Since 1994, Irish cattle have been exposed to greater risks of acquiring Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection as a consequence of the importation of over 70,000 animals from continental Europe. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reported clinical cases of paratuberculosis in Ireland. This study examines the prevalence of factors that promote the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) on selected Irish dairy farms in the Cork region, and the association between these factors and the results of MAP screening tests on milk sock filter residue (MFR). A total of 59 dairy farms, selected using non-random methods but apparently free of endemic paratuberculosis, were enrolled into the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data about risk factors for MAP introduction and transmission. The MFR was assessed on six occasions over 24 months for the presence of MAP, using culture and ...
Bacteria of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex causing Avian Tuberculosis in birds are organisms of the air-freshwater interface, and are found most commonly in temperate regions, surviving best out of sunlight. Shady conditions and completely enclosed houses, by protecting the bacteria from sunlight, may enhance survival and thereby increase contamination (J7.32.w1, J44.72.w1, P3.1990-1991.w1).. Bacteria of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex causing Avian Tuberculosis in birds can usually survive for at least four years and possibly up to seven years in the environment. Sites on which waterfowl have been maintained for many years may have high levels of contamination, due to excretion of bacilli by infected birds over time (B32.7.w43, B14, P3.1990-1991.w1, P11.1993.w1).. The types commonly recognized as Mycobacterium avium (serotypes 1, 2 and 3) are the major causes of disease in birds (B15 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aspergillus precipitating antibody in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. T2 - A cross-sectional study. AU - Suzuki, Shoji. AU - Asakura, Takanori. AU - Namkoong, Ho. AU - Okamori, Satoshi. AU - Yagi, Kazuma. AU - Kamata, Hirofumi. AU - Uwamino, Yoshifumi. AU - Funatsu, Yohei. AU - Nakano, Yasushi. AU - Nishimura, Tomoyasu. AU - Ishii, Makoto. AU - Ebihara, Tamotsu. AU - Betsuyaku, Tomoko. AU - Hasegawa, Naoki. PY - 2018/5. Y1 - 2018/5. N2 - Rationale: Little is known about the role of Aspergillus precipitating antibody (APAb) in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). Objectives: We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with MAC-LD positive for APAb. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study targeting patients with MAC-LD. APAb was checked in all participants. Clinical variables included laboratory data, pulmonary function, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and health-related quality of life. Results: ...
Looking for online definition of Mycobacterium avium infection in the Medical Dictionary? Mycobacterium avium infection explanation free. What is Mycobacterium avium infection? Meaning of Mycobacterium avium infection medical term. What does Mycobacterium avium infection mean?
Johnes disease (pronounced "yo-knees") is a contagious, chronic and usually fatal infection that affects primarily the small intestine of ruminants. All ruminants are susceptible to Johnes disease. Johnes disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, a hardy bacteria related to the agents of leprosy and tuberculosis. The disease is worldwide in distribution.. A national study of US dairies, Dairy NAHMS 96, found that approximately 22 percent of US dairy farms have at least 10% of the herd infected with Johnes disease. The study determined that infected herds experience an average loss of $40 per cow in herds with a low Johnes disease clinical cull rate while herds with a high Johnes disease clinical cull rate lost on average of $227. This loss was due to reduced milk production, early culling, and poor conditioning at culling. The cost of Johnes disease in beef herds still need to be determined.. ...
We report a case of osteomyelitis due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in an AIDS patient shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy with subsequent immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS).
BioAssay record AID 1084112 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 607 after 18 hr by agar well diffusion method.
The purpose of this study was to compare and test the efficiency of the leading kinds of media being used for the isolation and identification of Clostridium botulinum type E strains, and to develop a more reliable method and media for the differentiation of this organism based on the "pearly layer" characteristic. The production of "pearly layer" around the colonies of the different types of C. botulinum on egg yolk enriched media has been used as an aid in differentiation and isolation of this group of bacteria. In this investigation a comparative study was conducted to test the efficiency of the "pearly layer" formation on liver veal agar egg yolk media (LVA) and trypticase agar egg yolk media (TA). Liver veal agar egg yolk media was not entirely satisfactory in that strains of C. botulinum type E and most non-toxic "type E-like" clostridia did not always give a typical reaction. These organisms in many cases produced a faint "pearly layer" or, in some cases, no "pearly layer" on the LVA egg ...
Mycobacterium fortuitum is a nontuberculous species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus mycobacterium. Mycobacterium fortuitum is a fast-growing species that can cause infections. The term "fast growing" is a reference to a growth rate of 3 or 4 days, when compared to other Mycobacteria that may take weeks to grow out on laboratory media. Pulmonary infections of M. fortuitum are uncommon, but Mycobacterium fortuitum can cause local skin disease, osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone), joint infections and infections of the eye after trauma. Mycobacterium fortuitum has a worldwide distribution and can be found in natural and processed water, sewage, and dirt. Bacteria classified as Mycobacteria, include the causative agents for tuberculosis and leprosy. Mycobacteria are sometimes referred to as "acid-fast bacteria," a term referencing their response to a laboratory ...
Background & Aims: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis has been proposed as a cause of Crohns disease. We report a prospective, parallel, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of 2 years of clarithromycin, rifabutin, and clofazimine in active Crohns disease, with a further year of follow-up. Methods: Two hundred thirteen patients were randomized to clarithromycin 750 mg/day, rifabutin 450 mg/day, clofazimine 50 mg/day or placebo, in addition to a 16-week tapering course of prednisolone. Those in remission (Crohns Disease Activity Index ≤150) at week 16 continued their study medications in the maintenance phase of the trial. Primary end points were the proportion of patients experiencing at least 1 relapse at 12, 24, and 36 months. Results: At week 16, there were significantly more subjects in remission in the antibiotic arm (66%) than the placebo arm (50%; P = .02). Of 122 subjects entering the maintenance phase, 39% taking antibiotics experienced at least 1 relapse ...
This case report describes a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in an adult, female single pet goat kept on a dairy cattle farm. The doe showed the habitus of a chronically ill animal, with poor body condition and chronic diarrhoea, when presented at the clinic. The animal displayed a grave manifestation of the disease with severe enteritis and typhlocolitis, lymphadenitis and some up to 10 cm in diameter pyogranulomatous inflammation in the liver, spleen, pancreas, omasum and the intestinal lymph nodes. All other causative agents that might explain the described signs were ruled out (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, tuberculosis, tumorous alterations, foreign bodies, caprine arthritis encephalitis). Goats seem to be vulnerable for yersiniosis, but in contrast to this case report, in most cases, Yersinia enterocolitica, and not Y. pseudotuberculosis, can be proved as infectious cause of yersiniosis. ...
Patients with pulmonary MAC with a lower BMI than healthy individuals also have a significantly poorer prognosis than those of normal weight. Emaciation in such patients is thought to be caused by destruction of lung structure from disease progression and an increased resting metabolic rate caused by the increased load from breathing; however, causes of emaciation and details of energy metabolism in these patients have not been studied.. Elucidating details of energy metabolism and causes of emaciation in patients with pulmonary MAC could provide the basis for improvement in nutritional status and activities of daily living through early nutrition therapy and rehabilitation. We propose to clarify the following:. Energy metabolism in patients with pulmonary MAC, including resting metabolic rate, calorie intake and consumption, and hormonal secretions.. Relation between energy metabolism and degree of pulmonary MAC progression. ...
Taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), also called European cattle, are a subspecies of domesticated cattle originating in the Near East. Both taurine cattle and indicine cattle (zebus) are descended from the aurochs. Taurine cattle were originally considered a distinct species, but are now typically grouped with zebus and aurochs into one species, Bos taurus. Most modern breeds of cattle are taurine cattle. Genetic research suggests the entire modern stock of taurine cattle may have arisen from as few as 80 aurochs tamed in the upper reaches of Mesopotamia about 10,500 years ago near the villages of Çayönü in southeastern Turkey and Djade el Mughara in northern Iraq. The genome sequence of the Hereford breed of taurine cattle was published by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium in 2009. Indicine cattle Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). "Bos taurus". Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN ...
CONTAGIOUS bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC, is one of the most important cattle diseases in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Traditionally, CBPP has been controlled by the live T1/44 vaccine, which has been used in Africa for over 60 years. Vaccination has been shown to be successful when coverage of the cattle population of a country or region is high and maintained over successive years. However, it is well known that the vaccine provides only short-term immunity, can cause severe adverse reactions and is rarely effective in the face of a severe outbreak. Furthermore, mathematical modelling has shown that even a mass vaccination campaign over a five-year period is unlikely to achieve eradication unless other strategies are also used (Mariner and Catley 2004). Previously, it was believed … ...
Looking for online definition of Mycobacterium kansasii in the Medical Dictionary? Mycobacterium kansasii explanation free. What is Mycobacterium kansasii? Meaning of Mycobacterium kansasii medical term. What does Mycobacterium kansasii mean?
NMSU experts to make presentations on cattle disease: trichomoniasis DATE: 04/04/2016 WRITER: Darrell J. Pehr, 575-646-3223, [email protected] CONTACT: Sidney Gordon, 575-437-0231, [email protected] Cattle experts from New Mexico State Universitys Cooperative Extension Service will make presentations to ranchers and others April 26 on the cattle disease trichomoniasis. Trichomoniasis, a highly transmittable disease, can result in early fetal death and infertility, resulting in extended calving intervals. Dr. John Wenzel, Extension veterinarian, and Sidney "Sid" Gordon, Extension agriculture agent in Otero County, will be joined by Dr. Warren Franklin of Ruidoso and other experts at a meeting of the Otero County Cattlemans Association. "Trichomoniasis is a disease that can be economically devastating in a short period of time, Gordon said. "Loss in calf crops can be 10 percent to 30 percent and as high as 50 percent." The meeting will be at 6 p.m. April 26, at Hitch-N-Post BBQ, 2930 N. White Sands ...
Tiwari, A., VanLeeuwen, J. A., Dohoo, I. R., Haddad, J. P., Stryhn, H. E., & Keefe, G. P. (2003). Effects of seropositivity for Bovine Leukemia Virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum on risk of culling in dairy cattle. In AABP Proceedings Columbus, Ohio ...
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 mycobacterium fortuitum is a bacteria that can cause infections of many areas of the body including the skin, lymph nodes, and joints. it belongs to a group of bacteria, known as nontuberculous mycobacterium, as it is different from the mycobacterium that causes tuberculosis. it can be found in natural and processed water, sewage, and dirt. healthy people usually do not get mycobacterium fortuitum infections; however, they may occur after surgery, in people with an impaired immune system, or after exposure to a contaminated medical device (such as an endoscope). it is uncommon for this condition to cause lung disease, but mycobacterium fortuitum infection can lead to skin disease, osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone), joint infections, and eye disease. the signs and symptoms of infection differ depending on the infection site. treatment also depends on the site of the infection, but usually includes prolonged use of antibiotics. last updated: 2/22/2017 ...
Summary Mycobacterium avium is an intracellular pathogen that is associated with disseminated infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Patients with AIDS appear to acquire M. avium mainly through the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that healthy mice given M. avium orally develop disseminated infection after 2-4 weeks. The chief site of M. avium invasion of the intestinal mucosa is the terminal ileum. To learn more about the pathophysiology of M. avium infection of the intestinal mucosa, C57BL/6 bg+ bg+ mice were infected orally with M. avium strain 101 and groups of six mice were killed each week for 8 weeks. The terminal ileum was then prepared for histopathological studies and electron microscopy. A delayed inflammatory response was observed and influx of neutrophils in the Peyer's patches was the only abnormality seen at 1 week. A severe inflammatory response was seen from week 2 to week 5 and necrosis of intestinal villi was observed 6 weeks after infection.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Seong-Jae Kim, Ohgew Kweon, John B Sutherland, Hyun-Lee Kim, Richard C Jones, Brian L Burback, Steven W Graves, Edward Psurny, Carl E Cerniglia].
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Mycobacterium avium complex-infection treatment on cytokine expression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. T2 - Results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 853. AU - MacArthur, Rodger D.. AU - Lederman, Michael M.. AU - Benson, Constance A.. AU - Chernoff, Miriam C.. AU - MacGregor, Rob Roy. AU - Spritzler, John. AU - Mahon, Laura F.. AU - Yen-Lieberman, Belinda. AU - Purvis, Scott. PY - 2000/5/22. Y1 - 2000/5/22. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected persons with newly diagnosed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia were enrolled in an 8- week study to determine whether treatment of MAC infection is associated with decreases in plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. Blood specimens were obtained for quantitative MAC cultures and to determine plasma levels of HIV RNA, TNF-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines. MAC levels decreased by 1.75 log at week 4 (P = .008) and by 2.48 log at week 8 (P = .001). Plasma TNF-α ...
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic wasting diarrheal disease in ruminants called Johnes disease, that is evocative of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Agents used to treat IBD, called anti-inflammatories, immuno-modulators and immuno-suppressants inhibit MAP growth in culture. We concluded that, unknowingly, the medical profession has been treating MAP since sulfasalazines introduction in 1942. Monensin, called a Growth Enhancer in cattle, ameliorates Johnes disease without a documented mechanism of action. We hypothesized that Monensin would inhibit MAP in culture. Using the radiometric 14CO2 Bactec® system, that expresses mycobacterial growth in arbitrary growth index (GI) units, we studied the effect of Monensin on the growth kinetic of MAP isolated from humans with IBD (Dominic, Ben & UCF-4) and cattle with Johnes disease (303 & ATCC 19698.) Results are expressed as percent inhibition of cumulative GI (%-ΔcGI). The positive control
The frequency of isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species from respiratory specimens is increasing, however the clinical relevance of such identifications vary by mycobacterial species and geographical location. A retrospective study of 853 NTM isolates from respiratory samples from 386 patients over seven years was performed. Clinical records and radiographic information were examined. Clinical significance was assessed by American Thoracic Society diagnostic criteria. 25% of all patients with respiratory isolates met criteria for non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). Significant symptoms were weight loss, fever, night sweats, productive cough and haemoptysis. HIV co-infection was a significant risk factor for disease. Cavities, nodules and tree-in-bud were significant radiographic findings. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were the dominant species isolated from this patient cohort. Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) was the species most likely to cause ...
Coccidiosis is a protozoan cattle disease that most cattle develop some immunity to, while continuing to shed a few oocysts in their feces. Calves are the most vulnerable because they have the least immunity, particularly if they ingest a high number of immature protozoa in a dirty environment that overwhelm their immune system.
It is believed that effective therapy for MAC disease in patients with AIDS requires combinations of two or more antimycobacterial agents in order to overcome drug resistance and the unfavorable influence of the profound immunosuppression associated with AIDS. Data suggest that clarithromycin may have substantial activity in two- or three-drug combination regimens with clofazimine, rifamycin derivatives, ethambutol, or the 4-quinolones.. Patients are randomized to one of three treatment arms containing clarithromycin in combination with ethambutol, rifabutin, or both. Clarithromycin alone is taken on days 1 through 3 to determine tolerance and rifabutin and/or ethambutol is added on day 3. AS PER AMENDMENT 7/2/97: Patients may elect to add ritonavir or indinavir to their treatment regimen. Treatment continues daily for 48 weeks. In the absence of a dose-limiting toxicity, those patients who are determined to be complete or partial responders continue on the regimen to which they were originally ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Defining the stressome of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in vitro and in naturally infected cows. AU - Wu, Chia Wei. AU - Schmoller, Shelly K.. AU - Sung, Jae Shin. AU - Talaat, Adel M.. PY - 2007/11/1. Y1 - 2007/11/1. N2 - Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes an enteric infection in cattle, with a great impact on the dairy industry in the United States and worldwide. Characterizing the gene expression profile of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to different stress conditions, or shed in cow feces, could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In this report, the stress response of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a genome-wide level (stressome) was defined for the first time using DNA microarrays. Expression data analysis revealed unique gene groups of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that were regulated under in vitro stressors while additional groups were regulated in the cow samples. ...
The catalase activities of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum strains were measured. M. intracellulare and M. avium had significantly lower activities than M. scrofulaceum. The percentage of catalase activity remaining after exposure of cell-free extracts from late-log-phase cells to 53°C for 50 min allowed differentiation among the three species; M. intracellulare catalase retained 14.1 ± 7.9% (mean ± standard deviation) of its activity, M. avium retained 53.3 ± 7.4% of its activity, and M. scrofulaceum catalase was very resistant and retained 82.8 ± 6.7% of its activity. Cells of all three species harvested in stationary phase exhibited higher percentages of heat-resistant catalase, and species could not be differentiated at this stage in the growth cycle. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude extracts from late-log-phase cells produced two bands of catalase activity in both M. intracellulare and M. avium extracts and four bands of activity in
ANDRESIUK, M. V. et al. Echinococcus granulosus: biological comparison of cattle isolates from endemic regions of Argentina and Spain. Rev. argent. microbiol. [online]. 2009, vol.41, n.4, pp. 218-225. ISSN 1851-7617.. In the present study we have compared cattle isolates of Echinococcus granulosus from Argentina and Spain. The aim was to compare and determine if there exist phenotypic and genetic differences within E. granulosus cattle isolates between an endemic area of Spain (where the disease is mainly restricted to a sheep-dog cycle) and an endemic area of Argentina (where cattle are the most abundant intermediate hosts). The Spanish samples were previously identified as G1 genotype. The Argentinean samples were also identified as G1, but some variants were found for the cytochrome c oxidase-1 (CO1) and NADH dehydrogenase-1 (ND1) mitochondrial genes. When comparing the cyst features and the morphology of the larval rostellar hooks in both regions, some differences were found. The ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Environmental amoebae and mycobacterial pathogenesis. AU - Harriff, Melanie. AU - Bermudez, Luiz E.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Environmental amoebae have been shown to be a host to pathogenic mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium peregrinum can all grow inside Acanthamoeba and other environmental amoebae. Once ingested by Acanthamoeba, M. avium upregulates a number of genes, many of them similar to genes upregulated upon phagocytosis of M. avium by macrophages. Mycobacteria ingested by amoebae grow intracellularly, acquiring an invasive phenotype, evident when the bacterium escapes the infected amoeba. Once inside of amoeba, it has been shown that mycobacteria are protected from antibiotics and disinfectants, such as chlorine. This chapter describes methods employed for the study of the interaction of M. avium and Acanthamoeba.. AB - Environmental amoebae have been shown to be a host to pathogenic mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium, ...
Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis belongs to the M avium complex and infections with this agent are reported rarely in the dog. A nine-year-old intact female Elo dog was presented with widespread hypotrichosis, erythema and exfoliation. Other clinical signs were polyuria/polydipsia and severe weight loss. No other animals or humans in the household showed any dermatological abnormalities. Multiple skin biopsies identified a pyogranulomatous dermatitis but no causative agent could be detected. Skin tissue culture and PCR revealed M avium subspecies hominissuis. Hypercalcaemia (ionised calcium) was initially present. All other serum biochemistry parameters, chest radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein were within the reference interval. Subsequent to therapy with rifampicin, pradofloxacin and oral fatty acids the pyogranulomatous dermatitis resolved and mycobacteria could not be detected but sebaceous glands were lost ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Therapeutic drug monitoring in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. AU - Koh, Won Jung. AU - Jeong, Byeong Ho. AU - Jeon, Kyeongman. AU - Lee, Soo Youn. AU - Shin, Sung Jae. PY - 2012/10/15. Y1 - 2012/10/15. N2 - Rationale: Little is known regarding the application of therapeutic drug monitoring for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. Objectives: To evaluate drug interactions of multidrug regimens and clinical usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring in the management of MAC lung disease. Methods: A total of 130 patients with MAC lung disease and 60 patients with Mycobacterium abscessus complex lung disease were enrolled in this study. All of the MAC patients were treated with multidrug regimens that included clarithromycin (CLR), rifampin (RIF) or rifabutin (RFB), and ethambutol (EMB), and the plasma drug concentrations of CLR, RIF, and EMB were measured. Measurements and Main Results: Peak plasma CLR concentrations were lower in ...
Since Crohns disease was first recognised in the early part of the twentieth century, it has been theorised that the disease is caused by a bacterial infection, with the principal suspect being mycobacteria, and more specifically in recent times, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Recently, research is making advances in understanding this organism, and is indicating more and more that at least some cases of Crohns disease, if not all, are caused by paratuberculosis infection. Most importantly, the majority of Crohns patients treated with antibiotic treatment which has activity against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis go into clinical remission. This is important information for sufferers of Crohns disease, because Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is endemic in foods derived from cattle in most areas of the western world. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis causes a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease in cattle, and many other species, which is similar to Crohns disease. In some countries, the ...
Previous studies found Hawaiians and Asian-Americans/Pacific Islanders to be independently at increased risk for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTMPD) and tuberculosis (TB). To better understand NTM infection and TB risk patterns in Hawaii, USA, we evaluated data on a cohort of patients in Hawaii for 2005-2013. Period prevalence of NTMPD was highest among Japanese, Chinese, and Vietnamese patients (>300/100,000 persons) and lowest among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (50/100,000). Japanese patients were twice as likely as all other racial/ethnic groups to have Mycobacterium abscessus isolated (adjusted odds ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.2) but were not at increased risk for infection with other mycobacteria species. In contrast, incidence of TB was stable and was lowest among Japanese patients (no cases) and highest among Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese patients (>50/100,000). Substantial differences exist in the epidemiology of NTMPD by race/ethnicity,
Doctors prescribe clarithromycin to treat bacterial infections like pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus infections, and ear infections.[2] Sometimes it is prescribed in combination with other drugs to treat H. pylori, a bacteria that causes ulcers. Labeled uses include:[3] Acute Bacterial Maxillary Sinusitis, Acute Exacerbation of Obstructive Chronic Bronchitis by M. Catarrhalis, Acute Exacerbation of Obstructive Chronic Bronchitis by Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Acute Exacerbation of Obstructive Chronic Bronchitis due to H. Flu, Acute Maxillary Haemophilus Influenzae Sinusitis, Acute Maxillary Moraxella Catarrhalis Sinusitis, Acute Maxillary Streptococcus Pneumoniae Sinusitis, Acute Otitis Media Infection, Bacterial Pneumonia, Bronchitis with Bacterial Exacerbations, Chlamydial Pneumonia, Chronic Bronchitis with Bacterial Exacerbation, Disseminated Mycobacterium Avium Complex Infection, Haemophilus Influenzae Acute Otitis Media, Haemophilus Influenzae Bronchitis, Haemophilus Influenzae Pneumonia, Lower ...
Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle with the most severe form of the disease caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis. Babesiosis is transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus. The most prevalent species is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. The transmission of B. bovis is transovarian and a previous study of the R. microplus ovarian proteome identified several R. microplus proteins that were differentially expressed in response to infection. Through various approaches, we studied the reaction of the R. microplus ovarian transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis ...
Rhipicephalus microplus is an efficient biological vector of Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. Babesia bovis is passed transovarially to the next generation of ticks, which then transmit the parasite to naïve animals. Due to the importance of the R. microplus ovary for tick reproduction and transmission of B. bovis, we investigated the hypothesis that silencing vitellogenin receptor gene expression in the ovary during tick feeding on B. bovis-infected cattle would affect parasite transmission to the next generation of ticks. Silencing expression of the vitellogenin receptor in the ovary by RNA interference, resulted in reduced tick fertility. We observed reduced egg production (i.e. reduced weight of eggs), a lower rate of embryonic development, and a reduction in hatching. Analysis of individual larvae by PCR confirmed that RNAi mediated downregulation of the R. microplus vitellogenin receptor and also interfered with transovarial transmission of B. bovis. None of the larvae (0/58
The aim of the study was to diagnose Sarcocystis sp. infections in cattle and to detect coinfections by Toxoplasma gondii and/or Neospora caninum. Blood, diaphragm, esophagus, and myocardium from 90 beef cattle from Argentina were collected. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction assays, and direct microscopical examination were carried out. Sarcocysts from myocardium were measured and counted. Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the three protozoans was performed. Sarcocystis cruzi sarcocysts were found in 100% of myocardium samples. Sarcocysts per gram ranged from 8 to 380 with higher values found in adult cattle (p < 0.001). T. gondii and N. caninum were not detected by immunohistochemistry. T. gondii DNA was found in myocardium of 2/20 seropositive animals, while N. caninum DNA was not found. Antibodies against S. cruzi were detected in all samples, those against N. caninum in 73% and against T. gondii in 91% of the samples (IFAT titer >/=25). It is ...
Background. Mycobacterium abscessus can produce a chronic pulmonary infection for which little is known regarding optimal treatment and long-term outcomes.. Methods. We performed a retrospective observational study (2001-2008) including all patients who met American Thoracic Society criteria for M. abscessus pulmonary disease. Our aim was the evaluation of clinical and microbiologic outcomes in patients treated with combined antibiotic and surgical therapy, compared with antibiotic therapy alone.. Results. A total of 107 patients were included in the analysis. Patients were predominantly female (83%) and never-smokers (60%), with a mean age of 60 years. Fifty-nine (55%) of 107 patients had coexistent or previous history of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary infection. High-resolution chest CT showed bronchiectasis and nodular opacities in 98% of patients and cavities in 44%. Sixy-nine (46 medical, 23 surgical) patients were followed up for a mean duration of 34 months (standard deviation, ...
En citoloxía denomínase fagosoma un vacúolo formado arredor dunha partícula que foi absorbida pola célula por fagocitose. Son típicos da célula animal. O vacúolo fórmase pola fusión da membrana celular arredor da partícula. O fagosoma é un compartimento celular no cal poden dixerirse e destruírse microorganismos patóxenos. Os fagosomas fusiónanse con lisosomas no seu proceso de maduración, formando fagolisosomas. Algunhas bacterias patóxenas que chegan ao interior da célula ao seren fagocitadas, poden reproducirse no interior do fagosoma ou mesmo no interior do fagolisosoma, como é o caso da bacteria Coxiella burnetii.[1] Outras pasan ao citoplasma antes de que o fagosoma se fusione co lisosoma, como sucede con Rickettsia[2]. Moitas micobacterias, entre as que se inclúe Mycobacterium tuberculosis[3][4] e a Mycobacteria avium paratuberculosis[5], manipula ao seu hospedador, un macrófago, para impedir que os lisosomas cargados de ácido nitroso se fusionen cos fagosomas e ...
... is a chapter in the book, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, containing the following 10 pages: Cryptococcal Meningitis, Mycobacterium Avium Complex, Mycobacterium Haemophilum, Mycobacterium Kansasii, Prevention of Secondary Infection in HIV, Isospora belli, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Sexually Transmitted Disease in HIV, Opportunistic Infections in HIV.
The demography of bovine infections caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Ireland is poorly defined. The objective of this study was to describe the demographics of cattle positive to MAP on faecal culture, based on submissions to the Cork Regional Veterinary Laboratory (Cork RVL) from 1994 to 2006. The study focused on all available faecal samples from adult cattle with non-responsive chronic diarrhoea that were submitted by private veterinary practitioners to Cork RVL for MAP culture. For each MAP-positive by faecal culture animal, data were collated from Cork RVL and Cattle Movement Monitoring Scheme (CMMS) records. Johnes disease (JD) was confirmed in 110 animals from 86 herds by the Cork RVL between 1994 and 2006, with a rate of positive cases between 15% and 18% over last four years of the study. Two breeds (Holstein/Friesian or Limousin) made up 78% of submissions. Movements were assessed for the 57 study animals with available movement information, 90% died ...
A rising isolation trend of drug-resistant M. bovis from human clinical cases is documented in the literature. Here we assessed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from cattle for drug susceptibility by the gold standard agar proportion method and a simplified resazurin microtitre assay (d-REMA). A total of 38 M. tuberculosis complex strains, including M. bovis (n = 36) and M. caprae (n = 2) isolates, from cattle in Tunisia were tested against isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, ethambutol, kanamycin and pyrazinamide. M. caprae isolates were found to be susceptible to all test drugs. All M. bovis strains were resistant to pyrazinamide, as expected. In addition, one M. bovis isolate showed high-level resistance to streptomycin (MIC | 500.0 μg/ml). Concordant results with the two methods were found. The most common target genes associated with streptomycin resistance, namely the rrs, rpsL and gidB genes, were DNA sequenced. A non-synonymous mutation at codon 43 (K43R) was found in the rpsL gene.
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are a subset of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), environmental bacteria that can cause chronic, debilitating pulmonary disease, primarily affecting those over age 60. The goals of treatment are to improve symptoms, stop disease progression, and clear the infection. We propose to address a longstanding controversy in the therapy of pulmonary MAC disease, whether patients must take three antibiotics concomitantly, or if two are sufficient. The study is a multicenter randomized pragmatic clinical trial to compare azithromycin + ethambutol (2-drug therapy) vs. azithromycin + ethambutol + rifampin (3-drug therapy) for non-cavitary pulmonary MAC disease. All clinical outcomes will be considered standard of care and abstracted from clinical records. Therapy changes and adverse events will be recorded at routine visits. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-reported toxicity will be captured centrally in a web-based database, and CT scans will be read ...
Infections caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex occur in approximately 50 to 60% of patients with AIDS. M. avium is an intracellular pathogen that survives and multiplies within mononuclear phagocytes. In this study, we investigated the uptake of M. avium grown within macrophages (intracellular growth M. avium [IG]) by a second macrophage compared with M. avium cultured in broth (extracellular growth M. avium [EG]). The results showed that IG was six- to eightfold more efficient than EG in entering macrophages. In addition, while an anti-CR3 antibody was able to inhibit approximately 60% of EG uptake by macrophages, it failed to inhibit the entry of IG. In contrast to EG, IG uptake into macrophages was significantly inhibited in the presence of anti-beta1-integrin and anti-transferrin receptor antibodies. Entry into macrophages by alternate receptors was associated with resistance to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulation. While stimulation with TNF-alpha resulted ...
Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial disease of cattle that occasionally affects other species of mammals. This disease is a significant zoonosis that can spread to humans, typically by the inhalation of aerosols or the ingestion of unpasteurized milk. In developed countries, eradication programs have reduced tuberculosis in cattle. Bovine tuberculosis is still common in less developed countries, and severe economic losses can occur from livestock deaths, chronic disease and trade restrictions.. Bovine tuberculosis results from infection by Mycobacterium bovis, a Gram positive, acid-fast bacterium in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of the family Mycobacteriaceae. Cattle are the primary hosts for M. bovis, but other domesticated and wild mammals can also be infected. Known maintenance hosts include brush-tailed opossums (and possibly ferrets) in New Zealand, badgers in the United Kingdom and Ireland, bison and elk in Canada, and kudu and African buffalo in southern Africa. ...
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a pathogenic bacterium responsible for the lethal Johnes disease in cattle. So far, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out to identify chromosomal regions highly associated with Johnes disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variability within a pool of seven genes (LAMB1, DLD, WNT2, PRDM1, SOCS5, PTGER4 and IL10) indicated by former GWAS/RNA-Seq studies as putatively associated with MAP infections and to achieve a confirmation study of association with paratuberculosis susceptibility in a population of 324 German Holstein cattle (162 cases MAP positive and 162 controls MAP negative) using ELISA and fecal cultural tests. SNP validation and genotyping information are provided, quick methods for allelic discrimination were set up and transcription factor binding analyses were performed. The rs43390642:G,T SNP in the WNT2 promoter region is associated with paratuberculosis susceptibility ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A randomized, double-blind trial comparing azithromycin and clarithromycin in the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. AU - Dunne, M.. AU - Fessel, J.. AU - Kumar, P.. AU - Dickenson, G.. AU - Keiser, Philip. AU - Boulos, M.. AU - Mogyros, M.. AU - White, A. Clinton. AU - Cahn, P.. AU - OConnor, M.. AU - Lewi, D.. AU - Green, S.. AU - Tilles, J.. AU - Hicks, C.. AU - Bissett, J.. AU - Schneider, M. M E. AU - Benner, R.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Two hundred and forty-six patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who also had disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex received either azithromycin 250 mg every day, azithromycin 600 mg every day, or clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day, each combined with ethambutol, for 24 weeks. Samples drawn from patients were cultured and clinically assessed every 3 weeks up to week 12, then monthly thereafter through week 24 of double-blind therapy and every 3 months ...
A unique test to detect diseases such as bTB and Johnes disease, with the global potential to be worth "billions" of pounds, will be commercially available to UK veterinary laboratories from the end of November.. The test, Actiphage, which is in the process of securing a worldwide patent, is based on advanced bacteriophage research conducted by Cath Rees, associate professor in microbiology at the The University of Nottingham School of Biosciences, and colleague Ben Swift, now a research fellow at the RVC.. The test can detect live mycobacteria in blood or milk in six hours, allowing affected cattle to be quickly identified and isolated/culled before they can infect others within the herd.. Dr Rees said: "The existing skin test [for bTB] is based on the animals immune response, and takes three days to produce a result, but, more worryingly, is known to miss about 20% of infected animals, so more tests are needed to improve disease detection.. "Our new test is unique as it is the only test that ...
THE DAIRY INDUSTRY New Jerseys dairy industry includes dairy farmers, animal breeders, dairy cooperatives, milk handlers, processors, distributors and retail stores, all of which are served by the department. The states 143 commercial and six institutional dairy farms produced just over 240 million pounds of milk valued at $36 million in FY01. New Jersey dairy farmers also produced heifers, cull cows, calves, grain, hay and other agricultural items, including breeding supplies such as embryos and semen. Maintaining the Viability of Dairy Farms in the Garden State The last decade has been an era of extreme economic distress for the dairy industry, nationwide and in New Jersey. The department continues to offer a variety of projects aimed at improving both the short- and long-term viability of this segment of the agriculture industry. Whole herd health and management programs, including control of Johnes disease and mastitis; financial management training; nutrient and crop management; and ...