledge, considering trial results and observations. A guarantee or a liability in individual cases is not possible, because the growth conditions are subject to substantial fluctuations ...
Despite right open reading frame kinases (RIOKs) being essential for life, their functions, substrates and cellular pathways remain enigmatic. In the present study, gene structures were characterised for 26 RIOKs from draft genomes of parasitic and free-living nematodes. RNA-seq transcription profiles of riok genes were investigated for selected parasitic nematodes and showed that these kinases are transcribed in developmental stages that infect their mammalian host. Three-dimensional structural models of Caenorhabditis elegans RIOKs were predicted, and elucidated functional domains and conserved regions in nematode homologs. These findings provide prospects for functional studies of riok genes in C. elegans, and an opportunity for the design and validation of nematode-specific inhibitors of these enzymes in socioeconomic parasitic worms ...
Platy-helminthes and Nematoda. Common Name. Platy-helminthes. Nematoda. Roundworm. Flatworm. Tapeworm. pinworm. P lanaria. Fluke. Symmetry. Platy-helminthes. Nematoda. Bilateral. Bilateral. Platy-helminthes and Nematoda. Slideshow 1924244 by yale
Cyst nematodes have four distinct phases during their life cycle and at each stage they are subject to predation or parasitism by several soil organisms (Table 1). Although a number of predators have...
Members of the phylum Nematoda are mostly gonochoric. Copulation is common. Life cycle: Eggs hatch and undergo three (3) juvenile instars before becoming adults (Ref. 833). ...
Members of the phylum Nematoda are mostly gonochoric. Copulation is common. Life cycle: Eggs hatch and undergo three (3) juvenile instars before becoming adults (Ref. 833). ...
Since the mutations in the Forrest SHMT gene are located near the active site, or the "business end" of the SHMT protein where the shuttling of carbons occurs, its possible that the mutations affect the activity of the SHMT protein. Since To test this model, Liu and Kandoth expressed the mutated SHMT Forrest gene to see if it could restore the growth of an E. coli strain that is unable to survive because it cant manufacture its own glycine. They found that the mutated version of SHMT was less effective than the unmutated form of SHMT in restoring growth of the E. coli strain indicating that the activity of the Forrest SHMT protein was probably reduced due to mutations.. More importantly, soybean plants that were susceptible to SCN infection became resistant when Liu and Kandoth transferred the Forrest SHMT gene in the susceptible plants. This demonstrated that the mutated Forrest SHMT was responsible for soybean cyst nematode resistance. The scientists speculate that the decreased activity of ...
Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, together with American colleagues, have decoded the genome of the Pristionchus pacificus nematode, thereby gaining insight into the evolution of parasitism. ...
Keys are provided for the identification of the nematode species known to be parasites of Canadian fishes. The nematodes are described and illustrated, with a note of the site(s) they occupy in named fish host(s) and their geographical distribution. Parasite records are given by author and date, full details of which can be found in a bibliography of over 800 references. Diagnoses and keys for 22 Families, 47 genera and 88 species of nematodes are also given, together with a glossary of terms, a host-parasite list, and indices to both nematode parasites and hosts
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Nematoda - Roundworms, Nemata, Nematodes -- Discover Life
Soybean Cyst Nematode field trials and product evaluations. Processing soil samples to quantify SCN infestations. General lab management duties ...
Adhikari, B. N., and B. J. Adams. 2011. Molecular analysis of desiccation survival in Antarctic nematodes. Pp. 205-232 in R. N. Perry, and D. A. Wharton, eds. Molecular and Physiological Basis of Nematode Survival. CABI International, Wallingford.. ...
Javascript is disabled in this browser. This page requires Javascript. Modify your browsers settings to allow Javascript to execute. See your browsers documentation for specific instructions ...
Learn NEMATODES facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
(Phys.org)-An international team of researchers has found that at least one type of nematoad exhibits five distinct forms-each different enough that the microscopic worms were initially thought to be of different species. ...
www.diark.org. Arthrobotrys oligospora (syn. Didymozoophaga oligospora) is a predacious fungus from the family Orbiliaceae. An adaptable fungus, strains have been found in a diverse range of soils where they can act as saprophytes, fungal pathogens and colonise plant roots to obtain nutrients. In the presence of nematodes they can also form complex three-dimensional network traps making them a biocontrol candidate for parasitic plant and animal nematodes, and in 2011 it was the first nematode-trapping fungi to have its genome sequenced.. The sequenced genome of A. oligospora is 40 Mb and contains 11,479 predicted genes. Comparative analyses revealed that it shares more genes with pathogenic fungi than non-pathogenic fungi. A combination of genomic, proteomic and qPCR data led to a hypothesis of trap formation involving the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways by the presence of the nematodes which regulate downstream genes involved in energy metabolism, biosynthesis of the cell ...
Nematode-trapping fungi have fascinated scientists for decades, and many earlier workers have observed the way in which the presence of nematodes alters the morphology and metabolism of trap-forming species. Although earlier studies detected attractant and nematocidal metabolites by their activities, the compounds were never chemically identified (21-27, 30). Therefore, we hypothesized that these signaling molecules might be volatile in nature. In our analyses, we used GC-MS and were able to separate and chemically characterize the metabolites, as well as elucidate their biological activities in attracting nematodes, in inducing trap formation, or in killing nematodes.. Under direct physical contact with nematodes, fungi grown on CMA produced more 3D traps than those grown on PDA and did so at a higher rate. Similar results were obtained in the non-direct-contact bioassay; however, instead of 3D trap formation, fungal hyphal fusions were observed in the nondirect assay. The fungi grown on CMA ...
All major crops are thought to be infected by at least one species of plant-parasitic nematode, which causes damage valued at over $80 billion each year [1]. The majority of these economic losses are attributable to the sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) and the genera Heterodera and Globodera (cyst nematodes). These sedentary endoparasites have complex biotrophic interactions with their hosts that include induction of specific feeding sites and long residence times within or on their host(s).. Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are economically important pathogens of potato, with two major species: the white PCN Globodera pallida and the yellow PCN G. rostochiensis. These nematodes originate in South America [2, 3] and have subsequently been introduced into all major potato-growing regions of the world. Europe has acted as a secondary distribution hub for PCN; worldwide populations outside South America reflect subsequent introductions from Europe [4, 5]. ...
Cyst and root-knot nematodes show high levels of gross morphological similarity. This presents difficulties for the study of their ecology in natural ecosystems. In this study, cyst and root-knot nematode species, as well as some ectoparasitic nematode species, were identified using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequence variation detected by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). The ITS2 region was sufficiently variable within the taxa investigated to allow species to be separated on the basis of minor sequence variation. The PCR primers used in this study were effective for 12 species with three genera within the Heteroderinae (Globodera pallida, G. rostochiensis, Heterodera arenaria/avenae, H. ciceri, H. daverti, H. hordecalis, PI. mani, PI. schachtii, H. trifolii, Meloidogyne ardenensis, M. duytsi and M. maritima). However, pathotypes of Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis could not be distinguished. The method was tested at two ...
Persson, Y.; Friman, E., 1993: Intracellular proteolytic activity in mycelia of Arthrobotrys oligospora bearing mycoparasitic or nematode trapping structures
We characterized soil communities in the Mojave Desert across an elevation gradient. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that as soil quality improved with increasing elevation (due to increased productivity), the diversity of soil prokaryotes and nematodes would also increase. Soil organic matter and soil moisture content increased with elevation as predicted. Soil salinity did not correlate to elevation, but was highest at a mid-gradient, alluvial site. Soil nematode density, community trophic structure, and diversity did not show patterns related to elevation. Similar results were obtained for diversity of bacteria and archaea. Relationships between soil properties, nematode communities, and prokaryotic diversity were site-specific. For example, at the lowest elevation site, nematode communities contained a high proportion of fungal-feeding species and diversity of bacteria was lowest. At a high-salinity site, nematode density was highest, and overall, nematode density showed an unexpected, positive
We characterized soil communities in the Mojave Desert across an elevation gradient. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that as soil quality improved with increasing elevation (due to increased productivity), the diversity of soil prokaryotes and nematodes would also increase. Soil organic matter and soil moisture content increased with elevation as predicted. Soil salinity did not correlate to elevation, but was highest at a mid-gradient, alluvial site. Soil nematode density, community trophic structure, and diversity did not show patterns related to elevation. Similar results were obtained for diversity of bacteria and archaea. Relationships between soil properties, nematode communities, and prokaryotic diversity were site-specific. For example, at the lowest elevation site, nematode communities contained a high proportion of fungal-feeding species and diversity of bacteria was lowest. At a high-salinity site, nematode density was highest, and overall, nematode density showed an unexpected, positive