Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 94, pp , October 1997 Evolution Origin and evolution of the slime molds (Mycetozoa) SANDRA L. BALDAUF* AND W. FORD DOOLITTLE Canadian Institute for Advanced
Mycetozoa is used here is a broad sense, and includes organisms which may be amoeboid, amoebo-flagellate, or plasmodial; amoebae and amoebo-flagellate staes can encyst; under appropriate conditions of light, nutrition and humidity they can form fruiting bodies that rise above the substratum and support one of more aerial spores, the fruiting body stalks may be cellular or acellular; sporangia may have ancillary sterile elements or may be merely an assemblage of spores within a sporangial wall, or spores may be formed in uniseriate chains covered with a slime sheath, with or without dichotomous branching (Guttulinia); free-living, heterotrophic organisms are found almost anywhere organic material is located; on rotting logs, soil, living trees and herbaceous plants, and similar habitats ...
Dictyostelium discoideum is a species of soil-living amoeba belonging to the phylum Amoebozoa, infraphylum Mycetozoa. Commonly referred to as slime mold, D. discoideum is a eukaryote that transitions from a collection of unicellular amoebae into a multicellular slug and then into a fruiting body within its lifetime. Its unique asexual lifecycle consists of four stages: vegetative, aggregation, migration, and culmination. The lifecycle of D. discoideum is relatively short, which allows for timely viewing of all stages. The cells involved in the lifecycle undergo movement, chemical signaling, and development, which are applicable to human cancer research. The simplicity of its lifecycle makes D. discoideum a valuable model organism to study genetic, cellular, and biochemical processes in other organisms. In the wild, D. discoideum can be found in soil and moist leaf litter. Its primary diet consists of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, found in the soil and decaying organic matter. Uninucleate ...
The Amoebozoa are a major group of amoeboid protozoa, comprising the majority of the amoebae that move using blunt or lobose pseudopods. Most members are unicellular, for instance the famous species Amoeba proteus, which is often studied in laboratories. They include the most common protists in soils and aquatic habitats. Some are symbiotic on other organisms, including some pathogens, responsible for amoebiasis (dysentery) and other diseases. They also include most slime moulds (Mycetozoa), multinucleate or multicellular forms that produce spores, and are often visible to the unaided eye. Amoebozoans rely on pseudopods for both locomotion and feeding. The majority lack flagella, and more generally do not form microtubule-supported structures except during mitosis. The cell is typically divided into an outer layer of clear ectoplasm and an inner layer of granular endoplasm. In the active form there is usually one or more pseudopods along the anterior margin and sometimes a posterior bulb called ...
I love slime molds! Not only are they cute as bugs - well, lets be honest, theyre cuter - but they literally embody one of the most important phases in the evolution of terrestrial life. The transition of life from sea swimmers to land crawlers seems tame compared to the leap from masses of single cells to multicellular structures. This titanic event is mere childs play for the mighty slime mold.. You and I dont have any choice: were fixed clumps of cells that cant survive alone. Slime molds are single cells that come together when the urge takes them to make multicellular magic. Slime mold aficionado John Bonner remarks that they are no more than a bag of amoebae encased in a thin slime sheath, yet they manage to have various behaviors that are equal to those of animals who possess muscles and nerves with ganglia - that is, simple brains. Theyre not really molds, they just resemble molds when they come together to form fruiting bodies, big blobs on stems that rise up and pop, sending ...
Slime molds move through cytoplasmic streaming where protein-rich material called micro-filaments, provide the means of locomotion and control mechanism that enables these organisms to move in a...
In a study of slime molds, scientists are learning more about how they cooperate, which ties into some of the deepest questions in evolution.
Imagine you could temporarily fuse with someone, acquire that persons knowledge, and then split off to become your separate self again. With slime molds, that really happens! The slime mold-Physarum polycephalum for scientists-is a unicellular organism whose natural habitat is forest litter. But it can also be cultured in a laboratory petri dish. Audrey Dussutour and David Vogel had already trained slime molds to move past repellent but harmless substances (e.g.
Im not sure whether to take that as in insult to an incredibly evolved and highly complex life form or not. Hey - how many protists do *you* know that can learn to anticipate regularly timed stimuli, drive robots, solve mazes, and plan high-speed rail routes? Nonetheless, I do get his point - that if we do find life, its not likely to have made it much past the basics of cell, membrane, and genetic code. Which got me thinking about something thats bothered me for a while.. I have been to Mono Lake (pronounced moe-noe), and it is truly an unearthly place. I can see why one might search there for - as they put it on Wait, Wait Dont Tell Me this week - yet another alternative lifestyle in California. I know the basics of the chemistry involved, but I dont know enough to know - as has been claimed by several critics - whether what the scientists have found is highly dubious. According to Carl Zimmers roster of experts, its all but impossible the authors of this paper performed good science ...
April 4, 2008-High in the treetops theres a sticky other world we rarely see, and researchers are headed there in search of slime molds.
Commonly referred to as "slime molds" and historically studied by mycologists, the Eumycetozoans are a monophyletic group of terrestrial amoeboid protists that produce aerial spore-bearing structures.
Commonly referred to as "slime molds" and historically studied by mycologists, the Eumycetozoans are a monophyletic group of terrestrial amoeboid protists that produce aerial spore-bearing structures.
For one, slime molds are marvelous examples of the importance of dispersal. When the going gets rough, organisms have highly ingenious methods for relocating. More importantly, slime molds are a great model for studying the evolution of cooperation. In the multicellular form, the cells in the stalk sacrifice their lives to ensure the survival of the group. Only those cells in the fruiting body will leave offspring. This altruistic behavior usually can only occur via kin selection, and as such, slime molds provide scientists a great system to study how social cheating is prevented and evolutionary conflict is resolved ...
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Columbia University evolutionary ecologist Dustin Rubenstein explains just why its so interesting and important to find slime molds that engage in a form of agriculture.. 0 Comments. ...
Molecular Biology and Genetics seek to understand how the molecules that make up cells determine the behavior of living things. Biologists use molecular and genetic tools to study the function of those molecules in the complex milieu of the living cell. Groups in our department are using these approaches to study a wide variety of questions, including the fundamental processes of transcription and translation, mechanisms of global gene control including signal transduction pathways, the function of the visual and olfactory systems, and the nature of genetic diversity in natural populations and how that affects their evolution, among others. The systems under study cover the range of model organisms (bacteria, yeast, slime molds, worms, fruit flies, zebrafish, and mice) though the results of these studies relate directly or indirectly to human health.. ...
All bacteria, blue-green algae, fungi and plant cells (except mycoplasmas & slime molds) are surrounded and protected by a mechanical and rigid layer called cell wall. This is the layer which gives certain shape to an individual cell or the overall organism ...
Dictyostelium discoideum is a cellular slime mold that serves as an important model organism in a variety of fields. Cellular slime molds have an unusual life cycle. They exist as separate amoebae, but after consuming all the bacteria in their area they proceed to stream together to form a multicellular organism. These features make it a valuable tool for studying developmental processes and also for investigating the evolution of multicellularity. Long thought to be a type of fungus, it has recently been shown that slime molds in fact bear no relation to fungi.. Format: Articles Subject: Organisms ...
Dictyostelium discoideum is a cellular slime mold that serves as an important model organism in a variety of fields. Cellular slime molds have an unusual life cycle. They exist as separate amoebae, but after consuming all the bacteria in their area they proceed to stream together to form a multicellular organism. These features make it a valuable tool for studying developmental processes and also for investigating the evolution of multicellularity. Long thought to be a type of fungus, it has recently been shown that slime molds in fact bear no relation to fungi.. Format: Articles Subject: Organisms ...
The Sagenista is a group of basal chromists. They are all heterotrophic and basically unicellular, though some live in loosely associated colonies. The group has no characters that unite it, and so the group is generally believed to be paraphyleitc, though the details of relationships are not yet known. Sagenista includes two major groups of organisms, including one that has been classified with the fungi, and one that has only recently been recognized. The first group are the Bicoecea, a small collection of poorly studied unicells. Some of these have been known for more than a century, while others have only recently been described. One of the more exciting recent discoveries is the species Cafeteria roenbergensis. This species is actually quite common, and feeds indiscriminantly on whatever it can find (and hence its name). A second group, the Labyrinthulomycota, or slime nets, have traditionally been grouped with the slime molds, but are now believed to be part of the Chromista. The slime ...
Columbia University evolutionary ecologist Dustin Rubenstein explains just why its so interesting and important to find slime molds that engage in a form of agriculture.. 0 Comments. ...
Stillwater, ME, 2018. Artists book, one in a series of three all on Katie MacGregor hand-made papers, the suite of plates on paper made by Ms. MacGregor and Pulp Painted while in the mold by Ms. Leavitt, signed and numbered by her on the colophon. Page size: 15(W) x 10-1/4(L) inches for volume with text of poem and plates; plate portfolio: 18(W) x 12(L) inches; 10pp; and 11 original prints in separate portfolio. Bound by Joelle Webber: full lime green book cloth over boards for text and plate volume with original pulp paintings in oranges and greens inset into front panel, matching print portfolio in larger size; both laid into an orange cloth over boards custom-made clamshell box, hand-lettered paper label in lime green on white inset into spine, the whole a playful and arresting presentation. The artists choice of text, the poem Slime Molds Have Eleven Sexes by Professor Margaret Price (Ohio State University) is a playful list of natures more obscure creatures. Her verse was originally ...
Rubeosis iridis was produced in cynomolgus monkeys by subjecting their eyes to severe surgically induced hypotony. New vessels on the iris showed character
At age 89, Bonner, the George M. Moffett Professor Emeritus of Biology, is one of the worlds leading experts on cellular slime molds, found in soils the world over. He has led the way in making Dictyostelium discoideum a model organism central to examining some of the major questions in experimental biology. Science magazine describes him as the current patriarch of the slime mold community.
What One Can Learn from Extracting OWL Ontologies from a NetLogo Model That maintained clearly clear for Such an download aristotles ladder darwins tree the evolution of visual metaphors for biological. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 18(2), 14. Path Planning with Slime Molds: A 2021BLACK3605 download aristotles ladder darwins tree the evolution of.
Cool, eh? Can you ID? Much like Hermione in Goblet of Fire, I feel like the library, er, internet, has finally failed me. Just as well, considering I never even knew moving (yes, moving!!!) amoeba-like slime molds (mold being a misnomer) existed until I posted a yellow-colored many-headed slime (Physarum polycephalum) over 3 years ago. I havent been able to tack down an ID on this small white beauty. Oh, I found plenty of other slime molds, which all seem to be peculiarly named like tapioca slime (Brefeldia maxima), chocolate tube slime (Stemonitis splendens), pretzel slime (Hemitrichia serpula), and dog vomit slime (Fuligo septica). Lovely. It doesnt help with ID that slimes change quite a bit as they age, as Stevie Smith captured so well over the course of 60 hours. I found his pictures through this Flickr Hive Mind that has some beautiful pictures (Is hive mind supposed to be like a shared BBCs Sherlock mind palace?). Interesting to note, this slime completely avoided the redwood ...
Patient presents with Rubeosis Iridis in the right eye due to neovascular glaucoma. VA is 20/40 in the right eye. Will follow up in 3-months ...
Abstract:The green fluorescent protein-encoding gene from Aequorea victoria has been cloned into several different transforming vectors and expressed in the cellular slime molds, Polysphondylium pallidum and Dictyostelium discoideum. We find that the protein is stable and non-toxic in both species, can be easily visualized in living and fixed specimens, and can be used to purify rare cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS ...
First off, he says anyone from zero to like... three? is non-sentient. Now Im no pro-lifer, but that is a pretty creepy thing to say. He is basically equating three year olds to slime molds. I know maybe hes trying to be all dismissive and dark, or whatever, but it is disturbing to me. I remember taking a psychology class (not nearly as pure as Randys physics, of course!) and being amazed at the amount of definable developmental landmarks that occur in the first few years. But nope, disregard all of that, non sentient. I just hope hes not serious, because if he is, Im guessing hell go on some sort of baby-eating rampage. Rather than getting comics about Megans tender nipples, well get ever-more disturbing comics about the moist, succulent flesh of infants. And Im sure his fans will GOOMHR like never before ...
First off, he says anyone from zero to like... three? is non-sentient. Now Im no pro-lifer, but that is a pretty creepy thing to say. He is basically equating three year olds to slime molds. I know maybe hes trying to be all dismissive and dark, or whatever, but it is disturbing to me. I remember taking a psychology class (not nearly as pure as Randys physics, of course!) and being amazed at the amount of definable developmental landmarks that occur in the first few years. But nope, disregard all of that, non sentient. I just hope hes not serious, because if he is, Im guessing hell go on some sort of baby-eating rampage. Rather than getting comics about Megans tender nipples, well get ever-more disturbing comics about the moist, succulent flesh of infants. And Im sure his fans will GOOMHR like never before ...
In this biology science fair project, test various amounts of glucose to see which ones attract and which repel (chemotaxis) growing Physarum polycephalum slime mold.
Simple changes in the home can be an effective way for those with the early signs of dementia to retain their independence. It is not always clear what measures can be taken, however, but a new app has been designed to help patients and family members navigate the difficulties. Iridis offers advice in around 20 minutes on how to adapt a persons home to make it more dementia-friendly. Among the... ...
Acanthodii (8) Acanthomorpha (17) Acanthomorphata (9) Acariformes (4) Acaromorpha (17) Acoela (2) Actinopteri (17) Actinopterygii (15) Aculeata (21) Adephaga (7) Aequorlitornithes (2) Aetogate (2) Agaonidae (1) Agoniatitina (1) Alismatanae (4) Allotriocarida (5) Alveolata (14) Amaurobioidea (1) Ammonoidea (3) Amoebozoa (9) Amorphea (12) Amphipoda (1) Anabantiformes (1) Angiospermae (35) Anguilliformes (1) Angusteradulata (2) Animalia (102) Annelida (12) Anomalogonatae (16) Anthophila (1) Antliophora (14) Anura (1) Anystides (1) Anystina (1) Apiales (1) Apiformes (1) Apo-Tracheophyta (3) Apocrita (26) Apoditrysia (1) Apoidea (7) Apoikozoa (6) Apotracheophyta (7) Arachnida (85) Araneae (18) Araneida (1) Araneomorphae (17) Archaea (3) Archaeobranchia (1) Archaeognatha (1) Archosauria (10) Archosauromorpha (9) Archostemata (2) Arthropoda (59) Artiopoda (1) Ascomycota (13) Asgard (5) Asioryctitheria (39) Asparagales (7) Assamioidea (1) Asteiidae (1) Asteraceae (1) Asterales (2) Asteridae (18) ...
Acanthodii (8) Acanthomorpha (17) Acanthomorphata (9) Acariformes (9) Acaromorpha (17) Acoela (2) Actinobacteria (1) Actinopteri (17) Actinopterygii (15) Aculeata (25) Adephaga (8) Aequorlitornithes (2) Aetogate (2) Agaonidae (1) Agoniatitina (1) Aleocharinae (1) Alismatanae (4) Allotriocarida (5) Alveolata (14) Amaurobioidea (1) Ammonoidea (3) Amoebozoa (9) Amorphea (14) Amphipoda (1) Anabantiformes (1) Angiospermae (35) Anguilliformes (1) Angusteradulata (2) Animalia (102) Annelida (12) Anomalogonatae (16) Anthophila (5) Antliophora (14) Anura (1) Anystides (1) Anystina (1) Apiales (1) Apiformes (1) Apo-Tracheophyta (3) Apocrita (28) Apoditrysia (1) Apoidea (11) Apoikozoa (6) Apotracheophyta (7) Arachnida (87) Araneae (18) Araneida (1) Araneomorphae (17) Archaea (3) Archaeobranchia (1) Archaeognatha (1) Archosauria (10) Archosauromorpha (9) Archostemata (2) Arthropoda (59) Artiopoda (1) Ascomycota (13) Asgard (10) Asioryctitheria (39) Asparagales (7) Assamioidea (1) Asteiidae (1) Asteraceae ...
Can an acellular slime mold mimic the Roman road network in the Balkans? Its not a riddle, but the subject of a new study by researchers in Greece and the United Kingdom.. That slime mold, called Physarum polycephalum, consists of a single large membrane around many cell nuclei, and has drawn the attention of a wide range of scientists because of its uncanny ability to solve almost impossibly complex computational problems.. Through rhythmic contractions of its membrane, called shuttle streaming, the slime mold grows out in search of food. If you put a P. polycephalum into a maze with two food sources in it, over a few days the organism will grow toward the food sources and retract from everywhere else except the shortest path between them. Mathematicians and network analysts call this the shortest path problem. When presented with additional food sources, the slime mold forms ever more complex and efficient networks. These Physarum machines, as they are known, may help in the understanding ...
This chapter summarizes the available information on amoeba-fungus interactions and speculates on the origins of fungal virulence for mammalian hosts. Other organisms such as slime molds have ameboid cells that behave like amoebae in movement and feeding. Amoebae and slime molds are grouped under the kingdom Protozoa. Various studies have reported specific types of interactions and responses when amoebae and fungi are brought into contact in the laboratory. Amoeba phagocytosis can be induced by arachidonic acid and prostaglandins, a phenomenon that may be highly relevant to fungus-amoeba interactions since many species of fungi produce arachidonic acid derivatives and prostaglandins. Although each of these observations was made under artificial laboratory conditions, they suggest certain specificity to amoeba-fungus interactions that buttresses the argument that these two types of organisms frequently interact in the environment. In the late 1990s, the author revisited the question of amoeba-fungus
Physarum polycephalum represents an enigmatic group of organisms known as the slime molds. Despite their name these organisms are not related with fungi, and form a genuine branch in the tree of life, beside plants, animals, and fungi. When Physarum takes up nutrient by its surface, the plasmodium will grow but still maintains coherence of the network structure. As a result, the network architecture is highly dynamic with flexible rearrangement of its junctions, following a decentralized protocol of organization.. This innovative project aims to build functional biomorphic computing devices operated by the slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We envisage that research and development centred on novel computing substrates, as self-assembled and fault-tolerant networks will lead to a revolution in the bio-electronics and computer industry. Combined with conventional electronic components in a hybrid chip, Physarum networks will radically improve the performance of digital and analog circuits.. The ...
5.B.1 The gp91phox Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase-associated Cytochrome b558 (Phox) Family The human phagocyte cytochrome b558 is a heterodimeric complex consisting of a heavy (β) chain (gp91phox) and a light (α) chain (p22phox) as well as several auxiliary subunits (Geisz and Leto, 2004). The β-chain is a glycoprotein of 570 amino acyl residues called gp91phox, the product of the X-linked chronic granulomatous disease gene. The protein bears (1) the heme-binding site in its N-terminal 280 residues, and (2) an FAD binding site (residues 338-344) as part of the C-terminal NADPH oxidase domain. The N-terminal domain has 6 putative transmembrane spanners (TMSs) and is the cytochrome binding site. It has been reported to catalyze efflux of protons through an H+ channel that acts as a charge compensation pathway for the electrogenic generation of the superoxide radical, O2&149;-. The proposal that (gp91phox) has H+ channel activity has been effectively disputed and is now in doubt (DeCoursey 2003; ...
Define Plasmodiophora. Plasmodiophora synonyms, Plasmodiophora pronunciation, Plasmodiophora translation, English dictionary definition of Plasmodiophora. Noun 1. Plasmodiophora - type genus of Plasmodiophoraceae comprising minute plant parasitic fungi similar to and sometimes included among the slime molds...
xii. 274 pgs. Good to Very Good hardcover in Very Good jacket. Ex-library with the usual markings and stamps on fore edges, title and copyright pages and endpapers, else minor shelf wear with clean and unmarked text. Jacket in very nice condition, minimal signs of wear. Illustrated with photographs and line drawings by Stanley Wyatt. Chapters: Ingenious Kingdom, The Coming of Life, Algae, Viruses and Bacteria, True Fungi, Slime Molds, and Lichens, Mosses, Ferns and Their Relatives, The Ancient and Honorable Order of Conifers, Flowering Plants, Fruits and Seeds, The Engineering and Design of P ...
Welcome to the wonderful world of slime molds! These goopy fungi (Myxomycetes) live on dead organic matter and thrive in moist conditions. You can rake it out and dump it in the trash; especially in the early stages before it spreads its spores. Increasing the air circulation and allowing the soil to dry out will help eliminate the stuff. To help stop the growth of slime mold, just rake any mulch on the soil surface to expose it to air and sunlight. Its perfectly harmless - just revolting to look at ...
The plants, along with the mammals, fungi, lichens, birds, fish, crustacean, reptiles and amphibians, even the water scorpions and slime molds make up the threads in the web of life. We live in a masterpiece of life. It pays sometimes to examine how the pieces make the whole, so when we step back to view the masterpiece once again, our awe is increased and hopefully too - our commitment to preserve it.. Update:. Totals have been tallied from the Spring BioBlitz. 231 individual species were found during the weekend Blitz. 43 new species were officially added to the list, bringing the total of individual species at the Sanctuary to 616.. ...
Some colonial organisms also have bizarre life cycles. The Siphonophora-jellyfish-like colonial hydrozoans such as the Portuguese man-of-war-are so integrated that it is hard to say whether they consist of many cooperating organisms or a single organism. The various cells (the zooids) within the man-of-war are specialized: there are floatation specialists, propulsion specialists, killer cells, and sex cells. In this respect, the man-of-war seems to be a single organism. On the other hand, each cell within the colony has an independent origin in a fertilized egg. In contrast to the zooids that jointly form a man-of -war, cellular slime molds spend most of their life as independent cells. But when food runs out, they aggregate into a single body, which develops specialized parts. Some of the cells form a stem, ending in a group of cells that specialize in making spores. So these cells too seem to spend part of their life as individual organisms, and the rest as parts of an organism. ...
Books by Constantine John Alexopoulos, Introductory mycology, Einführung in die Mykologie, Introductory mycology, Laboratory manual for introductory mycology, Slime molds and research, Algae and fungi, Mycology, Introductory mycology
William Norman Bigler, American chemistry educator, biochemist. Achievements include research in biochemistry of cell division, regulatory enzymes; effects of ionizing radiation and slime molds; high pressure liquid chromatography; von Hipple-Lindau syndrome. National Institutes of Health fellow University California, Los Angeles, 1968-1970.
Didymium nigripes: mitosis in uninucleate and multinucleate plasmodia; growth, fusion, and streaming patterns of plasmodia; development of plasmodia to sporangia. Time-lapse. ...
We saw a similar case about fifteen years ago. We didnt know what it was, but searched the web and came out with the correct answer. When we found this recent case, the diagnosis was evident. Muppet is disappointed that you didnt notice the heterochromia iridis and promises not to do it again… until the next time (told you he is devious and likes to play dirty!). Teaching point: the apex of the lung is a small space. In the presence of a large apical mass it is very difficult to determine its origin (pleural, pulmonary or mediastinal). Sometimes other findings (heterochromia in this case) point to the correct diagnosis ...
We saw a similar case about fifteen years ago. We didnt know what it was, but searched the web and came out with the correct answer. When we found this recent case, the diagnosis was evident. Muppet is disappointed that you didnt notice the heterochromia iridis and promises not to do it again… until the next time (told you he is devious and likes to play dirty!). Teaching point: the apex of the lung is a small space. In the presence of a large apical mass it is very difficult to determine its origin (pleural, pulmonary or mediastinal). Sometimes other findings (heterochromia in this case) point to the correct diagnosis ...
The group Archamoebae was proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 1998 as part of the Archezoa, a newly-proposed group to include eukaryotes that had diverged before acquisition of mitochondria and other common eukaryotic cell features.[3][4] Early molecular trees based on rRNA supported this position, placing several Archamoebae genera as separate groups that diverged from other eukaryotes very early on, suggesting that the absence of mitochondria was a primitive condition.[4] However, soon thereafter genetic remnants of mitochondria were found in various Archamoebae, suggesting that these organisms had diverged after the evolution of mitochondria, but had lost their mitochondria over time, and are more closely related to various amoebae and slime molds.[1] ...
Any endogenous chemical secreted in minute amounts by an organism in order to elicit a particular reaction from another organism of the same species. Pheromones are widespread among insects and vertebrates; they are also found in crustaceans but are unknown among birds. The chemicals may be secreted by special glands or incorporated in other substances, such as urine. They may be shed freely into the environment or deposited in carefully chosen locations. Pheromones are also used by some fungi, slime molds, and algae as attractants in reproduction; organisms of complementary reproductive cell types grow or move toward each other. 2 ...