Fish tank granuloma is a rare skin infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum, a non-tuberculosis mycobacterium. The organism is found worldwide in stagnant freshwater and saltwater environments including lakes, inadequately chlorinated swimming pools, and aquariums. In the United States, this skin infection is strongly associated with those who handle fish tanks, including pet shop workers and aquarium owners. Individuals who shuck raw oysters or prepare shellfish or sushi also have been reported with the skin disease. Infection occurs when water containing M. marinum enters through a break in the skin. A thorough history from infected individuals usually reveals an injury associated with cleaning fish tanks, changing aquarium water, or trauma from fish hooks. The skin infection is not spread from person to person. Fish tank granuloma presents as a slow-growing, inflamed red bump (nodule or plaque) at the trauma site. The lesion is often painful and may become ulcerated or crusted. Skin changes ...
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We have explored the relatively rapidly growing animal and human pathogen Mycobacterium marinum as an experimental model for mycobacterial pathogenesis. M. marinum, which has a lower temperature for optimal growth than does Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has a much shorter generation time and can be safely studied in ordinary laboratory facilities and examined in multiple animal infection models. We have established an in vitro assay for its interaction with eukaryotic cells and shown that it persists in these cells in a temperature-specific fashion that correlates with its ability to cause disease in vivo at lower temperatures. Additionally, preliminary evidence that M. marinum causes a chronic disease with some features resembling tuberculosis in frogs of the species Rana pipiens is presented. ...
Successful treatment of refractory cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum with a combined regimen containing amikacin Yingxue Huang,* Xiulian Xu,* Yi Liu, Kan Wu, Wei Zhang, Pai Liu, Xuesi Zeng, Jianfang Sun, Yiqun Jiang, Hongsheng WangKey Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Skin Diseases, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing, China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The incidence of Mycobacterium marinum infection has been increasing. First-line antituberculous drugs and other common antibiotics are effective for most cutaneous M. marinum infections; however, treatment failure still occurs in some rare cases. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with refractory cutaneous infection caused by M. marinum. Reasons for delayed diagnosis and related factors of the refractory infection are also discussed.Methods: Samples of lesional skin were inoculated on Löwenstein–Jensen medium for acid-fast
We develop a finite difference scheme to approximate the solution of a novel size-structured mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of |em| Mycobacterium marinum|/em| (Mm) in an aquatic environment. The model consists of a system of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations coupled with three nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Existence and uniqueness results are established and convergence of the finite difference approximation to the unique bounded variation weak solution of the model is obtained. Numerical simulations demonstrating the accuracy of the method are presented. We also conducted preliminary studies on the key features of this model, such as various forms of growth rates (indicative of possible theories of development), and conditions for competitive exclusion or coexistence as determined by reproductive fitness and genetic spread in the population.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Environmental amoebae and mycobacterial pathogenesis. AU - Harriff, Melanie. AU - Bermudez, Luiz E.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Environmental amoebae have been shown to be a host to pathogenic mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium peregrinum can all grow inside Acanthamoeba and other environmental amoebae. Once ingested by Acanthamoeba, M. avium upregulates a number of genes, many of them similar to genes upregulated upon phagocytosis of M. avium by macrophages. Mycobacteria ingested by amoebae grow intracellularly, acquiring an invasive phenotype, evident when the bacterium escapes the infected amoeba. Once inside of amoeba, it has been shown that mycobacteria are protected from antibiotics and disinfectants, such as chlorine. This chapter describes methods employed for the study of the interaction of M. avium and Acanthamoeba.. AB - Environmental amoebae have been shown to be a host to pathogenic mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium, ...
Eruptions in a patient with Crohns disease using infliximab: Culture revealed M.marinum, with positive IGRA (results were negative previously) Mycobacterium marinum Oppoturnistic bacteria that causes aquarium granuloma (affects individuals who work with fish or have aquarium at home). Most are acquired during the handling of the aquariums such as cleaning or changing the water. Typically…
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A thorough understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis in humans has been elusive in part because of imperfect surrogate laboratory hosts, each with its own idiosyncrasies. Mycobacterium marinum is the closest genetic relative of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is a natural pathogen of ectotherms. In this review, we present evidence that the similar genetic programs of M. marinum and M. tuberculosis and the corresponding host immune responses reveal a conserved skeleton of Mycobacterium host-pathogen interactions. While both species have made niche-specific refinements, an essential framework has persisted. We highlight genetic comparisons of the two organisms and studies of M. marinum in the developing zebrafish. By pairing M. marinum with the simplified immune system of zebrafish embryos, many of the defining mechanisms of mycobacterial pathogenesis can be distilled and investigated in a tractable host/pathogen pair ...
We showed that, after infection via the bloodstream, early granulomas were formed in the brain parenchyma and the ventricular system of both embryos and in larvae containing a fully developed BBB. Our experiments with Tg(Fli1:GFP)y1 casper embryos confirmed these findings and indicated that mycobacteria leave the bloodstream and are able to establish new granulomas in surrounding tissue; because individuals with an intact BBB do develop TBM, it is clear that mycobacteria traverse this barrier. However, the exact mechanism is not yet known.. The BBB consists of endothelial cells with tight junctions, surrounded by a continuous basement membrane and astroglial end-feet (Abbott et al., 2006), which limits the exchange of pathogens, pharmacological compounds, immune cells and mediators (Ransohoff et al., 2003). Three major mechanisms of traversal across this BBB are described for other causative pathogens of meningitis: transcellular migration, paracellular migration or the Trojan-horse mechanism ...
Tuberculosis is a multifactorial bacterial disease, which can be modeled in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Abdominal cavity infection with Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leads to a granulomatous disease in adult zebrafish, which replicates the different phases of human tuberculosis, including primary infection, latency and spontaneous reactivation. Here, we have carried out a transcriptional analysis of zebrafish challenged with low-dose of M. marinum, and identified intelectin 3 (itln3) among the highly up-regulated genes. In order to clarify the in vivo significance of Itln3 in immunity, we created nonsense itln3 mutant zebrafish by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis and analyzed the outcome of M. marinum infection in both zebrafish embryos and adult fish. The lack of functional itln3 did not affect survival or the mycobacterial burden in the zebrafish. Furthermore, embryonic survival was not affected when another mycobacterial challenge responsive intelectin, itln1, ...
2.4.1.251 GlcA-beta-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->3)-D-Glc-beta-(1->4)-D-Glc-alpha-1-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 4-beta-mannosyltransferase ...
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General Information: This genus comprises a number of Gram-positive, acid-fast, rod-shaped aerobic bacteria and is the only member of the family Mycobacteriaceae within the order Actinomycetales. Like other closely related Actinomycetales, such as Nocardia and Corynebacterium, mycobacteria have unusually high genomic DNA GC content and are capable of producing mycolic acids as major components of their cell wall. Mycobacterium marinum is commonly found in fresh and salt water in North America. This bacterium, a close relative of M. tuberculosis, causes a tuberculosis-like disease in frogs, fish and other cold-blooded animals, and a peripheral granulomatous disease in humans. Human infections can be persistent and may lead to systemic infection and arthritis. M. marinum is photochromogenic, i.e. it produces bright yellow pigmentation (mainly beta-carotene) upon exposure to visible light. Infection is followed by a 2-8 week incubation period resulting in suppuration (pus) and organized ulcerating ...
General Information: This genus comprises a number of Gram-positive, acid-fast, rod-shaped aerobic bacteria and is the only member of the family Mycobacteriaceae within the order Actinomycetales. Like other closely related Actinomycetales, such as Nocardia and Corynebacterium, mycobacteria have unusually high genomic DNA GC content and are capable of producing mycolic acids as major components of their cell wall. Mycobacterium marinum is commonly found in fresh and salt water in North America. This bacterium, a close relative of M. tuberculosis, causes a tuberculosis-like disease in frogs, fish and other cold-blooded animals, and a peripheral granulomatous disease in humans. Human infections can be persistent and may lead to systemic infection and arthritis. M. marinum is photochromogenic, i.e. it produces bright yellow pigmentation (mainly beta-carotene) upon exposure to visible light. Infection is followed by a 2-8 week incubation period resulting in suppuration (pus) and organized ulcerating ...
Bacteria have the ability to adapt to different growth conditions and to survive in various environments. They have also the capacity to enter into dormant states and some bacteria form spores when exposed to stresses such as starvation and oxygen deprivation. Sporulation has been demonstrated in a number of different bacteria but Mycobacterium spp. have been considered to be non-sporulating bacteria. We recently provided evidence that Mycobacterium marinum and likely also Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Gu,rin can form spores. Mycobacterial spores were detected in old cultures and our findings suggest that sporulation might be an adaptation of lifestyle for mycobacteria under stress. Here we will discuss our current understanding of growth, cell division, and sporulation in mycobacteria.. ...
NEJM - Mycobacterium marinum The New England Journal of Medicine presents a case of a pet shop worker. His duties included cleaning fish tanks daily, which he did without wearing protective gloves. Includes a photograph ...
We are interested in the mechanisms by which hosts affect the course of bacterial infections. This includes the effects of immune responses, both in terms of eradicating the pathogen and in terms of causing unintended damage to the host. In order to address these issues, we use a model system in which the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster is infected with the broad-spectrum pathogen Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In the course of this work, we have found that this bacterial infection alters metabolic regulation in this host; the changes we observe are similar in many ways to the changes that are often observed in people with chronic infections. Our studies of the mechanistic basis of this metabolic change has led us to study the physiological regulation of metabolism in uninfected animals (since it has become clear that the changes induced by this infection are occurring via pathways not normally considered as important in metabolic ...
ALIBAUD L., ROMBOUTS Y., TRIVELLI X., BURGUIÈRE A., CIRILLO S.L., CIRILLO J.D., DUBREMETZ J.F., GUÉRARDEL Y., LUTFALLA G., KREMER L. A Mycobacterium marinum TesA mutant defective for major cell wall-associated lipids is highly attenuated in Dictyostelium discoideum and zebrafish embryos. Mol Microbiol., 2011, 80 (4), 919-934.. AMNIAI L., LIPPENS G., LANDRIEU I. Characterization of the AT180 epitope of phosphorylated Tau protein by a combined nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy approach. Biochem Biophys Res Commun., 2011, 412 (4), 743-746.. AUDRY M., JEANNEAU C., IMBERTY A., HARDUIN-LEPERS A., DELANNOY P., BRETON C.Current trends in the structure-activity relationships of sialyltransferases. Glycobiology, 2011, 21 (6), 716-726.. BALL S., COLLEONI C., CENCI U., RAJ J.N., TIRTIAUX C. The evolution of glycogen and starch metabolism in eukaryotes gives molecular clues to understand the establishment of plastid endosymbiosis. J Exp Bot., 2011, 62 (6), 1775-1801.. BECKMANN S, ...
Rao, Tara (2010) Analysis of the multiple chaperonins of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Shah, Riddhi (2014) Functional analysis of Group 2 chaperonins from archaeal species in E. coli. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Ahmed, Mohammad Tabish (2010) Functional and structural characterisation of Mycobacterial Chaperonins. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Bell, Lawrence (2015) Project 1 - Inhibition of the oxireductase enzyme dpre1 of mycobacterium tuberculosis by two small compounds AND Project 2 - Investigating the role of the chaperonins of mycobacterium marinum. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Aggarwal, Nikhil (2015) Project 1: An IncP-1β plasmid present in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the Burns Unit of Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham AND Project 2: Acid detection by the EvgS/A two component system. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Pathak, Prachi P. (2014) Project 1: Characterization of EvgAS - two component ...
Every human generation has to recognize a new, and if possible anticipate, the relentless opportunism of bacteria, viruses, and other animalcules. Whatever changes occur in the way one live their lives or modify the biosphere or physical environment, they will provide novel niches for microbial occupation. In each case, microorganisms have taken advantage of newly available conditions or substances, exploiting individual's designs and often thwarting their purposes. It was two veterinarians from the United Kingdom who discovered that Mycobacterium marinum could proliferate in the inland bearded dragon, too. Once the mycobacterium was identified in the fish, however, the cause of the dragon's malady became obvious. About 10 years ago, reports on the microbial contamination of stem cell collections began to appear. The outcome, documented in Letters in Applied Microbiology, is disquieting reading. Both passive and active air sampling, together with monitoring of surfaces, revealed that the main
Lead, Chronic Disease, Diagnostic Test, Disease, DNA, Genome, Infections, Limit Of Detection, Melting, Mortalities, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium Marinum, Procedure, Sensitivity, Specificity, Temperature
The Health Department said there have been 30 reported cases of the infection caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium marinum.
I have always found Reefkeeping to offer excellent advice and information. Mycobacterium marinum: The Fish Disease You Could Catch by Steven Pro -...
May 18th, 11:30 AM May 18th, 12:00 PM Mathematical Modeling for the Transmission Dynamics of {\it Mycobacterium marinum} Incorporating Intra-host Variability. ALC 1102. ...
Fish Tanks: Reviews and Advice Deciding on the right fish tank that is sized Can be a daunting task. You might not understand how large they will become and what size are ideal for the fish which you would like to maintain. As a result, until you pick the fish tank, you need to do a little research on the type of fish you expect to maintain. If you know you will store a large fish its advisable to find a sizable 500 litre fish tank and locate the correct installation. As expected, larger fish tanks are Preferable to aquariums that are smaller as they help the fish flourish in the surroundings. Additionally, water volumes that are greater assist provide for air flow and dilute toxins. Larger fish tanks bicycle. Below are a few ideas on picking up a large fish tank. Availability. Larger fish tanks Arent easy to Come by in a inexpensive prize. As such, you need to discover the resources for the purchase. For instance, you can attempt to locate someone whos seeking to discard a used one. You are ...
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Kaspar Szymanski posted pictures of the Google Dublin office showing some interesting things they have there, including a Google Fish Tank. The fish tank has Google logos, a computer, and of course f
Tuberculosis is a major and growing problem worldwide, and much effort has gone into understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. One of the perplexing issues is the role of macrophage apoptosis in vivo. Apoptosis of cultured macrophages has been observed in response to infection; however, the relevance of this response in vivo is unclear, and there are conflicting reports on whether apoptosis is more beneficial to the bacteria or the host. The Mycobacterium 19 kDa lipoprotein is a potent inducer of macrophage apoptosis in vitro and so we wanted to examine the role of this protein in vivo. To do this we used a M. marinum-zebra fish infection model of mycobacterial pathogenesis and compared the ability of wild-type versus 19 kDa lipoprotein-deficient (lpqH-) bacteria to induce apoptosis. We examined induction of apoptosis in a murine macrophage cell line (J774) and in zebra fish embryos using TUNEL labeling with fluorescent microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of the murine macrophages and ...
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Hi everyone! Im a newbie so I should probably introduce myself! Im louisa and Im 16. Ive never had a fish tank before a few days ago (other than little bowls I put guppies in when I was little but
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How to Clean a Fish Tank. Keep your fish happy and healthy by cleaning their tank and adding fresh water once a week. Cleaning an aquarium isnt difficult, especially if you make sure to do it on a schedule so algae and other residue...
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How to Clean a Fish Tank With Sand. Keeping your tank clean is a critical part of maintaining the health of your fish. However, it can be a bit challenging to do a water change with a sand substrate. Start by partially emptying your tank...
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Appelmelk, B. J.; den Dunnen, J.; Ummels, R.; Pak, M.; Larrouy-Maumus, G.; Nigou, J.; Gurcha, S. S.; Movahedzadeh, F.; Brown, E. J.; Eysink Smeets, M. M.; Besra, G. S.; Willemsen, P. T. J.; Lowary, T. L.; van Kooyk, Y.; Maaskant, J. J.; Stoker, N.; Ley, P. v. d.; Puzo, G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Wieland, C. W.; van der Poll, T.; Geijtenbeek, T.; van der Sar, A M.; Bitter. W. "The mannose cap of lipoarabinomannan is not important for mycobacterial virulence." Cell. Microbiol. 2008, 10, 930-944 ...
So, Ive been looking for a pretty large tank recently, but cant money dump on it for another couple of weeks. I have a 4 hour break between two classes in college, so I was home lounging on the
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Aquarium water testing is a critical part of fishkeeping. Fish owners are often unaware of testing. Here's how to test the water in your tank.
Thought it was time to post an update, it is about 4 weeks since my last ramble. Still struggling with the Tendinitis of the Achilles in the ankle so riding my bike is just not happening, still have 4 weeks before my physio appointment, I am just trying to stretch it (as the doctor suggested) as best I can.. I have now got my self a stand for the 5ft fish tank, basically it is a custom built work bench but it was cut down in height, I have added some other mods to it and I am now at a stage where I am just about ready to put the tank on the stand (probably in the next week). We have had to move the current fish tank which was no mean feat. We took all the rock out, then drained the water out of the tank (while saving it to put back in the tank once we had moved it) until there was just enough water for the fish (so about 3″ deeps). Then we tried to move the tank and the stand together, hell it was still heavy. Between the three of us we managed to turn the tank and stand through 180 degrees ...
The fireplace has been ripped out, the hole boarded up and crudely plastered. Standing in front of it on what used to be the hearth is a medium-sized fish tank supported on a plain wooden side table. The fish tank is full, with a layer of coloured stones, a bunch of floating weed, but no fish. Aside from the tank and table, the only pieces of furniture in the room are a TV and a brown, two-seater sofa. The floorboards are bare and untreated. There are no pictures on the wall. Hanging in front of the windows are four or five lumpish crystals of different colours, suspended on crocheted lines thumb-tacked to the ceiling. The back door is visible from here, a chair leant back under the handle, a couple of brooms wedged between the floor and the middle section, a tangle of rope wrapped around everything and running up and back to a curtain rail. The doors to the other rooms coming off the hall are closed. The hall is dark. ...