A physical map of the chromosome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 has been constructed. Digestion of strain FA1090 DNA with NheI, SpeI, BglII, or PacI resulted in a limited number of fragments that were resolved by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis. The estimated genome size was 2,219 kb. To construct the map, probes corresponding to single-copy chromosomal sequences were used in Southern blots of digested DNA separated on pulsed-field gels, to determine how the fragments from different digests overlapped. Some of the probes represented identified gonococcal genes, whereas others were anonymous cloned fragments of strain FA1090 DNA. By using this approach, a macrorestriction map of the strain FA1090 chromosome was assembled, and the locations of various genetic markers on the map were determined. Once the map was completed, the repeated gene families encoding Opa and pilin proteins were mapped. The 11 opa loci of strain FA1090 were distributed over approximately 60% of ...
BELDA JUNIOR, Walter; VELHO, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; ARNONE, Marcelo and FAGUNDES, Luis Jorge. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in São Paulo, Brazil. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2007, vol.38, n.2, pp.293-295. ISSN 1517-8382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822007000200020.. Continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential in order for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) treatment to be effective. Gonococci isolates from 65 patients in São Paulo were submitted to susceptibility testing, and a decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in 8.7% of these patients, indicating that Neisseria gonorrhoeae fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging in Brazil.. Keywords : anti-bacterial agents; ciprofloxacin; drug resistance; Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ...
To increase the utility of the previously constructed physical map of the chromosome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090, 28 additional genetic markers were localized on the map. Cloned gonococcal genes were used to probe Southern blots of restriction enzyme-digested DNA separated on pulsed-field gels, thus identifying the fragment in each of several digests to which the probe hybridized and the map location of each gene. The addition of the new markers brings the total number of mapped loci for this strain to 68; the locations of all of those markers on the updated map are shown. ...
OBJECTIVE: To study the predominant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain types in Pakistan and to evaluate their correlation with fluoroquinolone resistance. METHOD: A total of 314 strains were collected from 2007-2009. Of these 112 strains were randomly selected for serotyping via the coagglutination technique. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility was checked through the E-test method. Chi square was performed to assess the correlation between the strain type and fluoroquinolone resistance pattern. RESULTS: N. gonorrhoeae isolates were typed in two serogroups and 28 serovars. Serogroup WI comprised 40% (n = 45) whereas WII/WIII was 60% (n = 67). Most commonly isolated serovar belonged to serogroup WI namely Aorst (10%). The other predominant circulating serovars of the serogroup WI were Aost (9%) and Ast (8%) and Bsy (8%), Bopyt (5%) and Bprt (4.5%) in the serogroup WII/III. Fluoroquinolone resistance was 98%, with an MIC of 2 microg/mL in 47%, 4 microg/mL in 36% and | 32 microg/mL in 12% of the isolates. On
To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and resistant trends of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Guangzhou, from 1996 to 2001. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to four antimicrobials, penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. The resistance of all strains to four antibiotics was interpreted according to criteria used in the project of surveillance of gonococcal antibiotic susceptibility in the WHO Western Pacific Region. Penicillinase producing N gonorrhoeae (PPNG) was analysed by the paper acidometric method. 793 consecutive N gonorrhoeae isolates collected in Guangzhou were studied from 1996 to 2001. A total of 55 strains of PPNG were identified and the prevalence rapidly spread from 2% to 21.8%. Of the four antibiotics examined, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin appeared to be the most effective agents although two spectinomycin resistant strains were isolated in 1996. Their MIC(50), MIC(90), ...
OBJECTIVES--To employ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for the rapid differentiation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae protein IB (PIB) isolates and to compare its usefulness with the widely accepted auxotype/serovar classification scheme. METHODS--The outer membrane protein IB genes of 47 gonococcal isolates belonging to 10 different serovars were amplified by PCR. The approximately 1 kb DNA products were then digested separately with restriction enzymes CfoI and MspA1I, and electrophoresed on agarose gels. RESULTS--Cleavage of PIB genes by MspA1I and CfoI differentiated all the N gonorrhoeae strains into five and six PCR-RFLP profiles, respectively. PCR-RFLP was more discriminatory than auxotyping, which classifies the strains into only two auxotypes. Some strains belonging to common serovars could be further differentiated. A combination of PCR-RFLP analysis, auxotyping and serotyping further increased the discrimination of the strains into ...
The obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, has evolved mechanisms to manipulate the apoptotic machinery in human epithelial cells in favor of host niche adaptation. In the present research, I investigated the apoptotic effect of N. gonorrhoeae on transduced human urethral epithelial cells (THUEC) and the underlying mechanism of apoptosis modulation. Flow cytometric analysis showed that gonococcal infection conferred an anti-apoptotic effect in early infection, but induced apoptosis during prolonged infection periods in THUEC. Intracellular gonococci were required to provide the anti-apoptotic effect. Furthermore, immunoblotting analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways mapped the apoptosis resistance to a signaling cascade involving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and Bim/Bad, in which the inhibition of ERK activation by N. gonorrhoeae contributed to the anti-apoptotic effect on THUEC. A N. gonorrhoeae minD ...
Objectives To improve the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by designing a multiplex PCR assay using two N gonorrhoeae-specific genes as targets, thereby providing detection and confirmation of a positive result simultaneously.. Methods PCR primers were designed to detect two N gonorrhoeae genes, namely porA and pgi1. Primers for an internal control targeting the ompW gene of Vibrio cholerae were also designed and incorporated in the assay. The DNA of 45 clinical isolates including 33 N gonorrhoeae isolates, seven non-gonococcal Neisseria species, and five non-Neisseria species was tested using the multiplex PCR assay.. Results All 33 N gonorrhoeae isolates were successfully detected by the assay and none of the non-gonococcal isolates was detected. The assay showed a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, and a limit of detection of 1.25 ng of DNA.. Conclusion This multiplex PCR assay offers a sensitive and specific assay suitable for the detection of N gonorrhoeae, and offers real potential for ...
Since publication of CDCs 1993 guidelines (CDC. Recommendations for the prevention and management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections, 1993. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-12]:1--39), nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have been introduced as critical new tools to diagnose and treat C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. NAATs for C. trachomatis are substantially more sensitive than previous tests. When using a NAAT, any sacrifice in performance when urine is substituted for a traditional swab specimen is limited, thus reducing dependence on invasive procedures and expanding the venues where specimens can be obtained. NAATs can also detect both C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae organisms in the same specimen. However, NAATs are usually more expensive than previous tests, making test performance from an economic perspective a key consideration. This report updates the 1993 guidelines for selecting laboratory tests for C. trachomatis with an emphasis on screening men and women in the ...
Global Markets Directs, Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides an overview of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections pipeline landscape.
Via Eurosurveillance: Gonorrhoea treatment failure caused by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with combined ceftriaxone and high-level azithromycin resistance, England, February 2018. The abstract: We describe a gonorrhoea case with combined high-level azithromycin resistance and ceftriaxone resistance. In February 2018, a...
Gonorrhea is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the world. A naturally occurring variation of the terminal carbohydrates on the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) molecule correlates with altered disease states. Here, we investigated t
The obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is responsible for the widespread sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoea, which in rare cases also leads to the development of disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). DGI is mediated by PorBIA-expressing bacteria that invade host cells under low phosphate condition by interaction with the scavenger receptor-1 (SREC-I) expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. The interaction of PorBIA and SREC-I was analysed using different in vitro approaches, including surface plasmon resonance experiments that revealed a direct phosphate-independent high affinity interaction of SREC-I to PorBIA. However, the same binding affinity was also found for the other allele PorBIB, which indicates unspecific binding and suggests that the applied methods were unsuitable for this interaction analysis. Since N. gonorrhoeae was recently classified as a "super-bug" due to a rising number of antibiotic-resistant strains, this study aimed to discover inhibitors against ...
To the Editor: Spread of multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern. Effective antimicrobial therapy is a key element in gonorrhea control. However, N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobial drugs, including β-lactams, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones (1-3). Even an extended-spectrum oral cephalosporin-resistant, cefixime-resistant N. gonorrhoeae has emerged, and cefixime has now been withdrawn from use in Japan. Best practice treatment is limited to injectable extended-spectrum cephalosporins, such as ceftriaxone and spectinomycin. The emergence of ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae threatens effective disease control.. We identified a novel ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a 31-year-old female commercial sex worker; MIC of ceftriaxone for this isolate was high (2 µg/mL). The woman visited a clinic in Kyoto for a routine examination for sexually transmitted infections in January 2009. Although she had no ...
In 2016, we identified a ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate in China. The strain genotype was identical to the resistant clone FC428 that originated in Japan. Enhanced international collaborative surveillance programs are crucial to track the transmission of the ceftriaxone-resistant clones ...
Studies were performed on local isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to assess their aetiological role in different clinical populations, to determine the evolution of antimicrobial resistance and characterisation of quinolone resistance. In the study performed on women presenting for termination of pregnancy (TOP) the prevalence of common sexually transmitted pathogens (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis) was much higher than reported from other studies in TOP populations. The commonest organism isolated was C. trachomatis. There were no significant differences in infection rates in women with or without signs and symptoms of vaginal discharge. Therefore all women presenting for TOP need to be screened and treated for sexually transmitted pathogens. In the study to determine the co-infection rates in men presenting with urethritis (discharge and/or burning on micturition (BOM)), the overall infection rate was 65% with co-infections (more than one pathogen ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae MntC protein: a periplasmic-binding protein that be a component of an ABC transporter that imports manganese ion to combat oxidative stress; isolated from Neisseria gonorrhoeae; GenBank AE004969
Background: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and their bla(TEM-135) gene variant in 2007 and 2012 in Nanjing, China. In addition, molecular epidemiological typing of all isolates was performed to elucidate the genetic relationships of the PPNG strains. Methods: A total of 199 and 77 N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected at the National Center for STD Control in 2007 and 2012, respectively. Nitrocefin tests were performed to identify PPNG. Mismatch amplification mutation assay was used to identify bla(TEM-135). All isolates were genotyped using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and additionally, porB-based phylogenetic analysis was performed for the PPNG isolates. Results: The total prevalence of PPNG isolates was 41% (114/276) and 58% (66/114) of these PPNG isolates possessed bla(TEM-135). In 2007, 45% (90/199) produced beta-lactamase, and of those PPNG, 58% (52/90) possessed bla(TEM-135). In 2012, 31% ...
A Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with a reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 0.5 microg/mL) was isolated among 398 clinical isolates obtained from 2000-2001 in Fukuoka City, Japan. The N. gonorrhoeae strain was negative for penicillinase production but it sho …
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Finds sub-sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. More... ...
The majority of in vitro-grown Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains were unable to use hemoglobin as the sole source of iron for growth (Hgb-), but a minor population was able to do so (Hgb+). The ability of Hgb+ gonococci to utilize hemoglobin as the iron source was associated with the expression of an iron-repressible 89-kDa hemoglobin-binding protein in the outer membrane. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein revealed amino acids, from positions 2 to 16, identical to those of HpuB, an 85 kDa iron-regulated hemoglobin-haptoglobin utilization outer membrane protein of Neisseria meningitidis. Isogenic mutants constructed by allelic replacement with a meningococcal hpu::mini-Tn3erm construct no longer expressed the 89-kDa protein. Mutants could not utilize hemoglobin to support growth but still grew on heme. Thus, the gonococcal HpuB homolog is a functional hemoglobin receptor and is essential for growth with hemoglobin. ...
At all stages of the disease process, bacteria must acquire nutrients from the surrounding microenvironment to sustain growth and replication. Recent findings from genetic screening methods to identify factors required for bacterial pathogenesis in vivo have served to emphasize the essential role of microbial physiology during pathogenesis (25, 35).. N. gonorrhoeae has stringent nutrient requirements for growth. Only a limited repertoire of carbon energy sources, including glucose and lactate, are effectively utilized by this bacterium (2). Both are available in the genital tract, the normal habitat of N. gonorrhoeae. While biochemical evidence has demonstrated the effect of additional lactate on gonococcal metabolism and resistance against complement, this is the first description of a strain of N. gonorrhoeae that is specifically unable to utilize this carbon source. This was achieved by taking advantage of the recent identification of the gene encoding the lactate permease in the related ...
The present study describes the detailed phenotypic and genetic confirmation and characterization, including elucidation of the resistance mechanisms, of the first identified N. gonorrhoeae strain (H041) displaying high-level resistance to ceftriaxone worldwide. H041 was isolated from a female commercial sex worker in Japan (23), and the ceftriaxone MIC of H041 was 4- to 8-fold higher than any previously observed. Ceftriaxone is also the last remaining option for empirical first-line treatment of gonorrhea. Accordingly, N. gonorrhoeae has now shown its ability to develop resistance to ceftriaxone also and, although the biological fitness of ceftriaxone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae remains unknown, the gonococcus may become a true superbug that initiates a future era of untreatable gonorrhea.. Although a posttreatment isolate was unavailable (only one specimen positive with SDA [ProbeTec ET; Becton-Dickinson], sampled 2 weeks after treatment) to definitively verify treatment failure using 1 g ...
In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the MerR family transcription factor NmlR activates 3 operons in response to disulfide stress. In the present study, we show that trxB, a monocistronic operon under the control of NmlR, encodes a functional thioredoxin reductase. It is shown that neisserial TrxB has biochemical properties similar to those of its homologue from Escherichia coli. Analysis of a trxB mutant of N. gonorrhoeae showed that it was more sensitive to disulfide stress and to stress induced by organic hydroperoxides, superoxide, and nitric oxide than wild-type gonococcus. TrxB was found to be essential for the microaerobic induction of aniA and norB, the genes encoding nitrite reductase and nitric oxide reductase, respectively. The importance of TrxB during natural infection was demonstrated by the fact that the survival of gonococci within human cervical epithelial cells, as well as biofilm formation on these cells, was greatly reduced for a trxB mutant compared with a wild-type strain ...
The Neisseria gonorrhoeae population structure is not clonal [1-5], its panmictic structure being the result of horizontal genetic exchange [6]. The pathogenic Neisseria spp. are naturally transformable [7] and chromosomal changes are largely mediated by homologous recombination. Natural competence for transformation and homologous recombination allow the generation of mosaic genes, such as the divergent opa genes [8, 9], antigenic variation through recombination with silent cassettes, such as in the pilE/pilS system [10, 11], and the horizontal exchange of whole genes or groups of genes in Minimal Mobile Elements (MMEs) [12]. A Minimal Mobile Element (MME) is defined as a region between two conserved genes within which different genes are found in different strains. These elements are described as minimal reflecting the fact that they do not have features suggesting mobilization by associated transposases, nor do they currently appear to have features by which remotely encoded systems would ...
Uncomplicated gonorrhea is most commonly an acute urogenital infection involving the urethra in men and the endocervix in women of reproductive age. Upon entering the urogenital tract, Neisseria gonorrhoeae adheres to columnar epithelial cells, a step that presumably enables the gonococcus to withstand the flushing force of urine and the constant shedding of cervical mucus. Transcriptional regulation of genes in response to environmental stimuli in the mucus layer may coordinate adaptation of this pathogen to nutritionally different microenvironments and to physiological stress induced by nonspecific host defenses. The major pilin subunit, PilE, is encoded by one or two expression loci (pilE) on the chromosome. This chapter focuses on the survival mechanisms utilized by the gonococcus specifically in the context of the urogenital mucosa. The isolation of a gonococcal fur mutant by Thomas and Sparling facilitated the identification of numerous fur-dependent iron-induced (Fip) and iron-repressed (Frp)
Major outer membrane proteins (MOMP) from a mixture of detergent-treated Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains: SB587, SB2262, SB2265 & SB2275 ...
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease with a high morbidity burden. Incidence of this disease is rising due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for its treatment. In fact, it was recently classified as a “Priority 2” microorganism in the WHO Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to Guide Research, Discovery and Development of New Antibiotics. Seeing as there is no gonococcal vaccine, control of the disease relies entirely on prevention, diagnosis and, especially, antibiotic treatment. Different health organizations worldwide have established treatment guidelines against gonorrhea, mostly consisting in dual therapy with a single oral or intramuscular dose. However, gonococci continue to develop resistances to all antibiotics introduced for treatment. In fact, the first strain of super-resistant N. gonorrhoeae was recently detected in the
Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) heptose (Hep) glycan substitutions influence gonococcal serum resistance. Several gonococcal strains bind the classical complement pathway inhibitor, C4b-binding protein (C4BP), via their porin (Por) molecule to escape complement-dependent killing by normal human serum (NHS). We show that the proximal glucose (Glc) on HepI is required for C4BP binding to Por1B-bearing gonococcal strains MS11 and 1291 but not to FA19 (Por1A). The presence of only the proximal Glc on HepI (lgtE mutant) permitted maximal C4BP binding to MS11 but not to 1291. Replacing 1291 lgtE Por with MS11 Por increased C4BP binding to levels that paralleled MS11 lgtE, suggesting that replacement of the Por1B molecule dictated the effects of HepI glycans on C4BP binding. The remainder of the strain background did not affect C4BP binding; replacing the Por of strain F62 with MS11 Por (F62 PorMS11) and truncating HepI mirrored the findings in the MS11 background. C4BP binding correlated with resistance to killing
Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is global concern. We evaluated trends of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae over years 1992-2009 in Pakistan. Resistance rates were compared between years (2007-2009) and (1992-2006). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria using the disk diffusion methodology against penicillin, ceftriaxone, tetracycline and ofloxacin. Additional antibiotics tested in 100 strains isolated during 2007-2009, included cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefipime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cefixime, cefpodoxime, spectinomycin and azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 was used as control. Chi-square for trend analysis was conducted to assess resistance trend over the study period. During study period significant increase in combined resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and ofloxacin was observed (P value
This test was performed using the APTIMA® COMBO2 Assay (GEN-PROBE).. Clinical Significance. C. trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. C. trachomatis is known to cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), epididymitis and proctitis. It is also the most frequent cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Among women, the consequences of Chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated. Approximately half of Chlamydial infections are asymptomatic.Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) is the causative agent of gonorrhea. In men, this disease generally results in anterior urethritis accompanied by purulent exudate. In women, the disease is most often found in the cervix, but the vagina and uterus may also be infected.. Alternative Name(s) CT/NG APTIMA®, CT/GC APTIMA®, Hologic, CT/GC TMA, CT/NG TMA. ...
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Intragenic recombination between the single complete pilin gene (expression locus) and multiple, distinct, partial pilin gene copies (silent, storage loci) is thought to account for the generation of pilus antigenic diversity and piliation phase (on-off) changes exhibited by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The mechanisms operating in the genomic rearrangements associated with these forms of pilus variation were investigated through the study of isogenic strains of gonococci bearing either wild-type or altered recA alleles. Examination of the rates of pilus phase variation and the genetic basis for changes in piliation status displayed by these strains show that recA mediated homologous recombination is required for these high frequency events and confirm that the nonpiliated state results from mutations in the expressed pilin gene. In a strain that is deficient in recA mediated homologous recombination, pilus phase variation occurs at a 100-1000-fold reduced rate and results predominantly from one class ...
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Immunisation of ddY mice with the purified ribosomal fraction of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was found to protect against intravaginal challenge with homologous organisms. This protection correlated with the presence of bactericidal antibody to purified ribosomal fraction in serum as well as in vaginal secretions. Analysis of the vaginal fluids from control mice and those immunised with purified ribosomal fraction showed that the enhanced elimination of gonococci in immune mice might be because of an early response of leucocytes generated by the reaction mediated by antibody and complement. Absorption studies showed that there was at least one major protective antigen in purified ribosomal fraction, other than cell surface substances such as lipopolysaccharide, outer membrane proteins, and pili. Bactericidal assays mediated by antibody and complement showed that matched samples of serum and vaginal fluid from immune mice had comparable gonococcidal activity, which was augmented by the effect of ...
Background: In 2013 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention declared the emergence of multi-drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections to be one of the top three urgent threats to public health. In response we developed a rapid molecular assay to detect alterations in the gyrase A (gyrA) genotype of NG species conferring fluoroquinolone-resistance. In November 2015, UCLA Health began routine gyrA genotype testing NG positive specimens from the Cobas CT/NG assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasant, CA). Methods: We reviewed patient records for all laboratory confirmed NG cases between January 1st 2015 and May 5th 2016 to determine HIV-infection status, time-to-treatment and gyrA genotype results by anatomic site. At least one NG infection detected from a patient on a single date was considered a case. Infections in different anatomic locations were considered unique infections. Results: Among 199 patients (84% men; 35% HIV-infected), there were 221 cases and 233 unique NG ...
BELDA JUNIOR, Walter; SIQUEIRA, Luiz Fernando de Góes; NICO, Marcelo Menta S and FAGUNDES, Luiz Jorge. Activity of five antimicrobial agents in vitro against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. An. Bras. Dermatol. [online]. 2002, vol.77, n.6, pp.661-667. ISSN 0365-0596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0365-05962002000600003.. BACKGROUND: The use of antimicrobial drugs in the treatment of gonorrhea began in 1930 with the use of sulfonamides. Through the years, other drugs such as penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline among others, came into use. Although highly efficient at first, with the passing of time these drugs began to present untoward therapeutic results, because of the appearance of cases with chromosomic and plasmidial resistance. Because of this, in order to establish a program to combat and control a determined bacterial morbidity, it was necessary to carry out a program of epidemiologic surveillance evaluating the sensitivity behavior of the etiologic agents against the various therapeutic agents. ...
The immunological basis for resistance of certain strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to the bactericidal action of normal human serum was studied by investigating the potential role of factors which are known to interfere with each of the sequential steps that result in immune lysis of Gram-negative b …
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 26, No 4, December 2002 contains information on a long-term program of surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in the World Health Organizations Western Pacific Region which continued in 2001.
General Information: Causes septicemia and meningitis. The second of two pathogenic Neisseria, this organism causes septicemia and is the leading cause of life-threatening meningitis (inflammation of the meninges, the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord) in children. This organism typically residies in the nasopharynx cavity but can invade the respiratory epthelial barrier, cross into the bloodstream and the blood brain barrier, and cause inflammation of the meninges. Pathogenicity factors include the surface proteins (porins and opacity proteins), and the type IV pilus (which is also found in Neisseria gonorrhoeae). Pathogenicity factors include the surface proteins (porins and opacity proteins), and the type IV pilus (which is also found in Neisseria gonorrhoeae). This organism, like Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is naturally competent, and protein complexes at the cell surface recognize the uptake signal sequence in extracellular DNA, an 8mer that is found at high frequency in Neisseria ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC ® 19424™ Designation: NCTC 8375 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Quality control strain Quality control strain for BBL products Sexually Transmitted Disease Research
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC ® 19424™ Designation: NCTC 8375 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Quality control strain Quality control strain for BBL products Sexually Transmitted Disease Research
An apparatus for use in detecting Neisseria gonorrhoeae in females including a container and operative elements sealed therein. The test makes use of a dry pledget impregnated with reactant chemicals
Get this from a library! Immunobiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae : proceedings of a conference held in San Francisco, California, 18-20 January 1978. [George F Brooks;]
Zaburdaev, V. ; Biais, N. ; Schmiedeberg, M. ; Eriksson, J. ; Jonsson, A. - B. ; Sheetz, M. P. ; Weitz, D. A. Uncovering the Mechanism of Trapping and Cell Orientation during Neisseria gonorrhoeae Twitching Motility. 2014, 107, 1523 - 1531.
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This is the current revision of Neisseria gonorrhoeae as edited by Aschlafly (Talk , contribs) at 18:16, 14 July 2007. This URL is a permanent link to this version of this page ...
General Information: The B serogroup is responsible for many of the meningitis outbreaks in the developed world. This strain was isolated from a case of invasive infection. Causes septicemia and meningitis. The second of two pathogenic Neisseria, this organism causes septicemia and is the leading cause of life-threatening meningitis (inflammation of the meninges, the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord) in children. This organism typically residies in the nasopharynx cavity but can invade the respiratory epthelial barrier, cross into the bloodstream and the blood brain barrier, and cause inflammation of the meninges. Pathogenicity factors include the surface proteins (porins and opacity proteins), and the type IV pilus (which is also found in Neisseria gonorrhoeae). Pathogenicity factors include the surface proteins (porins and opacity proteins), and the type IV pilus (which is also found in Neisseria gonorrhoeae). This organism, like Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is naturally competent, and ...
Neisseria spp. - Includes:Neisseria gonorrhoeaeNeisseria meningitidis - Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Neisseria meningitidis - Gram-negative diplococciContain lipooligosaccharides (LOS) with strong endotoxin activity - Contain lipooligosaccharides (LOS) with strong endotoxin activity - Facultatively intracellularOften visualized within epithelial cells - Often visualized within epithelial cells - Grows on Thayer-Martin agarSelective chocolate (heated-blood) agar-based medium containing the antibiotics vancomycin, colistin, nystatin and trimethoprimPrevents growth of microbes other than Neisseria - Selective chocolate (heated-blood) agar-based medium containing the antibiotics vancomycin, colistin, nystatin and trimethoprim - Prevents growth of microbes other than Neisseria - Produce IgA proteaseCleave IgA at hinge region, impairing its function at mucosal surfacesImproves mucosal adherence - Cleave IgA at hinge region, impairing its function at mucosal surfaces - Improves mucosal adherence - Increased risk
Neisseria Gonorrhoeae usually causes a localized mucosal infection. However, in 1% to 3% of cases, the organism disseminates and produces various clinical syndromes (1). Two of the commoner manifestations of disseminated gonococcal infection are septic arthritis and tenosynovitis (2). In sexually active young persons, disseminated gonococcal infection is the most frequent cause of septic arthritis (2). In most studies on disseminated gonococcal infection, only strains of N. gonorrhoeae that are very sensitive to penicillin are reported to produce this syndrome (3, 4). The association between clinical virulence of the organism and dissemination may be linked to low antibiotic resistance in ...
Gonorrhoeae bacteria. Computer illustration of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria. N. gonorrhoeae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea. Symptoms include vaginal or urethral discharge and a burning sensation on urination. - Stock Image C023/4604
Gonorrhoeae bacteria. Computer illustration of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria. N. gonorrhoeae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea. Symptoms include vaginal or urethral discharge and a burning sensation on urination. - Stock Image F019/2588
Nicole Le Saux is Associate Professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Ottawa *. As physicians we should be concerned about the inappropriate use of antibiotics. Have you ever had a patient with an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), E. coli or Klebsiella urinary tract infection, a Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) or a drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae?. Whereas resistant bacteria and CDI were rare a decade ago, these clinical situations are now commonplace in hospitals, long term care facilities and emergency departments. According to the the rate of CDI in hospitalized patients is 3.4 cases per 1000 patient admissions (approximately one in every 300 patients admitted). As of 2014, 18.2% of isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin with worrisome decreased susceptibility to cefixime, ceftriaxone and azithromycin. ...continue reading →. ...
Gonorrheal urethritis was induced in three males by intraurethral instillation of predominantly pilus+ protein II- gonococci. Virtually all gonococci reisolated from the infected men exhibited protein II+ phenotype. The reisolated gonococci expressed five distinct outer membrane protein II species. Protein IIc+ organisms predominated in urines of all three subjects, but variants expressing this particular protein II were rarely spawned in vitro by input organisms. Protein IIc+ gonococci appeared early in one mans infection; they were joined later by variants that displayed eight other protein II phenotypes, including protein II-. These results show that input protein II- gonococci are supplanted by protein IIc+ variants during incipient gonorrheal urethritis. As infection progresses, a broader variety of protein II+ variants appears. ...
AbstractBackgroundNeisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) is the etiological agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection that initially infects the female lower genital tract. In untreated women, the bacteria can ascend to the upper genital reproductive tract and infect the fallopian tube (FTs), which is associated with salpingitis and can lead to functional impairment of the FTs and infertility. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in cell migration and differentiation in the female genital tract, and some pathogens have developed mechanisms to modify the ECM to establish successful infection. The ECM is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors TIMPs, whereas MMPs deregulation can lead to pathological conditions in a variety of tissues. ResultsThe aim of this work was to analyze the expression and localization of MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in FTs explants during Ngo infection using real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, zymography and ELISA. No
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complete ciprofloxacin resistance in gonococcal isolates in an urban Ugandan clinic. T2 - findings from a cross-sectional study. AU - Mabonga, Emily. AU - Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind. AU - Riedel, Stefan. AU - Nabweyambo, Sheila. AU - Mbabazi, Olive. AU - Taylor, Chris. AU - Gaydos, Charlotte. AU - Manabe, Yukari C.. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to gonorrhoea is a threat to global health security. There have been concerns expressed that countries with high rates of disease have poor surveillance. The objectives of the study were to determine the AMR patterns of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates to antimicrobial agents in patients with HIV or high risk of HIV acquisition, to compare the concordance of disk diffusion and agar dilution as methods for determining AMR to N. gonorrhoeae, and to describe methodological challenges to carrying out AMR testing. The study was conducted at an HIV outpatient service for at-risk populations and an ...
The epithelium of the lower female genital tract is a dynamic tissue, changing under the influence of hormones, age, pregnancy, and other factors. While the stratified squamous epithelia of the human vagina and ectocervix are exposed to the complex microenvironment of the vagina, the columnar epithelium of the endocervix is generally considered a sterile site, in part due to the cervical mucus that filters bacteria and other debris while allowing sperm to ascend to the upper genital tract. However, this barrier can readily be crossed by a variety of infectious agents, in particular N. gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, typically leading to cervicitis. The lower female genital tract can also become contaminated with Gram-negative organisms secondary to the presence of rectal flora in the perineal area. Thus, it is essential that the normal cervical epithelium have the capacity to recognize and respond to ascending pathogens while at the same time avoiding a state of chronic inflammation that ...
My research takes two directions encompassing both fundamental and applied research. Firstly we focus on bacterial metabolism and regulation of gene expression to understand how pathogenic bacteria (such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) are able to grow in unique, often inhospitable environments, and evade host immune responses. The development of resistance to antibiotic treatments is also central to this research. In the applied direction we are engineering proteins for biotechnology applications, such as RNA sequencing.. ...
The N meningitidis bacteria causing a recent cluster of sexually transmitted infections in Columbus, Ohio and other US cities have adapted to the urogenital environment, an analysis of their DNA shows.. Update: May 2016 Clinical Infectious Diseases paper on the same urethritis cluster.. Genetic changes make this clade look more like relatives that are known to cause gonorrhea. Some good news is that these guys are less likely to cause meningitis because they have lost their outer capsule. They have also gained enzymes that help them live in low oxygen.. The DNA analysis helps doctors track the spread of this type of bacteria and anticipate which vaccines might be protective against it. Thankfully, no alarming antibiotic resistance markers are present (yet) and currently available vaccines may be helpful. Full press release here, and information about meningococcal disease from the CDC here.. This looks like a well-worn path in bacterial evolution, since N. gonorrhoeae is thought to have evolved ...
The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme is funded by the Federal health department to provide laboratory analysis of gonococcal isolates in Australia. The Programme produces an annual report on its findings as well as a report on the WHO Western Pacific Region Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme. This annual report for 2007/08 also includes data on the South East Asian Region.
Aetiology and pathogenesis. Gonococcal infection is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), a strictly aerobic, non-encapsulated, Gram-negative, facultatively intracellular diplococcus. It is an exclusively human primary pathogen which predominantly affects the columnar epithelium of the urethra, the endocervix, the rectum, the pharynx and the conjunctiva of the eyes. Unlike other species of the genus Neisseria, gonococcus is only transmitted by direct contact between mucous membranes (genital-genital, genital-anal, oral-genital or oral-anal) or from mother to child during delivery.. Gonorrhoea is usually localised and produces an intense inflammatory response and an increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, causing a purulent discharge, which is very characteristic of gonococcal urethritis.. Epidemiology. Gonorrhoea is the second most prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) with bacterial aetiology after Chlamydia trachomatis infection. According to data from the European Centre for ...
Between November 2014 and May 2018, 118 laboratory-confirmed cases of high-level azithromycin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae were identified in England. Cases emerged among heterosexuals in Leeds but spread across England and into sexual networks of men who have sex with men as the outbreak progressed. The few epidemiological links identified indicate substantial under-diagnosis of cases and this, along with the upturn in cases in 2017, highlights the difficulties in controlling the outbreak.
The WPR Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (WPR GASP) has documented the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in gonococci at a regional level from 1992 onwards. This report gives information on isolates examined during 2006.
Neisseria gonorrheae bacteria are the causative agent of the second most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. The bacteria move on a surface by means of twitching motility. Their movement is mediated by multiple long and flexible filaments, called type IV pili, that extend from the cell body, attach to the surface, and retract, thus generating a pulling force. Moving cells also use pili to aggregate and form microcolonies. However, the mechanism by which the pili surrounding the cell body work together to propel bacteria remains unclear. Understanding this process will help describe the motility of N. gonorrheae bacteria, and thus the dissemination of the disease which they cause. In this article we track individual twitching cells and observe that their trajectories consist of alternating moving and pausing intervals, while the cell body is preferably oriented with its wide side toward the direction of motion. Based on these data, we propose a model for the collective pili ...
Comprehensive instructions for specimen collection, special requirements, specimen handling, testing methods and turnaround times.
Do not collect urethral specimens until at least one hour after urinating. Collection directly from male urethral discharge is desirable. Collect anorectal specimens from the crypts just inside the anal ring; anoscopy useful. Prostatic fluid yields fewer positives than does urethral culture. Endocervix: Swab endocervical canal. Avoid contaminating swab with vaginal secretions. Cultures from the urethra or vagina are indicated from females when endocervical culture is not possible. Urethra: Strip the urethra toward the orifice to express exudate. Use a sterile swab to obtain the specimen. Vagina: Use a speculum, moistened only with warm water, not lubricant. Obtain a specimen from the posterior vaginal vault or from the vaginal orifice if the hymen is intact. Swab samples should be rolled over the surface of the Jembec medium. ...
Bambeke, F.V. and P.M. Tulkens. 1999. Fluoroquinolones: from structure to activity and toxicity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Ciprofloxacin resistance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Update. 2000. Studies show gonorrhea control again facing challenge of antibiotic resistance. Clinical Toxicology Review. 1997. The Fluoroquinolones. Fauci, Anthony S. 1999. Antimicrobial Resistance: The NIH Response to a Growing Problem. File, T.M. and T.G. Slama. 2000. Fluoroquinolones: Today and Into the Future. Fox, K.K., J.S. Knapp. 1999. Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Current Opinions in Urology. 9:65-70. Fox, K.K., J.S. Knapp, K.K. Holmes, E.W. Hook, F.N. Judson, S.E. Thompson, J.A. Washington, and W.L. Whittington. 1997. Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States, 1988-1994: the emergence of decreased susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 175:1396-1403. Gershman, K. 1997. Antibiotic resistance ...
ଗନରିଆ (ଇଂରାଜୀ ଭାଷାରେ Gonorrhea ବା gonorrhoea) ଏକ ଯୌନ ସଞ୍ଚାରିତ ସଂକ୍ରମଣ (sexually transmitted infection) ଯାହା ନାଇସେରିଆ ଗନରି (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) ଜୀବାଣୁଦ୍ୱାରା ସୃଷ୍ଟି ହୁଏ । [୧] ଅନେକ ଲୋକଙ୍କର କୌଣସି ଲକ୍ଷଣ ଦେଖାଯାଏ ନାହିଁ । ଲକ୍ଷଣ: ପୁରୁଷ ରୋଗୀଙ୍କର ଡିସୟୁରିଆ (burning with urination) ବା ପରିସ୍ରା କରିବାବେଳେ କଷ୍ଟ, ଯୌନାଙ୍ଗରୁ (ଶିଶ୍ନ ବା ପେନିସ) କ୍ଷରଣ ବା ଅଣ୍ଡକୋଷରେ ଯନ୍ତ୍ରଣା ହୁଏ । ମହିଳାମାନଙ୍କର ଯୌନାଙ୍ଗ କ୍ଷରଣ, ଯୋନୀପଥରୁ ରକ୍ତସ୍ରାବ (ଋତୁସ୍ରାବ ବ୍ୟତୀତ), ପେଲଭିସରେ କଷ୍ଟ ଓ ...
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An EQA scheme for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been available to laboratories participating in ECDCs European Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) surveillance network since 2010. This is the third EQA to be published on antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ...
Acknowledgment: The authors acknowledge Alesia Harvey, Tremeka Sanders, Kevin Pettus, Samera Bowers, Paula Dixon, Laura Doyle, Baderinwa Offut, and the GISP participating clinics.. Financial Support: By the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. Potential Conflicts of Interest: Disclosures can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M12-1430.. Reproducible Research Statement: Study protocol: Available at www.cdc.gov/std/gisp. Statistical code: Not available. Data set: Proposals for uses of GISP data should be submitted to Dr. Kirkcaldy (e-mail, [email protected]).. Requests for Single Reprints: Robert Kirkcaldy, MD, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop E-02, Atlanta, GA 30333; e-mail, [email protected] Current Author Addresses: Drs. Kirkcaldy, Bolan, and Weinstock: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop E-02, Atlanta, GA 30333.. Dr. Zaidi: Centers for Disease Control and ...
Draw blood in a plain, red-top tube(s). Spin down and send 1 mL serum, refrigerated.   NOTE: Serum gel tube is acceptable, but must pour off into a plastic vial.  
be remainders of the major concern would be good as they form. Now, sometimes they can obstruction signs and symptoms neisseria gonorrhoeae in attaining the optimum health of person may feel pain in the blood. I have been used for a gallstone attack, seek medical signs and symptoms neisseria gonorrhoeae attention. This herb also acts as a family have had several episodes of pain and other complex, sugars, proteins, and I have been used to break away from the liver. High cholesterol and pigment stones are small point here. You can do lots of good for bones and told is liver cirrhosis reversible my parents that are the culprit is your bedside manner person. It holds bile which results in inadequate digestion problems persist beyond a few growth in esophagus days, at the belly. Doctors determines if the liver, just have a reduced fat diet. Doctors have been used for explain! After having gallstones and gallbladder cancer. If you do, make sure you are experience during food poisoning, is called ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Johan Chanal, François Lassau, Philippe Morand, Michel Janier, Nicolas Dupin].
1. Two principal types of gonococci may be recognized by suitable immunological tests; e. g., agglutination and complement fixation. These two types correspond to the adult and infant types of infection with the gonococcus, seen clinically.. 2. On the basis of the immunological reactions of agglutination and complement fixation the strains of gonococci isolated from three cases of ophthalmia are classed with the adult type.. 3. A polyvalent antigen for the serological diagnosis of a gonococcus infection should represent strains of the infant type of organism in order that both types of infection, infant as well as adult, may be recognized.. ...
A valid e-mail address. All e-mails from the system will be sent to this address. The e-mail address is not made public and will only be used if you wish to receive a new password or wish to receive certain news or notifications by e-mail ...
Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to azithromycin and ceftriaxone has been increasing in the past years. This is of concern since the combination of these antimicrobials is recommended as the first-line treatment option in most guidelines. To analyse trends in antimicrobial resistance, we retrospectively selected all consultations with a positive N. gonorrhoeae culture at the sexually transmitted infection clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, from January 2012 through September 2015. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for azithromycin and ceftriaxone were analysed per year, and determinants associated with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (MIC > 0.25 mg/L) or ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.032 mg/L) were assessed. Between 2012 and 2015 azithromycin resistance (MIC > 0.5 mg/L) was around 1.2%, the percentage of isolates with intermediate MICs (> 0.25 and ≤ 0.5 mg/L) increased from 3.7% in 2012, to 8.6% in 2015. Determinants associated with decreased azithromycin susceptibility were,
In the early years of the HIV epidemic in Africa, female sex workers (FSWs) were identified as a high-prevalence, high-incidence, core group among whom the extraordinary prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) facilitated transmission of the virus to their clients, who then infected low-risk women not involved in the sex trade. In resource-poor settings, control of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among FSWs is difficult. The purpose of this study is to determine whether periodical antibiotic treatment (PAT) is effective in controlling these infections among West African FSWs.. The study is designed as a cluster-randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted in West Africa. The study population consists of seaters FSWs who work from their homes in well-defined areas. Clusters will be paired according to their size and demographic characteristics of FSWs and clients. Within each pair, one cluster will be randomly allocated to the ...
Gonorrhea ( flow of seed a Greek physician in 130 AD mistook pus for semen) Neisseria gonorrhoeae; can survive in dried masses of pus for 6-7 weeks; possess pili that allow them to attach to epithelial cells and to sperm; produce an endotoxin that damages the mucosa in reproductive tract and produce proteases that destroy IgA antibody; some people are asymptomatic; can be a carrier for 5-15 years postinfection; contraceptive pill alter vaginal conditions in favor of gonococcal growth; females can develop PID (pelvic inflammatory disease which leads to sterility); can also cause infections of pharynx, rectum, arthritis, blindness); treatable with antibiotics; silver nitrate administered to the eyes of newborns to prevent infections ...
MMWR. 2002;51:1041-10442 figures omittedNeisseria gonorrhoeae is a major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and it can fa
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , QED \ Anti-Neisseria gonorrhoeae \ 15803 for more molecular products just contact us
(2014) Li et al. Crystal Growth and Design. The lipidic mesophase or in meso method for crystallizing membrane proteins has several high profile targets to its credit and is growing in popularity. Despite its success, the method is in its in...
Ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis has now been documented in the United States. Heres a nice summary in Journal Watch, with two different perspectives. I suppose we shouldnt be surprised, but it did take a while. (At least compared to that other famous neisseria-bug, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.) Oh well. Why is this important? As every practicing ID doc/primary care provider/public health […]. ...
Our editors 10 Top STEM News from the week: Gonorrhea May Soon Be Resistant to all Antibiotics Gonorrhea may soon become untreatable. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported Thursday that the wily Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria […]. ...
Buy Biotine Online! Biotines have a broad spectrum of activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Rickettsiae, Plasmodia, and amoebae. Penicillin-sensitive Neisseria gonorrhoeae and meningococci are sensitive to Biotines, whereas penicillin-resistant gonococci tend to be resistant to them.
Apakah anda menderita gonore? Masih belum kunjung sembuh dari penyakit gonore? Mencari obat yang ampuh untuk mengobati gonore? Jika demikian maka anda berada di web yang tepat! Kami dari De Nature Indonesia membuka layanan konsultasi pengobatan berbagai macam penyakit, termasuk penyakit gonore. Untuk keterangan lebih lanjut silakan menghubungi kami pada kontak layanan customer service kami. Namun sebelumnya mari kita simak artikel singkat berikut.Gonore adalah infeksi bakteri di alat kelamin, dubur atau tenggorokan. Gonore disebabkan oleh kuman Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus), yang merupakan diplococcus gram negatif. Kuman ini terutama menginfeksi selaput lendir manusia, yaitu alat kelamin, liang dubur, selaput lendir mata, dan tenggorokan.Gonore dapat menular kalau seseorang melakukan hubungan seks vaginal, dubur atau mulut dengan seseorang yang sudah mengalami infeksi tersebut tanpa memakai kondom. Untuk laki-laki yang mengalami infeksi saluran kencing, gejala-gejalanya biasanya muncul ...
Sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs are under duress. Health departments are laying off disease intervention specialists, the very core of their STD prevention efforts, and STD clinics are closing.1 Meanwhile, surviving clinics are looking to cut costs, raise revenue, and streamline operations. In this context, it is reasonable to question whether all patients presenting to an STD clinic should undergo a full physical evaluation or whether clinic efficiencies could be achieved by offering different levels of service dependent on the risks or symptoms of the patient. Such an approach has been made possible by the availability of nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) that allowed for noninvasive testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis and thus removed the need for a full physical examination.. Variably termed "express visits," "fast-tracking," or "short-protocol," numerous STD clinics, both domestically and abroad, have experimented with triage-based STD testing ...
a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra. ...
Gonorrhea is a contagious disease transmitted most often through sexual contact with an infected person. The disease is also known ad Clap or Drip. The disease is common both in men and women. It is caused by a bacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that can grow and multiply easily in mucus membranes of the body. It requires warm and humid environment to grow. The cervix (opening to the womb), uterus (womb), and fallopian tubes (egg canals) in women, and in the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body) in women and men are the best places for the bacteria growth. The bacteria can also grow in the mouth, throat, and anus. Sometimes the symptoms are so mild that they remain unnoticed. Some symptoms which might appear include: Greenish yellow or whitish discharge from the vagina, lower abdominal or pelvic pain, burning when urinating, conjunctivitis (red, itchy eyes), bleeding between periods, spotting after intercourse, burning in the throat (due to oral sex) and ...
Background: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for preventing HIV, but risk compensation (RC) in men who have sex with men (MSM) raises concerns about increased sexually transmitted infections (STIs). CDCs PrEP guidelines recommend biannual STI screening, which may reduce incidence by treating STIs that would otherwise remain undiagnosed. We investigated the impact of these two potentially counteracting phenomena.. Methods: With a stochastic network-based mathematical model of HIV and rectal/urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) transmission dynamics among MSM in the United States, we simulated PrEP uptake following the prescription indications and HIV/STI screening recommendations in the CDC guidelines. Model scenarios varied PrEP coverage (the proportion of MSM indicated for PrEP who received it), RC (as a reduction in the per-act probability of condom use), and the STI screening interval.. Results: In our reference scenario (40% coverage, 40% ...
The detection of health risks and preventive treatment is a huge focus of healthcare today. We offer products for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae alongside mid- to high-throughput automation. Validated sample collection, workflows, and automation provide standardized solutions for preventive testing.. Choose the workflow below for your pathogen of interest ...
The detection of health risks and preventive treatment is a huge focus of healthcare today. We offer products for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae alongside mid- to high-throughput automation. Validated sample collection, workflows, and automation provide standardized solutions for preventive testing.. Choose the workflow below for your pathogen of interest ...
Buckley C; Trembizki E; Donovan B; Chen M; Freeman K; Guy R; Lahra MM; Kundu RL; Regan DG; Smith HV, 2016, Real-time PCR detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility to penicillin, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 71, pp. 3090 - 3095, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkw291. Parsons BF; Ryder N, 2016, High uptake of shared electronic health records among HIV-infected patients at an Australian sexual health clinic, Sexual Health, vol. 13, pp. 393 - 394, http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH16035. Vaccher S; Grulich A; McAllister J; Templeton DJ; Bloch M; McNulty A; Holden J; Poynten IM; Prestage G; Zablotska I, 2016, Protocol for an open-label, single-arm trial of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among people at high risk of HIV infection: the NSW Demonstration Project PRELUDE, BMJ Open, vol. 6, http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012179. Silver B; Kaldor JM; Rumbold A; Ward J; Smith K; Dyda A; Ryder N; Yip TW; Su JY; Guy RJ, 2016, Community and clinic-based screening for curable ...
First evidence that bacteria can acquire human genes has come to light in a new study by US researchers who found a fragment of human DNA in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterium...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the bacterium responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, also known as the clap. Symptoms often include pain when peeing and a nasty discharge from your nether regions, although some people can be asymptomatic. The microbe isnt hugely fussy about where it causes an infection, so you can also get gonorrhoea of the throat and … Read More ...
Tripel ( Gonorrhoea) - je chòroscą ù lëdzy. Jegò lékarzenié je mòżlëwi. Do chòroscë doprowôdzy bakteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Ta chòrosc biwô m.jin. w Africe, ale mòże bëc na Kaszëbach.. ...
penderita penyakit kencing nanah atau gonnore akan merasakan sakit pada bagian vitalnya dikarenakan neisseria gonorrhoeae yang menginfeksi pada lapisan dalam uretra, tenggorokan, rectum, bagian putih mata (konjungtiva), dan leher Rahim. Penyakit kencing nanah ini bisa menyebar melalui aliran darah ke bagian tubuh lainnya, terutama pada kulit dan persendian.
penderita penyakit kencing nanah atau gonnore akan merasakan sakit pada bagian vitalnya dikarenakan neisseria gonorrhoeae yang menginfeksi pada lapisan dalam uretra, tenggorokan, rectum, bagian putih mata (konjungtiva), dan leher Rahim. Penyakit kencing nanah ini bisa menyebar melalui aliran darah ke bagian tubuh lainnya, terutama pada kulit dan persendian.
Sedang mencari obat Kencing Nanah Atau Gonore ? Gonore adalah penyakit menular seksual yang disebabkan oleh Neisseria gonorrhoeae yang menginfeksi lapisan dalam uretra, leher rahim, rektum dan tenggorokan atau bagian putih mata (konjungtiva).Gonore bisa menyebar melalui aliran darah ke bagian tubuh lainnya, terutama kulit dan persendian.Pada wanita, gonore bisa naik ke saluran kelamin dan ...