TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of cell signaling in poxvirus tropism. T2 - The case of the M-T5 host range protein of myxoma virus. AU - Werden, Steven J.. AU - McFadden, Douglas. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - Poxviruses demonstrate strict species specificity in vivo that range from narrow to broad, however the fundamental factors that mediate the basis of poxvirus tropism remain poorly understood. It is generally believed that most, if not all, poxviruses can efficiently bind and enter a wide range of mammalian cells and all of the known host anti-viral pathways that block viral replication in nonpremissive cells operate downstream of virus entry. A productive poxvirus infection is heavily dependent upon the production of a vast array of host modulatory products that specifically target and manipulate both extracellular immune response pathways of the host, as well as intracellular signal transduction pathways of the individually infected cells. The unique pathogenesis and host tropism of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myxoma virus expresses a TNF receptor homolog with two distinct functions. AU - Xu, X.. AU - Nash, P.. AU - McFadden, Douglas. PY - 2000/10/2. Y1 - 2000/10/2. N2 - Myxoma virus, a member of the poxvirus family of DNA viruses, encodes many virulence factors to combat and evade the host immune responses. Among the virus-encoded immuno-modulators is M-T2, a tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) homologue. M-T2 is secreted as monomeric and dimeric species that bind and inhibit rabbit TNF in a species-specific manner. Deletion analysis indicates that the anti-TNF function is mediated by the first three of four cysteine rich domains (CRDs) of M-T2. In addition, the intracellular form of M-T2 has the ability to block virus-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes, and the first two CRDs appear to be sufficient for this function. Although the mechanisms for the anti-TNF and anti-apoptotic functions of M-T2 are not yet fully defined, we postulate that these dual activities of M-T2 are mediated ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular and serological analysis of the epidemiology of myxoma virus in rabbits. AU - Kerr, P. AU - Hone, Jim. AU - Perrin, L. AU - French, N. AU - Williams, K. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. U2 - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.11.025. DO - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.11.025. M3 - Article. VL - 143. SP - 167. EP - 178. JO - Veterinary Microbiology. JF - Veterinary Microbiology. SN - 0378-1135. ER - ...
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immunocytochemistry and for alkaline phosphatase activity using nitroblue tetrazolium chloride/5-bromo- 4-chloro- 3- indolyl phosphate toluidine solution. The cancer cell-lines were then inoculated with recombinant myxoma virus expressing a red fluorescent protein and collected after 48-hours. Cytopathic effects were assessed at 24-hour and 48- hour time points via fluorescent microscopy. Ability of the virus to replicate within the cancer cells was confirmed via Western immunoblot detection of late MYXV protein production. The findings of this study suggest that canine osteosarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma primary cell cultures are lacking antiviral mechanisms and susceptible to MYXV infection leading to oncolysis. Viral-mediated oncolysis of cancer cells isolated from canine tumorsKirsha B Fredrickson and Amy L MacNeillDepartment of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State UniversityThe three classic arms of cancer therapy are surgical resection, chemotherapeutics, andradiation. ...
Oncolytic virus therapy is being evaluated in clinical trials for human glioma. While it is widely assumed that the immune response of the patient to the virus infection limits the utility of the therapy, investigations into the specific cell type(s) involved in this response have been performed using nonspecific pharmacologic inhibitors or allogeneic models with compromised immunity. To identify the immune cells that participate in clearing an oncolytic infection in glioma, we used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to immunophenotype an orthotopic glioma model in immunocompetent mice after Myxoma virus (MYXV) administration. These studies revealed a large resident microglia and macrophage population in untreated tumors, and robust monocyte, T-, and NK cell infiltration 3 days after MYXV infection. To determine the role on the clinical utility of MYXV therapy for glioma, we used a combination of knockout mouse strains and specific immunocyte ablation techniques. Collectively, our ...
The distribution of proteins on the influenza viral genome, and evolution of myxoma virus that was released in Australia to control the rabbit population.
Australias biocontrol programs using Myxoma virus in 1950 and the Rabbit Calicivirus in 1995 have been extremely successful in drastically reducing pest rabbit numbers in Australia. However, there is no status quo in rabbit biocontrol: the virus and rabbits constantly co-evolve, and changes in virus virulence and innate resistance in the host leads to rabbit numbers increasing yet again. We are continuing research to find new strategies that will help maintain benefits of biocontrol in the future.
Introduction. Discuss the history, geography and ecology of the rabbit invasion in Australia. Explain whether the complete eradication from Australia is feasible. Numerous studies have been contacted on the Rabbit in Australia (Parer,I.(1977),Twigg, E.L., Lowe, J.T., Wheeler, G.A., Gray, S.G., Martin, R.G. & Barker,W.(1998), Wheeler,H.S. &King,R.D. (1985), Rolls,E.C. (1969)), covering issues such as its population ecology, dispersal, survival and the efficiencies of the various control methods that have been used up to date. In the early stages of the rabbit plague, fences were erected to prevent dispersal or slow the rate of dispersal, but these proved to costly and ineffective. The fifties saw the introduction of the biological control agent, myxoma virus. This had great success initially but unfortunately the government failed to capitalize on the success, with continued control. The Rabbit Calcivirus Disease (RCD) was introduced (albeit accidentally) in the early 1990s. A highly ...
The TWiVstars reveal the diversity of herpes simplex virus type 2 in a neonatal population, and parallel adaptation of rabbits in three countries to myxoma virus.
MYXV treatment of normal and leukemic HSPCs in vitro(A) Normal and leukemic cells (FLT ITD+) were incubated with MYXV expressing GFP at 10 MOI. Flow cytometric
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Myxomatosis (also known as Myxi for short) is a viral disease affecting rabbits. Both wild and domestic rabbits are susceptible to the disease and deaths in pets are reported every year. The Myxomatosis virus regularly mutates from year to year.. The most common form of Myxomatosis is seen in rabbits that havent been vaccinated. Treatment for confirmed cases is usually not very effective and so euthanasia is recommended as the kindest option.. Myxomatosis starts with runny eyes and swollen genitals. It rapidly progresses to a severe conjunctivitis, which causes blindness followed by swelling of the head and genital region, plus lumps on the body. Thick pus discharges from the nose and swollen eyes. There are also two typical forms of Myxomatosis: one causes pneumonia and a snuffles-like illness; the other mainly affects skin and carries a better prognosis.. If a vaccinated rabbit develops Myxomatosis, the disease is usually much less severe. Some rabbits develop just a few odd skin lesions and ...
We carried out an experimental study to determine the serological response against myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in wild rabbits using commercial vaccines. Seroconversion against MV ranged between 72.7% and 97.2% in animals vaccinated by subcutaneous and intradermal route, respectively, whereas between 75.0% and 77.8% of the animals presented antibodies against RHDV after inoculation with subcutaneous and intradermal vaccines, respectively. Regardless of the inoculation route, vaccination against MV resulted in a significant increase of seropositivity 5 days post-vaccination (dpv), which did not occur in animals vaccinated against RHDV. Furthermore, seroconversion against MV was significantly higher and faster in intradermally vaccinated rabbits as compared to those inoculated subcutaneously due to either the route of application and/or the type of vaccine used. The results indicated that vaccination significantly increased the prevalence of antibodies against MV ...
Vaccination against myxomatosis is not permitted in Australia, as historically, the 2 commercially available vaccines have contained live virus strains (see Appendix). Use of live virus vaccines have the potential to spread the attenuated myxoma virus into the wild rabbit population potentially resulting in reduced efficacy of myxomatosis as a form of biological control in the wild rabbit population. This could lead to a dramatic increase in the number of wild rabbits in Australia, which would further exacerbate economic loss and damage to the environment.2 ...
Synonyms for European rabbit in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for European rabbit. 2 synonyms for European rabbit: Old World rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus. What are synonyms for European rabbit?
Myxomatosis (sometimes shortened to "myxo" or "myxy") is a disease that affects rabbits, caused by the myxoma virus. It was first observed in Uruguay in laboratory rabbits in the late 19th century. It was introduced into Australia in 1950 in an attempt to control the rabbit population (see Rabbits in Australia). Affected rabbits develop skin tumors, and in some cases blindness, followed by fatigue and fever; they usually die within 14 days of contracting the disease. The disease is spread by direct contact with an affected animal or by being bitten by fleas or mosquitoes that have fed on an infected rabbit. The myxomatosis virus does not replicate in these insect hosts, but can be physically carried by an insects mouthparts, i.e. from an infected rabbit to another susceptible animal. Due to the potential of insect vector transmission, pet rabbits may be susceptible in enzootic areas and vaccination is highly recommended. In rabbits of the genus Sylvilagus (cottontail rabbits) living in the ...
* The following information was taken from RWAFs website on Understanding Myxomatosis… What is myxomatosis? Myxomatosis is a severe viral disease of rabbits that decimated the wild rabbit population when it arrived in Britain 50 years ago. Domestic rabbits are also susceptible to the disease and deaths in pets are reported every year.
Rabbits were inoculated with the C.P.M. strain of myxoma virus and the resulting subcutaneous tumors were fixed, embedded, and sectioned for observation with the electron microscope.. Both round cells and the typical stellate myxomatous cells were observed in addition to changes in the collagen pattern at the intercellular spaces. The cytoplasm of the cells showed a great number of bodies of varying size and density, the largest of them having the size and other characteristics of the elementary bodies of the virus. Some of the bodies showed an internal structure, being formed by the tight clumping of small dense particles.. Distribution curves of the diameter of the elementary bodies and of the smaller internal particles are presented.. The morphological problems involved in the virus-host cell relationship are discussed in the case of the myxoma virus.. ...
Synonyms for cartilaginous myxoma in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cartilaginous myxoma. 5 words related to myxoma: benign tumor, benign tumour, nonmalignant neoplasm, nonmalignant tumor, nonmalignant tumour. What are synonyms for cartilaginous myxoma?
Problem: Novel cancer treatments are needed to minimize patient discomfort caused by cancer therapy and eliminate failure of current treatment modalities. The use of oncolytic viral vectors is an exciting therapeutic option that deserves further study. This project is designed to determine if the poxvirus, myxoma virus (MYXV), can be used to eliminate cancer cells and prevent the spread of tumors throughout the body. Poxviruses have several characteristics that make them ideal cancer therapeutics: 1) they target neoplastic lesions where leaky vessels are formed; 2) they are easily engineered to express antitumor agents; 3) they elicit a strong immune response which can be used to target abnormal cells; and 4) they are effectively cleared from the body by antibodies, preventing latent or recurrent infection. MYXV is a poxvirus that does not cause disease in any animal except the rabbit. However, MYXV does grow in some cancer cells. Since MYXV only grows in abnormal cells, virus replication in
Myxomatosis, a virus usually caused by insects such as fleas and mosquitoes, is striking pet rabbits, and the outcome is nearly always fatal.
Rabbit Warren: Answering some questions about Myxomatosis and the new combined vaccine now available in Europe and - a discussion on Care2.com
myxomatosis: A highly fatal infectious viral disease of rabbits. It is characterized by fever, swelling of the mucous membranes, and the presence of nodular skin tumours. The disease exists...
Steps should be taken to introduce a safe and effective myxomatosis vaccination program to protect the health of pet rabbits while not impacting unfavourably upon the control of the wild population.
In Mediterranean ecosystems, the European rabbit is a keystone species that has declined dramatically, with profound implications for conservation and management. Predation and disease acting on juveniles are considered the likely causes. In the field, these processes are managed by removing predators, increasing cover to reduce predation risk and by vaccinating against myxomatosis. These manipulations can be costly and, when protected predators are killed, they can also be damaging to conservation interests. Our goal was to test the effectiveness of cover and vaccination on juvenile survival in two large enclosures, free of mammalian predators, by adding cover and vaccinating juveniles. Rabbit warrens were our experimental unit, with nine replicates of four treatments: control, cover, vaccination, and cover and vaccination combined. Our results showed that improved cover systematically increased juvenile rabbit survival, whereas vaccination had no clear effect and the interactive effect was ...
Oryctolagus cuniculus nucleolar B-36 protein: localization and staining intensity varies before and during rabbit infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1
Tracking the myxoma virus in the wild rabbit populations of Australia has yielded insight into how pathogens and their hosts evolve.
Myxomas are tumours of connective tissue. They can occur almost anywhere in the body, including the heart.. Treatment for a myxoma in the heart depends on many things. These include where the tumour is and if it is blocking blood flow.. If the tumour is in the left atrium, surgery might be done to remove it. This can help lower the risk of a stroke.. In rare cases, a tumour (myxoma) growing on the valve surface or in the left atrium of the heart can cause a blockage of the mitral valve that is similar to mitral valve stenosis. The tumour can either block the valve opening or restrict the movement of the valve and prevent it from opening completely.. ...
Some strains of the virus produce visible lumps and lesions, known as myxomata. These usually appear on the head and face. Other painful skin irritations can occur, causing the fur to become matted together. An infected rabbit will grow more and more listless until it can no longer eat or move. Once the condition is advanced, secondary infections (i.e. pneumonia and secondary lung infections) can serve the fatal blow for infected rabbits.. How is Myxomatosis treated?. Currently there is no effective treatment for full-blown Myxomatosis infection. Palliative care is really the only option for afflicted rabbits and the onus is very much on the owner to provide this. The vet can prescribe pain relief and antibiotics to prevent secondary infection developing but the survival rate is still incredibly low. Because of the pain and suffering that accompanies Myxomatosis, euthanasia is usually considered the fairest option for infected rabbits.. In the UK a vaccination for Myxy is available, although ...
Picture: the Wild Rabbit in Kingham. The Wild Rabbit in Kingham, just outside of Chipping Norton, is the village pub dreams are made of, with a roaring fireplace for winter, a breezy terrace for summer, as well as rooms to crash over in should you sink one local ale too many. Food is seasonal and sourced from nearby farms - luckily for the chef, Daylesford Organic is just down the road ...
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There are two common species of wild rabbit: the American cottontail and the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which is the ancestor of all breeds...
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Primary cultures of rabbit, bicarbonate-secreting, intercalated cells were isolated. Following transfection, a line of G418 resistant cells was obtained and designated IC250. These cells were subcloned (Clone C) and characterized.
This protein functions as an embryonic globin, but the gene structure and chromosomal location resemble more closely the human gamma chain gene, which codes for a fetal globin.
Rabbit psoas skeletal muscle fibers were held at constant length and rigor induced by immersion in glycerol. The fibers were quick-frozen by contact ...
Rabbit psoas skeletal muscle fibers were held at constant length and rigor induced by immersion in glycerol. The fibers were quick-frozen by contact ...
We live in front of a field now overrun with wild rabbits. They keep coming in through the hedge separating the field from our property and eating the heads off all our flowers. Weve tried putting netting and such around plants, but our garden is too big to cover every plant and it would ruin the beauty of the plants. We have a dog that likes running around the garden so we really dont want anything that might harm him should he go near it. Is there anything we can do to keep them away?
This guide will walk you through the care of a wild rabbits nest and its inhabitants. This advise is based on personal experience and a small amount of research.
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BOLET G., BRUN J.M., MONNEROT M. , ABENI F., ARNAL C., ARNOLD J., BELL D., BERGOGLIO G., BESENFELDER U., BOSZE S., BOUCHER S., CHANTELOUP N., DUCOUROUBLE M.C., DURAND-TARDIF M., ESTEVES P.J., FERRAND N., GAUTIER A., HAAS C., HEWITT G., JEHL N., JOLY T., KOEHL P.F., LAUBE T., LECHEVESTRIER S., LOPEZ M., MASOERO G., MENIGOZ J.J., PICCININ R., QUENEY G., SALEIL G., SURRIDGE A., van der LOO W., VICENTE J.S., VIUDES de CASTRO M.P., VIRAG J.S., ZIMMERMANN J.M. - Evaluation and conservation of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) genetic resources. First results and inferences (Main paper) - Volume A, pages 281-315. ...
Bilfer, Very nice post. Very even handed. As a certified Inge Hater I give you credit for an excellant post. Very well done, sir. As always we tend to disagree on the value of his defense, but for a change we are closer than we have ever been to agreement about his defense. Of course, that probably is no consolation to you :).. Anthony,. Well said about Blake. I completely agree. If Inge hit like Blake then we wouldnt be having this conversation as often as we do, if at all.. David,. 1) Being 8/14 in salary in no way justifies or apologizes for Inges play. 20 million or 20 dollars a season, right now it doesnt matter. What matters is Inge leading the league in strikeouts, being 17th in the AL for 3rd basemen in BA and OPS (min 80 games played), leading AL 3rd basemen in errors, decreased range factor and horrible fielding percentage. Discuss his salary after the season. Right now we are in the playoff race and saleries dont effect the outcomes of games.. 2) What "pop"? Look at his slugging ...
On the prospects watch, I give you Drew Ward. Highly touted as a hitter when the Nats drafted him out of high school in the third round in 2013, he had a solid start in the GCL as an 18yo but scuffled in 2014 and 2015. Despite that, he was promoted (aggressively, IMHO) to High A Potomac last year. Returning to the Carolina League this year, he has simply been wearing it out, adding power and average to an already good OBP. His 7 HRs and .988 OPS are second in the league - first in OPS, really, since the guy ahead of him has already been promoted to AA. All at the tender age of 21. Even his fielding percentage and range factor at third base have improved significantly. With Rendon at third theres no need to rush him, but with third base at Harrisburg being manned by a pair of 25yo minor league journeymen (Stephen Perez, 2012 8th round pick with 9 HRs in five seasons and whose .706 OPS is a career best; Adrian Sanchez, IFA with 21 HRs in ten seasons and a career .659 OPS) theres nothing stopping ...
We work on the ecology and evolution of infectious disease. We are interested in virulence and infectiousness, adaptation to new hosts, vaccine failure, and drug and insecticide resistance. We want to know what can be done to slow, stop or even reverse the evolution that harms human health and well being. Conventional biomedical science tries to understand molecules, genes and biochemical pathways. We want to understand the ecological and evolutionary processes involved.. Our work involves evolutionary biology, ecology, parasitology, microbiology, epidemiology, genetics, and immunology. We do a lot of experimentation, a lot of quantitative analyses, and a fair bit of math modeling. We currently work with malaria, Mareks disease, myxomatosis, VRE and cancer ...