Pubdate: Wed, 10 Sep 2003 Source: Los Angeles Times (CA) Copyright: 2003 Los Angeles Times Contact: http://www.latimes.com/ Details: http://www.mapinc.org/media/248 Author: Steve Hymon, Times Staff Writer Cited: the Human Rights Watch report http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/usa0903/ California Narcotic Officers Association http://www.cnoa.org/ Clean Needles Now http://www.cleanneedlesnow.org Bookmark: http://www.mapinc.org/find?137 (Needle Exchange) POLICE ACCUSED OF INTERFERING WITH NEEDLE-EXCHANGE EFFORTS Activists Say the States Anti-AIDS Programs Are Being Hindered. a Law Enforcement Spokesman Suggests That They Are Lying. A human rights advocacy group Tuesday accused police in California of routinely interfering with legitimate needle-exchange programs intended to slow the spread of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Human Rights Watch, a New York-based group, alleged in a report that police intent on enforcing drug laws often arrest or hassle patrons of locally approved needle-exchange programs ...
Pubdate: Tue, 11 Feb 2003 Source: Canadian Champion, The (CN ON) Copyright: 2003 Metroland Printing, Publishing and Distributing Ltd Contact: http://www.haltonsearch.com/hr/mcc/ Details: http://www.mapinc.org/media/1503 Author: Jason Misner Bookmark: http://www.mapinc.org/find?137 (Needle Exchange) HALTONS NEEDLE EXCHANGE PROGRAM SERVING A NEED Return Rate On Par With Neighbouring Regions Administrators of Halton Regions needle exchange program say the return rate - the number of new needles given out versus the old ones returned - is on par with neighbouring municipalities that offer similar programs, and is serving a need. Cate Bannan, manager of AIDS, STDs, sexual health and needle exchange services for the Regions public health department, said the return rate of 74 per cent is equal to programs in Hamilton, Niagara Region and Guelph. But said she wants that number to be higher. "We are very pleased with how well the program is doing," Ms Bannan said. "We think there are more users out ...
Art Caplan, MSNBC.coms "Vitals": The belief that "[g]iving out free clean needles sends the message that injecting drugs is OK … just happens to be completely unsupported by any evidence at all," Caplan, director of the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania writes, adding, "Policy involves more than scientific evidence when it comes to touchy subjects like drug addiction. However, morality cannot ignore the facts." He concludes, "If needle-exchange programs do reduce risk, suffering, deaths and costs, and it is beyond dispute that they do, then it is bad ethics to insist on a moral message that is utterly disconnected from the harsh realities of drug abuse" (12/19 ...
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Needle-exchange programs designed to cut injection drug users risk of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, and other infections do seem to reduce needle sharing, but there is only limited evidence that they lower disease transmission, a new research review concludes.
Despite $1 million in city AIDS funding over three years, the Districts largest needle-exchange program is nearly out of cash and has at times been unable to supply clean syringes to intravenous...
Camden, N.J., City Council Member Ali Sloan-El (R) on Tuesday plans to introduce legislation to allow a needle-exchange program in the city to reduce the ...
The Denver Post on Friday examined efforts to establish needle-exchange programs in Colorado to reduce the risk of HIV and hepatitis C among injection ...
The nations drug czar has touted needle-exchange programs as a way to reduce the spread of disease and to steer heroin users into treatment.
Indianas health commissioner has approved a one-year needle-exchange program for a rural county at the center of the states largest HIV outbreak.
The first needle exchange was formed by the Amsterdam junkiebond in 1984 in an effort to slow the spread of hepatitis B among IDU.(16) As the number of European AIDS cases increased sharply, needle exchange programs were soon adopted in other European cities. By the early 1990s, programs had been implemented in more than 20 countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, and most member nations of the European Union.(17) Needle exchange programs developed more slowly in the United States than in Europe, primarily because of fierce political opposition. Nevertheless, at the end of 1996, 104 needle exchange programs were operating in more than 20 U.S. states (David Purchase, North American Syringe Exchange Network, personal communication, November 1996). Only about one half of U.S. needle exchange programs are legal, but others operate with the tacit support of local officials. Nearly all needle exchange programs require one-for-one exchange of syringes. The effectiveness of needle ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV risk behavior among amphetamine injectors at U.S. syringe exchange programs. AU - Braine, Naomi. AU - Des Jarlais, Don. AU - Goldblatt, Cullen. AU - Zadoretzky, Cathy. AU - Turner, Charles. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - The goal of this study was to compare HIV risk behaviors of amphetamine and non-amphetamine injectors at syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the United States and to identify factors associated with injection risk. This analysis is based on data from a random cross-section of participants at 13 SEPs in different parts of the country. All interviews were done using Audio Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing technology. Amphetamine injectors differ from other SEP participants in that they are younger and more likely to be White, to have had a recent same sex partner, and to be homeless. Rates of injection risk behavior are higher among amphetamine injectors than other SEP participants, but rates of condom use are similar. Factors associated with ...
In addition to sterile needles, syringe-exchange programmes typically offer services such as HIV and Hepatitis C testing; alcohol swabs; bleach water and normal saline (often as eye drops); aluminium "cookers"; citric acid powder (an imperative agent that enables heroin to dissolve in water); containers for needles and many other items.[18] A survey conducted by Beth Israel Medical Center in New York city and the North American Syringe Exchange Network, among 126 surveyed SEPs that 77% provided material abuse therapy, 72% provided voluntary counselling and HIV testing, and more than two-thirds provided supplies such as bleach, alcohol pads and male and female condoms. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), around 1/5 of all new HIV infections and the vast majority of Hepatitis C infections are the result of injection drug use.[19] Needle-exchange programmes are supported by the CDC and the National Institute of Health.[19][20] The NIH estimates that in the United States, between ...
Aim To determine whether syringe exchange programs (SEPs) dispensation policy is associated with syringe coverage among SEP clients.Design Cross-sectional samples of SEPs and their clients.Setting SEPs in California, USA.Participants Twenty-four SEPs and their injection drug using (IDU) clients (n = 1576).Measurements Clients were classified as having adequate syringe
The state opioid crisis comes starkly into view at the AHOPE needle exchange program, where one wall is covered with obituaries for people who have died of overdose. The program aims to keep people off that wall.
To fight the spread of HIV and Hepatitis C through needle contamination, the Indiana needle exchange program in Clark County plans to start next month. Funding was scarce but they were granted enough money to finally begin the program.
Investigation of a secondary syringe exchange program for homeless young adult injection drug users in San Francisco, California, U.S.A
The city of San Diego Wednesday rejoined the ranks of cities offering needle exchange programs as a public health service when the city council voted to reinstate the program. It had been dropped because of waning political support a year ago, but Wednesday it was re-approved on a 6-1 vote. Needle exchanges were first approved in November 2001 and the program was launched in July 2002. It operated out of two centers, one in the East Village and one in North Park. During its operation, the program collected nearly 350,000 dirty needles and distributed more than 285,000 clean ones. But until state law changed this year, cities or counties had to declare a public health emergency every two weeks to keep the programs operating. A year ago this month, the two-week vote failed, and the program was shut down. Needle exchange programs are widely recognized to reduce the spread of diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis C by reducing the sharing of syringes. But some opponents accuse them of promoting or ...
Fully developed posts on syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are here and here. A couple more are forthcoming. Here are the notes I took as I read the literature in this area. This is Part II. Part I is here. Part III is here. (0) Impact Evaluation of a Policy Intervention for HIV Prevention in Washington, DC, by Monica
A Proven Practice to Reduce the Spread of HIV and Blood-borne Diseases The Louisville Metro Syringe Exchange Program has served more than 14,000 participants since it began in June 2015. Locations and hours of operation:
Braine, N., Desjarlais, D. C., Goldblatt, C., Zadoretzky, C., & Turner, C. (2006). Patterns of sexual commerce among women at US syringe exchange programs. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 8(4), 289-302 ...
In the midst of a driving November rain, a woman in a stiff wig and a soiled trench coat approached a converted ice-cream truck in East Harlem and exchanged a brown-paper bag of used hypodermic needles for a bag of new ones. Into the bag went several condoms and the friendly admonition, Use them; be safe. It was just another day for the people inside the white truck that houses one of New Yorks needle-exchange programs. Intravenous drug users come to the van, which parks on the street, and trade used needles for new ones in an effort to slow the spread of AIDS through shared needles.
Program organizers were granted a state permit to start a new mobile syringe exchange, but the county and three of the four cities where the mobile program would have made stops - Anaheim, Costa Mesa and Orange - sued to block it. The fourth city, Santa Ana, did not join the suit.. Mayor Katrina Foley said Monday, Aug. 5, that Costa Mesa officials havent seen evidence of a need for the program, such as a spike in diseases transmitted by shared syringes. And, they consider the proposed location of the Costa Mesa stop near an elementary school as "not an appropriate location.". Mahan Naiem, who is on the needle exchanges board of directors, said clients who couldnt make it to Los Angeles, where the next closest needle exchange operates, have resorted to used needles, and hes heard stories of cellulitis and other infections. Opioid abuse is a national problem, he said, but peripheral harms from shared needles could be reduced.. "Theres a lot of negatives that come with injecting opiates. Some ...
Needle exchange was first introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1985 in response to the AIDS epidemic. Most areas within the UK have pharmacy-based needle-exchange programs (NEPs). Mobile, agency-based and automated needle exchange programs also exist.Despite this widespread availability of free needles, HIV infection among newer UK injection drug users (IDUs) is rising, according to the Health Protection Agency. The data comes from samples taken of addicts who accessed services provided by NEPs and methadone treatment programs. ...
Martin cites a number of alarming statistics to show the size of the drug problem. The number of IDUs is estimated to be between 1 million and 1.4 million. By mid-2000, 36 percent (270,721) of AIDS cases in the United States had occurred among IDUs, their sexual partners and their children, and these three categories of people accounted for half of all new HIV infections in the nation. In fact, 57 percent of children born with AIDS in the United States are the offspring of IDUs or their sexual partners. IDUs also risk exposure to various forms of hepatitis. Between 50 and 80 percent of IDUs contract hepatitis C - the most dangerous strain -- within their first year of needle use ...
PUEBLO - Pueblo County has the highest rate of fatal heroin overdoses in Colorado.. The Pueblo Chieftain reports that Dr. Michael Nerenberg told the Pueblo City Council at its work session Tuesday that the county had 12 heroin overdoses in each 2015 and 2016. The county also had the highest rate of drug-related overdoses with 38 deaths in 2016 including heroin deaths.. Nerenberg oversees the Point Access Pueblo needle-exchange program. He says his program serves about 360 people a month. He says needle-exchange programs are the first step in getting people into treatment.. He said the council and other elected officials should encourage law enforcement to help, not arrest, addicts. ...
Needle exchange is a public health program for people who use drugs by injection (PWID). It is an important component of a comprehensive set of programs designed to reduce the spread of HIV and other blood-borne infections among people who inject drugs, their families and communities. Nationally, about a quarter of all people living with AIDS acquired HIV infection directly or indirectly through injection drug use: either from sharing injection equipment, having unprotected sex with an injection drug user, or transmission to children born to injection drug users.. Needle exchange programs provide new, sterile syringes and clean injection equipment in exchange for used, contaminated syringes. They also get drug users into drug treatment and health care. Other services include testing for HIV, hepatitis, TB and other infections to which drug users are prone; treatment readiness counseling and case management services; education about harms associated with drug use and how to minimize them; and ...
Razavi said studies show if you only have a syringe-exchange program, it reduces new hepatitis C infections by 15 percent; if you only offer medication-assisted therapies, they reduce the rate by 50 percent; but if you have both, that cuts it 75 percent.. "These programs are very, very effective. They are very cost-effective," Razavi said. But he added, "At the end of the day harm-reduction programs can only go so far.". More than 38,000 Kentuckians are estimated to be chronically infected with the disease, and many dont know they are, because it can take decades for symptoms to appear. If left untreated, hepatitis C can cause liver damage from cirrhosis or fibrosis, liver cancer, and even death.. Kentucky has the potential to get a lot more hep-C cases, quickly. The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified 54 Kentucky counties among the 220 most vulnerable in the nation to a rapid spread of HIV and hepatitis C infection among persons who inject drugs. Sixteen of the ...
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Needle Exchange Program Based at 103 India Street, the STD Clinic and the Portland Community Free Clinic share space but offer different services. STD Clinic offers limited appointments and drop-in hours for comprehensive sexually transmitted disease testing and prescribing of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Call (207)874-8446 to make an appointment or for more information.
Supporters of needle exchange programs say they provide clean needles to injection drug users to prevent the spread of disease, but Madison County, Indiana, Prosecutor Rodney Cummings said the exchange program in his community brought a different set of is
Urbenville Community Health - Needle Syringe Program The Needle Syringe Program is a public health measure to reduce the spread of blood-borne viral infect
Many of the strategies used by participants in the Staying Safe project could be adopted by anyone who injects drugs and the service providers who provide harm reduction education.. Front-line workers can organize informal peer education sessions where "staying safe" strategies are shared. Participants could be encouraged to share these strategies with their friends and acquaintances. "Staying safe" strategies can also be incorporated into existing peer harm reduction training programs.. Where needle exchange programs are unavailable, frontline workers and people who use drugs can advocate for their establishment. Established needle exchange programs could allow people to stock up on needles and other drug use equipment so they can have a long-term supply or share with others.. When offering one-to-one support, service providers can strategize with people who use injection drugs about how to avoid withdrawal, including brainstorming about how to keep their income and drug use in balance. ...
Since the early 1980s there has been a largely uncritical acceptance among health authorities that harm-reduction measures among intravenous drug users is an important strategy to prevent the transmission of blood-borne viruses.. The main motivation for the urgent implementation of these policies was the feared transmission of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among intravenous drug users through unsafe injecting practices, mainly via sharing of needles and injecting equipment, and the wider community with whom they interacted.. Needle-exchange programs were introduced on the basis that intuitively they made sense. When the programs were introduced there was no evidence to support their efficacy nor were there any assurances that they would not cause more harm than good.. Central to harm-reduction think-ing was that these strategies did not necessarily seek to reduce the frequency with which users injected drugs but merely to minimise the harm those who continued to practise these risky behaviours ...
Critics of a proposal to expand Baltimores syringe exchange believe that would only encourage drug use, but city officials said theyre trying to stop the spread of dangerous diseases.
Missouris health department director says he wants lawmakers to pass legislation for a needle-exchange program in the state. Health and Senior Services
Download 5-page research paper on Drug Addiction in Canadaneedle Exchange Program to Cut Down HIV Hepatitis Infection ☘ Reduce Infection Drug addiction in Canada Needle exchange program to reduce HIV infection According to the WHO some of the main harm reduction initiatives in…
The California Medical Association (CMA) is a professional organization representing the physicians of the state of California. CMA serves members in all modes of practice and specialties and is dedicated to serving our member physicians through a comprehensive program of legislative, legal, regulatory, economic and social advocacy.
A federal judge has ordered the New York City police to stop arresting and charging drug users who participate in state-sanctioned hypodermic needle exchange programs. Wednesdays ruling granted a declaratory judgment in favor of plaintiffs who alleged police were wrongly charging users with drug possession based on the residue of drugs found in used needles and with illegal possession of needles and syringes.
Today, the African American community will gather under the banner of National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day to bring attention to this modern plague and its disparate impact on the black community.. While HIV/AIDS decimates our community, our nation has failed to implement a national health policy that addresses how this disease is spread. Nowhere is this discrepancy as great as over the issue of needle exchange.. Needle exchange remains a scientifically proven strategy to curb the spread of AIDS by providing clean needles and access to treatment for injection drug users. Unfortunately, for nearly 20 years Congress has maintained a no-longer-rational ban on the use of federal dollars for needle exchange programs.. Congress thinks differently than health professionals and organizations such as the Black AIDS Institute, National Minority AIDS Council, NAACP, National Urban League, American Academy of Pediatrics; American Bar Association, American Medical Association and U.S. Conference of ...
Addiction is illness. With no treatment available and drugs easily obtained, how can we expect our prison population to achieve and maintain sobriety?
Ive been aware of the need to do this for many, many years," he says. "Unlike prior attempts at doing this, when the concern was the transmission of HIV, today, HIV is really a secondary concern to the hepatitis C transmission rate in the injection drug using population." The stigma around HIV and other diseases has changed in the last decade, he says, and "this time, hopefully, well get it done ...
A central Indiana county has extended its needle exchange program for a third year to continue local efforts to combat the spread of hepatitis C among intravenous drug users.
Congress had banned the use of federal money to finance needle exchange programs. Supporters of the ban thought such programs encouraged drug use. Now, activists see the lifting of the ban as a step forward in the fight to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS.
One of Indianas four legal needle exchange programs operates out of a cramped 10 foot-by-10 foot office in the basement of the local courthouse in Fayette County, which is struggling with a hepatitis C outbreak amid the states growing opioid-abuse crisis.
Theres been a slight but welcome thaw in the Republican ban on federal money for needle exchange programs, the New York Times reported Wednesday.
INDIANAPOLIS, Ind. - Marion County launched a needle exchange program a little more than six months ago. So far, the health department says they have distributed about 10,000 syringes. Health officials believe this tool can help people stay safe and alive. The main goal is to reduce the spread of HIV and Hepatitus C among […]
A group of community members and local agency representatives are developing a plan for a Syringe Exchange Program for the Homer area. Studies have...
The means of hepatitis transmission varies depending upon the virus responsible for the inflammation. The hepatitis viruses A, E, and F are predominantly spread via the fecal-oral route through food or water that has been contaminated. These viruses are primarily responsible for epidemics of hepatitis in many less-developed regions of the world where crowded conditions and inadequate sanitation are often problems. The other main hepatitis viruses, B, C, D, and G, are chiefly spread through bodily fluids or blood, making their transmission through sexual activity and accidental contact with infected blood a common occurrence. Blood transfusions were also widely responsible for the transmission of the blood-borne varieties of hepatitis until adequate screening measures were introduced in the 1970s. Needle-exchange programs in some areas have also helped decrease incidence of the disease in recent years among intravenous drug users.
They want condoms for school kids and prisoners, public money for needle-exchange programs, health care for everyone with HIV and prevention campaigns that arent anti-sex. After a decade-long lull, AIDS activists are reviving their fight. This time, theyre pushing for a science-based plan from the Obama administration targeting a disease that still kills more than 14,000 Americans each year. Gay and lesbian activists from across the country are mobilizing in Denver this week at their annual Creating Change conference. The event marks a return to the fierce fight against AIDS and follows recent data showing that 56,000 Americans become infected with HIV each year - a 40 percent increase from what was previously estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The focus is back on HIV after political issues - mainly same-sex marriage and discrimination protection - have preoccupied the gay community the past several years. "People will have a hard time choosing marriage if they are ...
Evidence-based recommendations on needle and syringe programmes for adults and young people (including those under 16) who inject drugs
It took the Oroville City Council less than 25 minutes to approve a proposed ordinance to ban a needle exchange program.. In contrast, its taking Chico months to defy the wishes of the local citizens, and institute a program bringing more free needles to our addicted community. If it wasnt so deadly, it would be funny that they even had the Orwellian title for their program "Harm Reduction.". Some will insist with the catchphrase "studies show" that disease reduction in addicts declines with the usage of clean needles. While that is true, it is also true that those studies were primarily conducted when hepatitis and AIDS were less well-treated than currently, and therefore more likely to be spread by a shared needle. But it also willfully ignores the absolutely incontestable fact that drug users have deliberately chosen to accept risks - including death - of their choice to abuse drugs, while nobodys two-year-old grandkid who accidentally tumbles into the Bidwell Park shrubbery, or trips on ...
October 28, 2015. During seven days from Friday, August 21 to Thursday, August 27, the Sakura Exchange Program in Science (Japan-Asia Youth Exchange Program in Science), which is administered by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), was implemented. Hosei University first conducted this program, aiming to contribute to fostering human resources who can serve as bridges between Japan and Vietnam through creative collaboration between a high school in Vietnam and a university in Japan. Eight high school students and a teacher leading them were invited from Vietnam to participate in the Open Campus program, lectures, and experiments conducted in the university, and take a tour of science- and technology-related facilities. The students seemed to become more interested in Japan by coming in contact with Japanese science and technology, culture, and traditions. ...
FILE - In this March 24, 2015 file photo, a syringe is pictured along West Main Street in downtown Austin, Ind., in Scott County, Ind. The long decline in HIV infections among white people who inject drugs has stalled, another grim side effect of the nation’s drug abuse epidemic. Health officials released the news Tuesday, Nov. 29, 2016, as part of a call for more use of needle exchange programs. Last year rural Scott County experienced an HIV outbreak, in which more than 100 injection drug users were infected. The state’s governor at the time - Mike Pence, now the vice president-elect - declared a public health emergency and authorized a limited need-exchange program to prevent the virus from spreading further. (Christopher Fryer /News and Tribune via AP, File) ...
Interventions for injecting drug users (IDUs) in sub-Saharan African have been almost entirely absent, despite the fact that in countries like Kenya they contribute a growing proportion of incident HIV infections. This study will leverage a historic decision in Kenya to launch needle exchange program (NSP) and related services for this most-at-risk population (MARP). The investigators will use this NSP/MARP platform to seek out IDUs, deliver rapid HIV testing, point of care CD4 count and link to ART using peer case managers, and evaluate community viral load impact using a stepped wedge cluster-randomized design. Lessons learned will have important applicability throughout sub-Saharan African ...
Interventions for injecting drug users (IDUs) in sub-Saharan African have been almost entirely absent, despite the fact that in countries like Kenya they contribute a growing proportion of incident HIV infections. This study will leverage a historic decision in Kenya to launch needle exchange program (NSP) and related services for this most-at-risk population (MARP). The investigators will use this NSP/MARP platform to seek out IDUs, deliver rapid HIV testing, point of care CD4 count and link to ART using peer case managers, and evaluate community viral load impact using a stepped wedge cluster-randomized design. Lessons learned will have important applicability throughout sub-Saharan African ...
Canadas prison needle exchange is failing to achieve its goals due to a lack of trust in the program by both staff and prisoners.
Saturday April 11th, The Stanislaus County Sheriffs Department Cited 2 volunteers at the Modesto Needle Exchange Project (NEP).
The announcement yesterday by Chief Minister Katy Gallagher to establish a needle exchange in the ACTs Alexander Maconochie Prison is historic. Politicians need votes like the rest of us need oxygen…
While acknowledging that WHO added methadone and buprenorphine to its Model List of Essential Medicines in 2005, the Board has made no public effort to promote opiate substitution treatment (OST) in countries where large numbers of people inject drugs. It also has failed to highlight OST as an essential tool in HIV care or treatment. Although Ukraine, China, Malaysia and Iran have moved in recent years to expand OST programs and/or needle exchange programs to contain HIV, INCB reports have not expressed appreciation for or satisfaction with these developments. Instead, the Board has expressed concern about diversion of methadone and buprenorphine, and urged WHO to advocate for tightened controls on these medications ...
Ontario is stepping up its fight against the national opioid crisis with new front-line addiction and mental health workers for every community in the province and the distribution of almost 80,000 additional naloxone kits per year to front-line organizations.. Dr. Eric Hoskins, Minister of Health and Long-Term Care, was joined by John Tory, Mayor of Toronto at The Works Needle Exchange Program in Toronto today to announce new measures to tackle Ontarios opioid crisis.. The province is providing funding for every board of health in Ontario to hire more front-line workers, such as addiction outreach workers and nurses, to help municipalities expand supports for people impacted by opioid addiction and overdose. This will allow communities to improve addiction outreach, education and planning while working on early warning and surveillance of opioid overdoses.. More than 6,500 additional naloxone kits per month will be distributed in the community to those at risk of opioid overdose and their ...
Data from the mid-1990s AIDS epidemic in Russia and Ukraine shows that the first month after infection is the key period to control the spread of the virus in drug-using populations, according to a new study by researchers at Oxford University. Crucially, needle exchange programmes and other harm reduction approaches are the only measures that can target transmissions that happen within the first month.
Needle exchange programme, Portland, Maine 2012. Press Association/Robert F. Bukaty. All rights reserved.The war on drugs has been an expensive failure, but its true price tag can only be measured when we include the indirect costs that far exceed the $100 billion that governments spend each year trying to control the world supply of illegal drugs. The full implications of this wasted expenditure should factor into arguments for an urgently needed and radical redirection of drug policy. Much of the $100 billion pays for apprehending, processing and incarcerating people for non-violent drug offences. But this figure is far outweighed by the value of the illegal drug market that results from punitive drug wars, a figure estimated at $330 billion, a vast source of funds for corruption and insurgency. Militarised drug disruption programmes in central and south America and Asia have caused hundreds of thousands of deaths, the displacement of significant numbers of people and massive environmental ...
Frequent migration, hidden nature and above all, continuing criminalized status of IDUs hamper adherence of TB treatment which might well lead to MDR-TB. Poor infection control in prisons and health facilities of IDUs may be a critical issue that needs to be properly investigated. All HIV prevention projects of IDUs (like Targeted Intervention, Needle Syringe Exchange Program, Oral Substitution Therapy, prisons) should be saturated with TB and infection control services through realistically designed TB/HIV collaborative initiatives. There is need of more scientific studies across the globe as well as Asia-Pacific region to detect the most fatal outcome of HIV infection in IDUs. Is it actually HIV-MDR TB co-infection ...
by Samuel Gibbings, Needle Syringe Exchange Program (NSEP) Project Officer In December 2015, it was announced that new direct acting antiviral treatme...
characterised by a variable period of incubation, often progressing to a severeimmune deficiency illness (AIDS) blood and body fluid transmission; sexually transmitted incidence and prevalence in Australian IDUs is low drug dependent individuals may be at risk of sexually transmitted HIV (andother sexually communicable infections) due to impaired judgement, lifestyleor sex work information about safe sex and injecting, availability of barrier contraceptives(condoms, dental dams) and clean injection equipment are essential inreducing HIV related harm Management of injecting drug use should include counselling, testing, vaccination andmanagement of BBVs. The risk of transmission of blood borne diseases is minimised by theuse of clean injection equipment such as provided by needle and syringe exchange services ...
In the US, the German Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst - DAAD) has a branch office in New York that can answer your questions about studying in Germany. They also provide information about study and research in Germany and distribute brochures on these topics.The German Academic Exchange Service in New York is your first point of contact for information about the range of opportunities for studying in Germany.. ...
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Read more articles for the Consumer Goods and Retail Industry. © SGS Group Management SA - 2020 - All rights reserved - SGS is a registered trademark of SGS Group Management SA. This is a publication of SGS, except for 3rd parties contents submitted or licensed for use by SGS. SGS neither endorses nor disapproves said 3rd parties contents. This publication is intended to provide technical information and shall not be considered an exhaustive treatment of any subject treated. It is strictly educational and does not replace any legal requirements or applicable regulations. It is not intended to constitute consulting or professional advice. The information contained herein is provided "as is" and SGS does not warrant that it will be error-free or will meet any particular criteria of performance or quality. Do not quote or refer any information herein without SGS prior written consent.. ...
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Implementation of resolution 1325 on a grass-root level: Can youth exchange program in south-north direction improve women role as decision makers? ...
The AUA/SBU Academic Exchange Program allows young academic urologists to benefit from the sharing of knowledge and experiences with colleagues in Brazil. Medical advances are often the result of fruitful collaboration, and this fellowship is designed to facilitate such opportunities.
BACKGROUND: Achieving hepatitis C elimination requires novel approaches to engage people at highest risk of infection into care pathways. Point-of-car
The needle exchange focuses on safe use rather than abstinence. The idea behind the exchange is that clean paraphernalia reduces infections like hepatitis C and HIV.. He believes that drugs should be legal for this reason. Legal drugs would be regulated by the government so users wouldnt have to trust back-alley deals. And users could talk with their doctors about dosage without worrying about being arrested.. "You could have an open discussion with your doctor about your drug use in a way that you cant now," Murphy said. "Less people would die. More people could get treated. It would be less of a stigma.". But not everyone can be a stable drug user, he said. "We have chaotic drug users, and we have people who are stable drug users, and we seem to focus the entire conversation on chaotic drug use.". At the needle exchange, Murphy tells every person who approaches the table that they are beautiful the way they are and that he loves them. "Everyones telling you how worthless you are," he said; ...
ABBOTSFORD, B.C. - Once a week, Jamie MacDonald walks down a quiet alley in this sprawling community in British Columbias Fraser Valley, finds a familiar black SUV and picks up a package of clean nee ...
This posting identifies at least two arguments in each article: CLEAN NEEDLES BENEFIT SOCIETY USA Today Our view: Needle exchanges prove effective as AIDS counterattack. They warrant wider use and federal backing. Nothing gets.
Needles can carry a whole swag of life-threatening and fatal infections (known as blood-born viruses) such as hepatitis B and C and HIV/AIDS. To minimise the risk of infection, always use a clean needle and never share needles with other users. Dont assume that experienced users are practicing safe injecting techniques. Remember it is always possible others may be too substance effected to know they may not be using safe injecting techniques. Injecting among drug users plays a major role in the transmission of HIV/AIDS all over the world. Fortunately, in response to the global spread of HIV/AIDS, Australia implemented clean needle programs before many other countries. As a result, Australias levels of HIV/AIDS infection among injecting drug users has remained low; however, the risk of contracting the virus or hepatitis B or C is still very real.. ...
SIMPLY ensuring that doctors and nurses follow the basic rule of sterilising needles or discarding them after use could protect millions of people from dis
2004 Grant of the "Mikhail Lomonosov" Program for Associate Professors (Joint Program of the German Academic Exchange Service and Ministry of Education and Sciences of Russian Federation): TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany ...
The Fulbright FLTA Program provides young teachers of English as a Foreign Language the opportunity to refine their teaching skills and broaden their knowledge of American cultures and customs while strengthening the instruction of foreign languages at colleges and universities in the United States.. ...
The Fulbright FLTA Program provides young teachers of English as a Foreign Language the opportunity to refine their teaching skills and broaden their knowledge of American cultures and customs while strengthening the instruction of foreign languages at colleges and universities in the United States.. ...
A national program that matches living kidney donors with recipients hasnt delivered on a promise after a woman donated a kidney to a stranger so her ailing son-in-law could get a much-needed transplant, the family says.
Research activities at LNL focus on Accelerator Technology and targets for the production of radioisotopes Students are offered the possibility to work within experiments which will be performed during their stay in Legnaro. During this period students can increase their experience in science and technology that are relevant for their academic training. Opportunities include participation in physics analysis activities of running experiments as well as involvement in detector developments.. Important: LNL will be closed for summer vacation one week in August (from xxth to xxth ...
This guideline covers needle and syringe programmes for people (including those under 16) who inject drugs. The main aim is to reduce the transmission of viruses and other infections caused by sharing injecting equipment, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C. In turn, this will reduce the prevalence of blood-borne viruses and bacterial infections, so benefiting wider society. ...
I found a package outside my back door less than two hours ago containing my Nepenthes. It was 30 F out and the package was probably sitting there for
Big Brothers/Big Sisters start new program in Kingman area, The courthouse Centennial committee is asking for courthouse photos and artifacts for their celebration. Elmer Youngers is the winner of the Honda Nighthawk 650 in a Kingman County Humane Society Fundraiser. Toralf Slokvik from Norway stops by Kingman to promote the FF Foundation for foreign study a reputable and one of the largest exchange program in the U.S. Obits were for Patricia L. Hageman and Charles A. Potter.. July ...
house sharing opportunities (including on and off-campus housing, vacations house to share) currently offered at SabbaticalHomes.com. Most house to share assignements can benefit academics while on sabbatical leaves, research trips, writing retreats, university exchange programs or relocation.
house sitting opportunities (including on and off-campus housing, vacations home sitting) currently offered at SabbaticalHomes.com. Most house sitting assignements can benefit academics while on sabbatical leaves, research trips, writing retreats, university exchange programs or relocation.
N.B. Only gardens that are part of the seed exchange programme with the National Botanic Gardens will have their requests honoured.. ...
If one were to forgo fertilizing neps and try to keep em healthy by prey, would you have to occasionally switch spps? I ask because Im a bee