1. Hughes T. The early history of myasthenia gravis. Neuromusc Dis 2005; 15: 878 886. 2. Šmat V, Schutzner J. Historie léčby myasthenia gravis. In: Schutzner J, Šmat V et al. Myasthenia gravis - komplexní pojetí a chirurgická léčba. Praha: Galén 2005: 11-17. 3. Oosterhuis HJGH. Myasthenia gravis. Groningen: Neurological Press 1997. 4. Gooch CL. Myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. In: Rolak LA, Harati Y. Neuroimmunology for the clinician. Newton: Butterworth-Heinemann 1997: 263-299. 5. Warmolts JR, Engel WK. Benefit from alternate-day prednisone in myasthenia gravis. N Engl J Med 1972; 286: 17-19. 6. Nouza K, Šmat V. The favorable effect of cyclophosphamide in myasthenia gravis. Rev franc clin biol 1968; 13: 161-163. 7. Mertens HG, Balzereit F, Leipert M. The treatment of severe myasthenia gravis with immunosuppressive agents. Eur Neurol 1969; 2: 323-339. 8. Pinching AJ, Peters DK, Newsom-Davis J. Remission of myasthenia gravis following plasma exchange. Lancet ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic control of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in mice. II. Lymphocyte proliferative response to acetylcholine receptor is dependent on Lyt-1+ 23- cells. AU - Christadoss, P.. AU - Krco, C. J.. AU - Lennon, Vanda A. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Autoantibodies to acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are demonstrable in approximately 90% of patients with acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) and are the major pathogenic cause of the defect in neuromuscular transmission that is characteristic of MG. Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) can be induced in animals by immunization with AChR and adjuvants. Induction of EAMG and of autoantibodies to AChR is T cell dependent. Studies in congenic mice revealed that susceptibility to EAMG is linked to the major histocompatibility complex. The lymphocyte proliferative response to AChR is controlled in congenic mice by gene(s) within the 1-A subregion. In this communication we present evidence that proliferation ...
Pregnant women with Myasthenia gravis often have more weakness and fatigue because of the added weight and effort of pregnancy. Some pregnancy complications may be more likely in women with Myasthenia gravis. Preterm labor (labor before 37 weeks of pregnancy) is more likely. It is thought that anticholinesterase medications used to treat MG may cause uterine contractions. Myasthenic crisis may be more likely during the stress of labor.. Delivery of the baby may be more difficult in women with Myasthenia gravis. While labor itself is not affected by Myasthenia gravis (the uterus is a smooth muscle), the muscles needed for pushing can be affected. This may make forceps and vacuum-assisted deliveries more likely.. A medication called magnesium sulfate that is commonly used for treating high blood pressure and preterm labor should not be used in women with Myasthenia gravis. This drug blocks the nerve-muscle connections and can worsen Myasthenia gravis muscle weakness.. Between 12 and 20 percent of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. T2 - A sequential and quantitative study of the neuromuscular junction ultrastructure and electrophysiologic correlations. AU - Engel, Andrew G. AU - Tsujihata, M.. AU - Lambert, E. H.. AU - Lindstrom, J. M.. AU - Lennon, Vanda A. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - Neuromuscular junction ultrastructure in rat forelimb digit extensor muscle was sequentially and quantitatively investigated in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Experimental animals were immunized with highly purified eel electroplax acetylcholine receptor protein plus complete Freunds adjuvant and B. pertussis vaccine; control animals received only adjuvant and vaccine. During the first 7 days (latent period) after immunization end plate structure and neuromuscular transmission remained normal in the experimental group. Between day 7 and 11 (acute phase) mononuclear cells infiltrated those regions of muscle where the end plates were located and there was intense ...
Myasthenia gravis in one member each of two sets of twins is described. A 17 year old girl developed generalized myasthenia gravis at the age of 14 years, while her monozygotic twin sister has remained in good health during a three year period of observation. Another patient was a 19 year old woman with the onset of generalized myasthenia gravis at the age of 11 years, and her dizygotic twin sister has been in good health.. Myasthenia gravis has been described in 13 sets of monozygotic twins, seven sets of dizygotic twins, and one set of twins with undetermined zygosity. Both members of twins were affected in five sets of monozygotic twins and one set of twins with undetermined zygosity, and only one twin was affected in the remaining sets of twins. Occurrence of myasthenia gravis in both members of monozygotic twins and in none of dizygotic twins, and frequent familial occurrence of the disease suggest the role of a genetic factor in the pathogenesis of this disease.. ...
Familial Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis (FAMG) is rarely reported. We present a mother and son with late-onset mild to moderate ocular disease, low acetylcholine receptor antibody titre and the absence of a thymoma. Both responded well to low doses of anticholinesterase. HLA typing revealed that they did not share the usual HLA antigens or haplotypes with that previously reported in Caucasian and Chinese sporadic Myasthenia Gravis. Chinese FAMG may be associated with HLA antigens different from that of sporadic MG.. Keywords: Familial Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis, Chinese, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody profile may predict outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis. AU - Galassi, Giuliana. AU - Mazzoli, Marco. AU - Ariatti, Alessandra. AU - Kaleci, Shaniko. AU - Valzania, Franco. AU - Nichelli, Paolo F.. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - An unsolved issue remains whether there are clinical and immunological features to predict in a single patient the risk of conversion from ocular Myasthenia Gravis (OMG) to generalized disease (GMG) as 50-60% of patients may progress within 1-2 years since onset. Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies (AChR Abs) are found in up to 50% of OMG patients; muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies (MuSK-Abs) are present in about 70% of the whole seronegative (SN), who usually develop a severe disease with bulbar involvement. We surveyed a cohort of 175 OMG patients with purely ocular symptoms and we compare the outcome of patients with antibodies to AChR or to MuSK with those seronegative for both Abs (DSN). All patients had purely ocular signs ...
ICD-9 Code: 358.0.. ICD-10 Code: G70.0. Definition: Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction. It is characterized clinically by muscle weakness and immunologically by autoantibodies directed against the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. These autoantibodies are pathogenic, causing increased turnover and decreased surface expression of the acetylcholine receptor, which results in decreased muscle depolarization and weakness.. Etiology: Although most cases of myasthenia gravis are idiopathic, some patients have associated thymomas or thymic hyperplasia. Myasthenia gravis may also occur as a rare reaction to D-penicillamine therapy.. Demographics: Myasthenia gravis is rare, with a prevalence of approximately 14 per 100,000, and has a bimodal distribution. There is a slight female predominance among patients with disease onset in the second and third decades, and a male predominance among patients older than 50 years of age. There is a genetic predisposition, ...
Eleven-hundred myasthenia gravis cases observed by the author in a period of 37 years are reviewed. The ratio of familial incidence was 4.23%. Transitory (neonatal) myasthenia in new-born babies should be separated from the familial cases. In familial myasthenia gravis both maternal and paternal lin …
We reported an 81-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma, in whom myasthenia gravis and rhabdomyolysis developed after nivolumab monotherapy. The first symptom of myasthenia gravis was dyspnea. Ultrasonography detected hypokinesis of the bilateral diaphragm suggesting myasthenia gravis, although there was no abnormal finding of the lungs in computed tomography images. Acetylcholine receptor binding antibodies were low-titer positive in the preserved serum before administration of nivolumab, strongly suggesting that the myasthenia gravis was a nivolumab-related immune adverse event. Despite the remarkable clinical benefits of immune checkpoint inhibitors for patients with advanced melanoma, it is important to recognize unexpected immune-related adverse events.. ...
Myasthenia Gravis and Pregnancy What is myasthenia gravis? Click Image to Enlarge Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a complex autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy neuromuscular connections. This results in muscle weakness and fatigue. The Myasthenia Gravis Foundation estimates the incidence of MG in the United States to be about 20 out of 100,000 and occurs in women more often than men. The degree of muscle weakness depends on the severity of the disease. Weakness occurs in the muscles under voluntar...
In previous articles on myasthenia gravis3-6 I described in detail the classical picture of the disease and the results of treatment with glycine and ephedrine. In this paper I shall present some of the other features of the disease,(In previous articles on myasthenia gravis3-6 I described in detail the classical picture of the disease and the results of treatment with glycine and ephedrine. In this paper I shall present some of the other features of the disease,† and will include in the bibliography a few of the more important recent articles on the subject.) and will include in the bibliography a few of the more important recent articles on the subject.. As all are aware, the mortality of myasthenia gravis has been considered to be high. Goldstein, in Oppenheims textbook, reported, without any details, 26 deaths in 38 cases; this is a mortality of approximately 70 per cent. However, Goldstein himself saw only a few ...
Chronic experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) was induced in rats by immunization with acetylcholine receptor (AChR) purified from the electroplax of Torpedo californica. 35-40 days after...
Bethesda, Maryland-(ENEWSPF)-August 11, 2016. In a global study of myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease that causes muscle weakness and fatigue, researchers found that surgical removal of an organ called the thymus reduced patients weakness, and their need for immunosuppressive drugs. The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, was partially funded by the National Institutes of Health.. "Our results support the idea that thymectomy is a valid treatment option for a major form of myasthenia gravis," said Gil Wolfe, M.D., Professor and Irvin and Rosemary Smith Chair of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York, and a leader of the study.. The Thymectomy Trial in Non-Thymomatous Myasthenia Gravis Patients Receiving Prednisone (MGTX) was a randomized, controlled study conducted on 126 patients aged 18-65 between 2006 and 2012. The researchers compared the combination of surgery and immunosuppression with the drug prednisone ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Poly-autoimmunity in patients with myasthenia gravis. T2 - A single-center experience. AU - Evoli, Amelia. AU - Caliandro, Pietro. AU - Iorio, Raffaele. AU - Alboini, Paolo E.. AU - Damato, Valentina. AU - LaTorre, Giuseppe. AU - Provenzano, Carlo. AU - Marino, Mirella. AU - Lauriola, Libero. AU - Scuderi, Flavia. AU - Bartoccioni, Emanuela. PY - 2015/8/18. Y1 - 2015/8/18. N2 - We evaluated the co-occurrence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in a large population of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients from a single center. Our survey included 984 patients, 904 with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies and 80 with anti-muscle specific kinase antibodies. The anti-acetylcholine receptor positive population included patients with early-onset (age at onset ≤50 years), late-onset and thymoma-associated disease. Follow-up ranged 2-40 years. Two-hundred and fourteen ADs were diagnosed in 185 patients; 26 of them had two or more ADs in association with MG. Thyroid disorders were the most ...
... is a neuromuscular disorder. Neuromuscular disorders involve the muscles and the nerves that control them. Myasthenia gravis is a type of autoimmune disorders. An autoimmune disorder occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. In people with myasthemia gravis, the body produces antibodies that block the muscle cells from receiving neurotransmitters from the nerve cell. Symptoms: Myasthenia gravis causes weakness of the voluntary muscles.
... is a neuromuscular disorder. Neuromuscular disorders involve the muscles and the nerves that control them. Myasthenia gravis is a type of autoimmune disorders. An autoimmune disorder occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. In people with myasthemia gravis, the body produces antibodies that block the muscle cells from receiving neurotransmitters from the nerve cell. Symptoms: Myasthenia gravis causes weakness of the voluntary muscles.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is mediated by autoantibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), expressed in muscle and rare thymic myoid cells. Most early-onset cases show thymic lymph node-type infiltrates, including pre-activated plasma cells spontaneously producing anti-AChR antibodies. Since these are not evident in the associated thymomas found in another 10% of MG patients, AChR-specific B cells must be autosensitized elsewhere. Unexpectedly, at diagnosis, |70% of MG/thymoma patients also have high-titer neutralizing autoantibodies to IFN-alpha, and |50% to IL-12; moreover, titers increase strikingly if the thymomas recur, indicating a closer tumor relationship than for anti-AChR. To investigate this, we have measured autoantibody production by cells cultured from thymomas, any available thymic remnants and blood, with or without the B cell stimulant pokeweed mitogen (PWM). To check autoantibody specificity and clonal origins, we isolated Fabs from two combinatorial libraries from producer thymus
BUFFALO, N.Y. -- A new study in the New England Journal of Medicine addresses a question doctors have sought to clarify for decades: whether a surgery conducted since the 1940s benefits the patients it targets.. The study to be published August 11 (available online on August 10 at 5 p.m.) found that surgical removal of the thymus gland from patients with myasthenia gravis, a rare autoimmune disease that affects neuromuscular function, provides significant benefit in patients who do not have a chest tumor.. Myasthenia gravis (MG) results from an immune-mediated disruption of communication between nerve and muscle - the neuromuscular junction. Symptoms may include droopy eyelids; blurred or double vision; difficulty speaking, swallowing and breathing; and muscle weakness. Some patients develop thymoma, a benign tumor of the thymus gland. The disease affects as many as 60,000 Americans and its incidence has been increasing, in part as a result of improved diagnostic techniques and an aging ...
... is disease that causes weakness in the muscles under your control. It happens because of a problem in communication between your nerves and muscles. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease. Your bodys own immune system makes antibodies that block or change some of the nerve signals to your muscles. This makes your muscles weaker. Common symptoms are trouble with eye and eyelid movement, facial expression and swallowing. But it can also affect other muscles. The weakness gets worse with activity, and better with rest. There are medicines to help improve nerve-to-muscle messages and make muscles stronger. With treatment, the muscle weakness often gets much better. Other drugs keep your body from making so many abnormal antibodies. There are also treatments which filter abnormal antibodies from the blood or add healthy antibodies from donated blood. Sometimes surgery to take out the thymus gland helps. For some people, myasthenia gravis can go into remission and they do not ...
The telltale symptom of myasthenia gravis is noticeable muscle weakness. This weakness, in cases that are severe enough to prompt those experiencing it to seek medical advice, usually sets in too rapidly to be considered a natural part of the aging process. Those suffering from the early stages of myasthenia gravis will generally experience rapid fatigue, particularly in the arms and legs. The weakness of the legs will often lead to difficulty in walking for any length of time. As the disease progresses, facial muscles will become involved. The lack of ability to control these muscles leads to some of the most noticeable symptoms of myasthenia gravis, which include drooping eyelids and an inability to control the muscles around the mouth. Associated symptoms of the loss of facial muscle strength include a loss of control of the muscles of the throat and eyes, which cause difficulty in swallowing and an inability to focus the eyes, respectively. In a minority of cases, symptoms are limited to ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Titin and ryanodine receptor autoantibodies in dogs with thymoma and late-onset myasthenia gravis. AU - Shelton, G. Diane. AU - Skeie, Geir O.. AU - Kass, Philip H. AU - Aarli, Johan A.. PY - 2001/1/10. Y1 - 2001/1/10. N2 - Similar to human autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG), canine MG occurs spontaneously and is associated with autoantibodies against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). In addition to AChR, human MG patients with thymoma or late-onset MG have antibodies against titin and ryanodine receptor (RyR). The objective of this study was to establish if dogs with confirmed MG (AChR antibody titer ,0.6nmol/l) also developed titin and RyR antibodies and identify possible associations with thymoma, late age of onset, or severity of clinical signs. Sera from dogs (n=430) with previously diagnosed autoimmune MG (N=415), other immune-mediated neuromuscular disorders including polymyositis (PM) and masticatory muscle myositis (N=5), and control dogs (N=10) were evaluated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptic determinants and promiscuous sequences on human acetylcholine receptor. T2 - HLA-dependent dichotomy in T-cell function. AU - Raju, Raghavanpillai. AU - Marietta, Eric. AU - Vinasco, Javier. AU - Conti-Fine, Bianca M.. AU - Infante, Anthony J.. AU - David, Chella S.. PY - 2002/4/23. Y1 - 2002/4/23. N2 - Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis can be induced in some strains of mice and rats by immunizing with acetylcholine receptor. Also, epidemiologic studies demonstrate an MHC linkage of myasthenia gravis in the man. In order to obtain direct experimental evidence for the influence of the genes of the MHC complex in the development of myasthenia gravis, we used mice transgenic to individual HLA molecules. We observed an increased susceptibility to the disease in HLA DQ8 transgenic mice compared to HLA DQ6 transgenic mice (J. Immunol. 160:4169; 1998). These mice lacked endogenous mouse class II molecules. In the present study we mapped the cryptic and dominant sequences ...
Generalized fatigue in myasthenia gravis results in a sedentary lifestyle and profound physical deconditioning, leading to reduced fitness and increased risk of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. This study will characterize the activity and fitness levels and cardiovascular disease risk profile in 30 chronic, generalized myasthenic subjects. Hypotheses are that a) subjects with myasthenia gravis are physically inactive with reduced fitness level and high incidence of obesity and poor cardiovascular disease risk profile, and b) a 3 month multi-modal home exercise program that includes aerobic, resistive, and pulmonary training components will improve physical activity, strength, fitness, dyspnea, body composition and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Specific aims are to a) define the baseline physical activity and fitness levels and prevalence of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in stable sedentary myasthenic subjects, b) determine whether a 3 month moderate ...
The main symptom of myasthenia gravis is weak muscles. Muscles get weaker with activity and better with rest. Affected muscles are usually in the eyes, face, jaw, neck, arms and legs, and muscles used to breathe. People also get very tired. Pregnant women with myasthenia gravis often have more weakness and are more tired. This is because of the added weight and effort of pregnancy. Some women who get very weak and tired may have a myasthenic crisis. Their breathing muscles cant work properly, and they have respiratory failure. The main symptom of myasthenic crisis is more problems with breathing. You may be more likely to have a myasthenic crisis when you are in labor ...
Myasthenia Gravis - Get information and read articles on Myasthenia Gravis signs, symptoms, causes, treatment, prevention and diagnosis at onlymyhealth.com, your complete health guide.
The increasing demand on diagnostic assays that are sensitive and specific for pathogenic antibodies, and the interest in identifying new antigens, prompted the development of cell-based assays for the detection of autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune disorders. Cell-based assays were initially used to show that clustering the AChR improved the positivity in myasthenia gravis, and similar assays have now been applied to detection of antibodies to neuromuscular junction candidate proteins such as LRP4 and agrin. In addition cell-based assays have been used in the routine detection of antibodies to proteins expressed on the surface of neurons (NMDAR, LGI1, CASPR2, AMPAR, GABA-A/B, GlyR, and DPPX) and glia (AQP4, MOG). Here, we summarize the findings in myasthenia and discuss the advantages, disadvantages and controversial issues of using cell-based assays in the detection of these antibodies, and their relevance to the testing of preclinical models of disease.
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Description : Myasthenia Gravis - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview of the Myasthenia Gravis (Immunology) pipeline landscape. Myasthenia gravi
Ocular myasthenia: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on ocular myasthenia at PatientsLikeMe. 47 patients with ocular myasthenia experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Azathioprine, Cyclosporine, Methotrexate, Prednisone, and Pyridostigmine to treat their ocular myasthenia and its symptoms.
The purpose of this trial is to determine if thymectomy combined with prednisone therapy is more beneficial in treating non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis than prednisone therapy alone.
Twenty patients with myasthenia gravis had chest radiography, conventional tomography, and computed tomography (CT) of the thorax within 1 month of thymectomy. Four of the six macroscopic tumors were detected on routine chest radiography; conventional tomography provided no additional information. CT detected all six macroscopic tumors and provided additional information that was not available by other procedures. However, 18 patients (90%) had anterior mediastinum densities on CT, which could not be distinguished preoperatively from thymic tumors. All six patients with macroscopic tumors had serum antistriational muscle antibody titers; this test was negative in 10 of 11 patients (91%) without thymoma. Chest radiography, CT of the thorax, and antistriational antibodies are the tests recommended for detection of a thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis.. ...
... , Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction, the contact point between nerves and muscles. For some unknown reason, the bodys immune system, which normally helps fight infections, attacks the acetylcholine receptors found on muscles.
Most individuals with myasthenia gravis (MG) have no family history of MG and the disorder appears to occur spontaneously (sporadically) for unknown reasons. However, 3-5 percent of patients may have family members with MG or other autoimmune disorders. Individuals with MG have an increased frequency of certain genetically determined "human leukocyte antigens" (HLAs), suggesting that genetic predisposition may play some role. (HLAs are proteins that play an important role in the bodys immune system; they influence the outcome of transplantation and appear to affect an individuals predisposition to certain diseases.) Other autoimmune diseases also appear to occur with increased frequency in individuals with MG, including thyroid disorders and systemic lupus erythematosus. These observations suggest that there is some genetic predisposition to MG which requires a trigger from the environment to cause the disease.. Myasthenia gravis is caused by an abnormal immune reaction (antibody-mediated ...
Study characteristics We only included evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the review. In RCTs, participants are assigned to groups by chance. This makes it more likely that any changes seen can be attributed to the treatments under study rather than to other possible causes.. We found only one RCT for the treatment of myasthenia gravis. The participants received either the study drug or placebo for the first period of the trial. They then received the other treatment for the second period of the trial. For example, if a person had study drug in the first period they received placebo for the second period. If they had placebo for the first period, they received study drug for the second period. This type of study is called a cross-over trial.. The trial included 10 people with myasthenia gravis. In three people the condition affected only their eyes. In seven people it affected the body more widely. The trial compared neostigmine (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) given via ...
Myasthenia gravis is a fairly rare autoimmune disease. Find out about the different causes, symptoms and treatment for Myasthenia Gravis. These symptoms are caused by transmission defectsin nerve impulses to muscles.
The Mission of the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America is to facilitate the timely diagnosis and optimal care of individuals affected by myasthenia gravis and closely related disorders and to improve their lives through programs of patient services, public information, medical research, professional education, advocacy and patient care.
This is the first article in a series that will provide information about Myasthenia Gravis. My target audience is patients, nurses and allied health providers. Anyone with an interest in learning more about the topic may find this helpful. I am a retired nurse and psychotherapist. I am a patient with the diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis.…
The purpose of the current study is to assess safety/tolerability and key pharmacodynamic (PD) effects that are considered to be associated with clinical benefit (reduction of total IgG and anti-AChR-IgG) in Myasthenia Gravis patients following treatment with RVT-1401 (also known as IMVT-1401) compared to placebo ...
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder manifested by muscle weakness caused by the loss or dysfunction of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) of skeletal muscle. Autoantibodies (binding, blocking, and/or modulating) to postsynaptic AChRs are detectable in the serum of 90% of patients with generalized MG and in 55% to 70% of patients with ocular myasthenia. These autoantibodies interfere with normal neuromuscular function, causing muscle weakness and fatigue. Receptor antibody levels tend to rise several weeks before symptoms increase in patients with established MG. Remission after thymectomy is associated with a progressive decline in antibody levels. Consequently, measurements of AChR antibodies can be used in monitoring disease progression as well as the effects of treatment. Modulating antibodies are responsible for the degradation of AChR at the muscle cell surface. Modulating antibodies bind to two receptor molecules on the cell surface and accelerate internalization, triggering ...
Abs to AChR sufficient to cause myasthenia gravis, both clinically and experimentally as done in this report, require expansion of a B cell population capable of autoantibody production. Expansion of these B cells in turn requires MHC class II display of AChR peptides to initiate TCR signaling and cytokine elaboration, which synergizes with B cell receptor signals to promote B cell proliferation, Ig affinity maturation, and depending on the nature of the cytokine being elaborated by T cells, Ig isotype switching. There is no structural relationship between recognition motifs of the B cell receptor and the TCR, their immunodominant epitopes on AChR being mapped to different regions (8, 9, 10, 14). The data reported in this study indicate many key elements of the autoimmune response are defective in Cat S deficient mice; despite repeated immunization of Cat S null mice with AChR protein, there was little B cell expansion and markedly reduced levels of the key Ig isotype in EAMG, IgG2b (Figs. 3⇑ ...
This page contains the article Chiropractic Care of a Pediatric Patient with Myasthenia Gravis http://www.chiro.org/cases/ABSTRACTS/Patient_with_Myasthenia_Gravis.shtml
Ocular and childhood myasthenia gravis (MG) cases appear relatively more common in Oriental than in Caucasian populations, but there have been no comprehensive serological studies on patients from mainland China. We studied 391 unselected cases of MG attending Tongji Hospital in WuHan (the largest in the province of HuBei) during a one year period. The male to female ratio was 0.8. 50% of the patients were children (under 15 years), and age at onset showed a single peak at between 5 and 10 years of age. 64% of the children and 66% of the adults were positive for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies but the antibody titres were lower than in similar Caucasian studies, although this was partly due to the high incidence of ocular MG. Of the 43 patients with generalized MG without AChR antibodies, only one had MuSK antibodies (2.5%) and two had VGCC antibodies indicating probable Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome. 94/126 (75%) of the children had pure ocular MG whereas only 24/85 (28%) of the ...
Details the disease through links as well as ocular myasthenia gravis and other auto immune diseases. Maintains a mailing list for patients around the world. ...
Dr. Tahseen Mozaffar discusses the symptoms of generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG), diagnostic challenges, prognosis, and new therapeutic options for managing gMG. Learn more at www.myasthenia.org
BACKGROUND: The principal symptoms of myasthenia gravis (MG), muscle weakness and fatigue due to impaired neuromuscular transmission, are caused by autoantibodies to the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The mechanisms underlying the autoimmune response, however, appear to be initiated by activation of specific HLA class II-restricted CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus, central to elucidating the causation of MG is determining how T cells are recruited to contribute to misguided immunological assaults on the major autoantigenic target, AChR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By combining a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategy and Southern blot technique, we have analyzed the frequency of expression of 22 individual T cell receptor (TCR) V beta gene subfamilies in CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral blood T cell subsets derived from eight MG patients and seven healthy controls. The quantification of relative usage of individual TCR J beta gene segments was performed by hybridization of PCR-amplified ...
VATS thymectomy for early stage thymoma and myasthenia gravis: combined right-sided uniportal and left-sided three-portal approach
2015 Elsevier Inc. Myasthenia gravis (MG), the most common autoimmune disease of neuromuscular junction (NMJ), is heterogeneous in terms of pathophysiology, which is determined by the pathogenic antigen of autoantibodies targeting to synaptic proteins at the NMJs. Currently, patients suspected with MG are routinely screened for the presence of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) using a cell-based assay (CBA) that involves the expression of target synaptic membrane protein in heterologous cell lines. However, some autoantibodies may only show reactivity for binding to densely clustered AChR in the physiological conformation, while AChR clustering is known to involve signaling events orchestrated by over a dozen of postsynaptic proteins. To improve the existing serological diagnosis of MG, this study explored the possibility of using the well-established Xenopus primary culture system as a novel CBA for MG. Here, by examining the pathogenic ...
Myasthenia gravis (MG), the most common autoimmune disease of neuromuscular junction (NMJ), is heterogeneous in terms of pathophysiology, which is determined by the pathogenic antigen of autoantibodies targeting to synaptic proteins at the NMJs. Currently, patients suspected with MG are routinely screened for the presence of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) using a cell-based assay (CBA) that involves the expression of target synaptic membrane protein in heterologous cell lines. However, some autoantibodies may only show reactivity for binding to densely clustered AChR in the physiological conformation, while AChR clustering is known to involve signaling events orchestrated by over a dozen of postsynaptic proteins. To improve the existing serological diagnosis of MG, this study explored the possibility of using the well-established Xenopus primary culture system as a novel CBA for MG. Here, by examining the pathogenic effects of four MG human ...