This test measures structural chromosomal aberrations (both chromosome- and chromatid-type) in dividing spermatogonial germ cells and is, therefore, expected to be predictive of induction of heritable mutations in these germ cells. The purpose of the in vivo mammalian spermatogonial chromosomal aberration test is to identify those chemicals that cause structural chromosomal aberrations in mammalian spermatogonial cells (1) (2) (3). In addition, this test is relevant to assessing genetoxicity because, although they may vary among species, factors of in vivo metabolism, pharmacokinetics and DNA-repair processes are active and contribute to the response. The original Test Guideline 483 was adopted in 1997. This modified version of the Test Guideline reflects many years of experience with this assay and the potential for integrating or combining this test with other toxicity or genotoxicity studies.
311 chemicals were tested under code, for mutagenicity, in Salmonella typhimurium; 35 of the chemicals were tested more than once in the same or different laboratories. The tests were conducted using a preincubation protocol in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation, and in the presence of liver S-9 from Aroclor-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters. Some of the volatile chemicals were also tested in desiccators. A total of 120 chemicals were mutagenic or weakly mutagenic, 3 were judged questionable, and 172 were non-mutagenic. The remaining 16 chemicals produced different responses in the two or three laboratories in which they were tested. The results and data from these tests are presented.
A urine mutagenicity test for assaying airborne exposure was examined. Airborne particles were collected on glass fiber filters with a high volume sampler 10 meters (m) above the ground. Diesel emission particles were obtained from the exhaust pipe of a diesel truck; coal (8002059) dust was taken from a bituminous coal mine. Urine samples collected from nonsmokers were pooled and divided into seve
Nowadays, there are increasing numbers of studies about synthetic chemicals according to the supply demands of bioactive chemicals. The current study aims to investigate genotoxic potential of bioactive synthetic pyridine compounds, phenyl-3-pyridinylmethanone (1), p-tolyl-3-pyridinylmethanone (2), and 4-methoxyphenyl-3-pyridinylmethanone (3), using Ames/Salmonella and Escherichia coli WP2 bacterial reversion mutagenicity test systems. The mutant bacterial tester strains sodium azide-sensitive Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, 9-aminoacridine-sensitive S. typhimurium TA1537, and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-sensitive E. coli WP2uvrA were used to detect the mutagenic potential of the test compounds. The results indicated that none of the test substances showed significant mutagenic activity on S. typhimurium TA1535, TA1537, and E. coli WP2uvrA bacterial strains up to 1 mu g/plate concentrations ...
BioAssay record AID 399992 submitted by ChEMBL: Mutagenic activity in Salmonella TA 98 by microsome assay in presence of rat liver S9 fraction.
Large-scale initiatives, such as ToxCast, promote a shift in the paradigm for regulatory evaluations of new and existing substances; specifically, away from time-consuming in vivo assays towards predictive, short-term in vitro assays. Unfortunately, the assays included in such initiatives are ill-equipped to assess chemically-induced genetic damage and mutation. Moreover, many currently used mammalian cell genotoxicity assays generate an unacceptably high frequency of false or irrelevant positive results with respect to in vivo mutagenicity and/or carcinogenicity. A novel in vitro gene mutation assay utilizing primary hepatocytes from the transgenic Muta™Mouse was been developed to address the shortfalls of existing in vitro mutagenicity assays. In order to assess the utility of the Muta™Mouse primary hepatocyte assay, the cells were extensively characterized. Freshly isolated cells were found to have a hepatocyte-like morphology, with a large proportion of binucleated cells. After 24 hours ...
Many studies have shown the presence of numerous organic genotoxins and carcinogens in drinking water. These toxic substances derive not only from pollution, but also from the disinfection treatments, particularly when water is obtained from surface sources and then chlorinated. Most of the chlorinated compounds in drinking water are nonvolatile and are difficult to characterize. Thus, it has been proposed to study such complex mixtures using short-term genotoxicity tests predictive of carcinogenic activity. Mutagenicity of water before and after disinfection has mainly been studied by the Salmonella/microsome (Ames test); in vitro genotoxicity tests have also been performed in yeasts and mammalian cells; in situ monitoring of genotoxins has also been performed using complete organisms such as aquatic animals or plants (in vivo). The combination of bioassay data together with results of chemical analyses would give us a more firm basis for the assessment of human health risks related to the ...
Target CAS no. 68391-31-1 - Basic yellow 57 : Summary Genetic toxicity in vitro In a weight of evidence study (Prediction report - Sustainability Support Services (Europe) AB, 2016): 1) The mutagenicity of Basic yellow 57 is estimated using QSAR toolbox 3.3.The substance Basic yellow 57 is estimated to be non-mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA 1535 in the presence of Rat liver S9 metabolic activation in a bacterial reverse mutation assay. 2) The mutagenicity of Basic yellow 57 is estimated using QSAR toolbox 3.3.The substance Basic yellow 57 is estimated to be non-mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA 1538 in the absence of Rat liver S9 metabolic activation in a bacterial reverse mutation assay. In a weight of evidence study (SCCS report, 2009): · Bacterial gene mutation assay was performedby the plate incorporation and pre-incubation method usingSalmonella typhimuriumstrainTA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535 and TA1537.DMSO solution was used as a vehicle. Test chemical conc. used were 3.16, 10, 31.6, 100, 316 and ...
The mutagenic potential of SEX and TAX was assessed by using the Ames Salmonella/Mammalian Microsome Mutagenicity Assay. Tester strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537, and TA 1538 were exposed to doses ranging from 1 mg/plate to 10-5 mg/plate. Negative mutagenic responses were observed for both test compounds.*Explosives
U. Maran, M. R. Katritzky. A comprehensive qsar treatment of the genotoxicity of heteroaromatic amines. Quant Struct-Act Relat, 18:3-10, 1999. 38. U. Maran and S. Sild. Qsar modeling of genotoxicity on non-congeneric sets of organic compounds. Artif Intell Rev, 20:13-38, 2003. ˇ 39. P. Mazzatorta, M. Vracko, and E. Benfenati. Anvas: Artificial neural variables adaptation system for descriptor selection. J Comput Aid Mol Des, 17:335-346, 2003. 40. J. N. Ames. The salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test: Predictive value of animal carcinogenicity. Karplus and coworkers [50] have tested different methods (forward selection with ML regression, genetic function approximation, GA-ANN, SA-ANN) to build QSAR models on progesterone QSAR Modeling of Mutagenicity 25 receptor binding steroids. They concluded that non-linear models outperformed linear models, while the best results were obtained with the GA-ANN method. Jurs et al. have used GAs and SAs to build ANN models for auto ignition temperatures ...
In a reverse gene mutation assay in bacteria, performed according to Guideline OECD 471 and in compliance with GLP, histidine-dependent auxotrophic mutants of Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100, and a tryptophan-dependent mutant ofEscherichia coli, strain WP2uvrA (pKM101), were exposed to the test item diluted in DMSO at the concentrations below. First Test (Plate incorporation method): 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate in TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100, and WP2 uvrA (pKM101), with and without S9-mix Second Test (Pre-incubation method): 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate in TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100, and WP2 uvrA (pKM101), with and without S9-mix Additional Second Test (Pre-incubation method): 0.15, 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, 50 and 150 μg/plate in TA 98, TA 100 and TA 1535 strains, without S9-mix 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, 50, 150 and 500 μg/plate in TA 1537 and WP2 uvrA (pKM101) strains, without S9-mix 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, 50, 150 and 500 μg/plate in TA 100 ...
1 Vial Semisolid TA100 1 Vial Semisolid TA98 1 Vial Semisolid TA1535 1 Vial Semisolid TA1537 1 Vial Ampicillin Growth Media, Exposure Media and Indicator Media Aroclor 1254 Induced Lyophilized Rat Liver S9 Positive Controls: 2-NF, 2-AA, 9-AA, 4-NQO, N4-ACT. All media and strains provided are sufficient to analyze at least 1 compound, triplicates, 6 concentrations, negative and positive controls, +/- S9. The Ames MPF 98/100/1535/1537 assay comprises the histidine auxotrophic Salmonella tester strains and TA98 and TA1537 for detecting frameshift mutations, as well as TA100 and TA1535 which are reverted by base-pair substitutions and all media required to perform the assay. These kits are shipped at ambient temperature. Strains must be stored at -70°C upon arrival.
Gene mutation Assays (Tests n° 1-3): Two Bacterial Reverse mutation Assays (Ames test) were performed according to OECD 471 test guidelines with the substance (See Table 1). Test n°1 was selected as key study as in test n°2, 2-Aminoanthracene was used as sole indicator of the efficacy of the S9-mix which did not provide a positive control of mutagenicity due to microsomal activation. No significant increases in the frequency of revertant colonies were recorded for any of the bacterial strains in both tests, with any dose of the test material, either with or without metabolic activation. Both tests indicate that the substance does not induce gene mutations in bacteria whereas all positive control chemicals (with and without metabolic activation) induced significant increase of colonies.The substance is therefore considered as non-mutagenic according to the Ames test. Inability to produce gene mutation was confirmed in mammals using anin vitroreverse mutation assay in mouse lymphoma TK L5178Y ...
10 Vials Semisolid TA100 10 Vials Semisolid TA98 10 Vials Semisolid TA1535 10 Vials Semisolid TA1537 10 Vials Ampicillin Growth Media, Exposure Media and Indicator Media. All media and strains provided are sufficient to analyze at least 10 compounds, triplicates, 6 concentrations, negative and positive controls, +/- S9. The Ames MPF 98/100/1535/1537 assay comprises the histidine auxotrophic Salmonella tester strains and TA98 and TA1537 for detecting frameshift mutations, as well as TA100 and TA1535 which are reverted by base-pair substitutions and all media required to perform the assay. These kits are shipped at ambient temperature. Strains must be stored at -70°C upon arrival.
Allard P, Kleinstreuer NC, Knudsen TB, Colaiacovo MP. 2013. A C. elegans screening platform for the rapid assessment of chemical disruption of germline function. Environ Health Perspect 121:717-724. Leland S, Nagarajan P, Polyzos A, Thomas S, Samaan G, Donnell R, Marchetti F, Venkatachalam S. 2009. Heterozygosity for a Bub1 mutation causes female-specific germ cell aneuploidy in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:12776-12781. Mailhes JB, Yuan ZP. 1987a. Cytogenetic technique for mouse metaphase II oocytes. Gamete Res 18:77-83. OECD (1997), Test No. 473: In vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264071261-en OECD (1997), Test No. 474: Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264071285-en OECD (2014), Test No. 475: Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosomal Aberration Test, ...
margolin: Margolin et al. (1981) present data from an Ames Salmonella assay, where y is the number of revertant colonies observed on a plate given a dose y of quinoline. The data were subsequently analysed by Breslow (1984), Lawless (1987) and Saha and Paul (2005).
The test substance was tested in an Ames test at concentrations up to the precipitation level (5000 ug/plate). In a plate incorporation and a pre-incubation assay (both performed in triplicate), the test substance did not induce mutations (base-pair substitution and frame-shift type) in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, as well as in E. coli WP2 uvr A both in presence and absence of metabolic activation (Harlan 2013j). The analogue is considered to be non mutagenic in the mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase locus using the cell line L5178Y (BSL2010e) and no chromosomal changes were observed in a chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) (BSL 2010d). Both tests were performed in presence and absence of metabolic activation. Based on the similar outcome in the Ames test and the similarities between the test substance and the analogue, it is concluded that it is not expected that the test substance will induce mutagenic or clastogenic effects. No ...
Aurigon is a research institute dedicated to preclinical services for human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, food and chemicals. It provides a full range of advisory and experimental services in pharmacology, bio-/analytics and toxicology.
Citation: Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., and Mortelman, K. Salmonella Mutagenicity Tests V. Results from the Testing of 311 Chemicals Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 19 (Suppl 21) (1992) 2- ...
Citation: Zeiger, E., Anderson, B., Haworth, S., Lawlor, T., and Mortelman, K. Salmonella Mutagenicity Tests V. Results from the Testing of 311 Chemicals Environ. Molec. Mutagen. Vol. 19 (Suppl 21) (1992) 2- ...
Zhou H., Josephy P.D., Kim D., Guengerich F.P.. Human cytochrome P450 1A2 catalyzes important reactions in xenobiotic metabolism, including the N-hydroxylation of carcinogenic aromatic amines. In 2001, Chevalier et al. reported four new P450 1A2 sequence variants in the human population. We have now expressed these variants in Escherichia coli and measured protein expression (optical spectroscopy of holoenzyme and immunoblotting) and bioactivation of IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) and MeIQ (2-amino-2,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) in the lacZ reversion mutagenicity test. Enzyme kinetic analyses were performed for N-hydroxylation of five heterocyclic amine substrates and for O-deethylation of phenacetin. The most drastic effect was that of the R431W substitution: no holoenzyme was detectable. This residue is located in the meander peptide region and earlier site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that it is critical for maintenance of protein tertiary structure. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutagenic activity of surface waters adjacent to a nuclear fuel processing facility. AU - Pancorbo, O. C.. AU - Lein, Pamela J. AU - Blevins, R. D.. PY - 1987/9. Y1 - 1987/9. N2 - Surface waters adjacent to a nuclear fuel processing facility were extracted, using XAD-resin adsorption followed by solvent elution, and the extracts were assayed for mutagenic potential by the Ames Salmonella-mammalian microsome test. Dose-related mutagenic responses with TA102 (+ S9) were produced with the extracts of water samples obtained from a creek receiving waste-water from the processing facility (specific mutagenic activities of 7,250 to 8,250 net revertants per L equivalent of water). The creek water extracts were not mutagenic with TA102 in the absence of S9, or with any other tester strain (i.e., TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA1535) in the presence or absence of S9. Surface water samples downstream and upstream of this creek were not mutagenic; apparently indicating the lack of persistence of ...
Gentronixs Regulatory Genotoxicity Studies offer GLP OECD Regulatory Assays for the assessment of Chemical Safety across Global Industries
7;8-Dihydro-7;8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9;10-oxide/chemistry/metabolism/toxicity, Alkylating Agents/chemistry/metabolism/toxicity, Animals, Biological Assay, CHO Cells, Carcinogens/chemistry/metabolism/*toxicity, Cell Line, Cricetinae, DNA Adducts, DNA Repair, Environmental Pollutants/metabolism/*toxicity, Ethyl Methanesulfonate/chemistry/metabolism/toxicity, Humans, Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism/toxicity, Male, Mitomycin/chemistry/metabolism/toxicity, Molecular Structure, Mutagenicity Tests, Mutagens/chemistry/metabolism/*toxicity, Oxidants/metabolism/toxicity ...
A cell culturelinks test for assessing a drug candidates genetic toxicity has been developed. It may be cheaper than existing animal tests and would allow genetic toxicity tests to be examined far earlier in the drug development process.. Like the current FDA-approved test, the new test looks for DNA damage in red blood cells formed in the bone marrow of mice. The precursors to red blood cells are handy for this because such cells normally lose their nucleus during the last stage of red cell formation, and DNA-damaged precursors generate red blood cells containing an easily detected micronucleus consisting of fragments of nuclear DNA.. Unlike the current procedure, which injects the compound into a live mouse, the new assay is a cell-culture system that could allow hundreds or thousands of tests to be performed from the bone marrow of a single mouse, and potentially from human bone marrow.. ...
Biotoxicity, toxicity, ames test, ames testing, genotoxicity test, genotoxicity testing, ta100, ta98, Ames Express, sos chromotest, umu-c assay
Data available for the test chemicals were reviewed to determine the toxic nature of the test chemical. The studies are as mentioned below: 1)Test chemical was evaluated for its mutagenic potential in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 1535, TA 100, TA 1537, TA 98 by Ames test. The test chemical, which is known to be positive in the Ames test, was investigated in parallel as a positive control substance (chemical class control) using the strain TA 100. The test result was considered to be negative in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.Genetic toxicity study was assessed for its possible mutagenic potential. For this purpose AMES test was performed according to guideline OECD 471. The test material was exposed at different concentration in 4 individual experiments. These concentrations are mentioned below : 1st Experiment Strains: TA 1535. TA 100. TA 1537, TA 98 Doses: 0, 20, 100, 500. 2500 and 5000 µg/plate 2nd Experiment Strains: TA 100, TA 98 Doses: 0, 20. 100, 500 and 1000 ...
Gentronix is pleased to announce the introduction of its new early genotoxicity screening assay BlueScreen HC. BlueScreen HC is a human cell-based reporter assay that monitors expression of the GADD45a gene, a P53 target that is up-regulated in response to all types of genotoxic stress. To coincide with the expansion of cell-based screening services, Gentronix has also announced the introduction of its in vitro Comet assay service.
Session Chairs: Mark W. Powley, US Food and Drug Administration, CDER, Silver Spring, MD; and Leon F. Stankowski Jr., Charles River, Skokie, IL. Genetic toxicology is a critical component of the drug safety assessment process. The overall goal of genetic toxicology testing is to identify test articles capable of damaging DNA as these compounds may also possess carcinogenic properties. Per ICH S2(R1), regulatory testing utilizes a battery approach focusing on gene mutations, structural chromosomal damage (clastogenicity), and numerical chromosomal damage (aneugenicity). Positive results from any of the initial studies may result in additional testing to further define genotoxic risk. Ultimately, genetic toxicology data is integrated into the risk:benefit analysis and may significantly impact regulatory decisions.. This course will provide attendees with a working knowledge of regulatory genetic toxicology. Topics will include reviews of regulatory studies, ICH guidelines (e.g., M3, M7, and S2), ...
Im not sure what is meant by snippet (see Dr. Curls posting below). What I posted to the list was a press release from the Lymphoma Foundation in its entirety. Here again is the posting I made in full provided at bottom of this message. Also, the email did not mentioned mutagenicity. I said if a chemical causes cancer in animals, it is a good bet that humans are also at risk. This has nothing to do with the Ames assay which assesses some types of mutagenicity. I did not say that if a chemical causes a positive response in the Ames assay, it is a risk for people. Thats another issue. Conflating ames - type mutagenicity with cancer induction fails to address the issue at hand. ...
Pictures of Ames Tests for (A) Spontaneous Revertants and exposure to (B) Furylfuramide, (C) Alfatoxin B1, and (D) 2-Aminofluorene. The mutagenic compounds in B, C, and D were applied to the 6 mm filter disk in the center of each plate. Each Petri plate contains cells of the tester strain in a thin overlay of top agar. (The strain used here is TA98, derived by adding a resistance transfer factor to a Salmonella tester strain, mutant hisD3052, that scores frameshift mutations.) Plates C and D contain, additionally, a liver microsomal activation system isolated from rats. The spontaneous or compound-induced revertants, each of which reflects a mutational event, appear in a ring as spots around the paper disk. From Bruce N. Ames, Joyce McCann, and Edith Yamasaki, Methods for Detecting Carcinogens and Mutagens with the Salmonella/Mammalian-Microsomal Mutagenicity Test, Mutation Research 31 (1975): 358.. ...
Key studies were available for in vitro studies including bacterial reverse mutation, mammalian forward mutation and unscheduled DNA synthesis, as well for in vivo micronucleus testing. A key study for bacterial mutagenicity was performed with hydrogenated terphenyl in an Ames reverse mutation test with 4 Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100) at test concentration of 0.01, 0.04, 0.2, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 μL/plate with and without metabolic activation (Kulik & Ross, 1978). A toxic screen was run with the test compound at concentrations of 100.0, 30.0, 10.0, 1.0, 0.3 and 0.1 μL per plate using Salmonella tester strain TA100. In the absence and the presence of metabolic activation, a maximum concentration of 100 μL per plate was tolerated by the bacteria without toxic effects. All strains were tested to be negative for mutagenicity. The study was conducted according to OECD 471 guidelines, and was considered to be reliable, adequate and relevant. A key study for the cell ...
Chromosome mutations are the cause of many genetic diseases in humans. Cancer is associated with alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The mammalian in vivo chromosome aberration test is used for the detection of structural chromosome aberrations induced by test compounds in bone marrow cells of animals. Rats, mice and Chinese hamsters are commonly used.  The two types of structural chromosome aberrations are chromosome or chromatid. There are several criteria for determining a positive result, such as a dose-related increase in the relative number of cells with chromosome aberrations. Animals are exposed to the test compound and are treated with a metaphase-arresting agent (e.g., colchicine or Colcemid®) prior to euthanasia at appropriate times after treatment.  Bone marrow cells are harvested and stained, and metaphase cells are analyzed for chromosome aberrations. Each treated and control group must include at least 5 analyzable animals per sex. The limit dose for treatment
Looking for online definition of Ames assay in the Medical Dictionary? Ames assay explanation free. What is Ames assay? Meaning of Ames assay medical term. What does Ames assay mean?
An attempt was made to isolate the active component of Eriobotrya japonica, which inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity in the Salmonella assay system. The number of revertants per plate was significantly decreased when a MeOH extract of Eriobot
BioAssay record AID 200885 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for the mutagenicity activity in the Salmonella Typhimurium reverse mutation assay; +++-indicates the levels of mutagenicity as the number of revertant colonies obtained increases 10 times.
Abernethy DJ, Frazelle JH, Boreiko CJ [1982]. Effects of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid in the C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 cell transformation system [Abstract Bf-1]. Environ Mutagen 4:331.. ACGIH [1986]. Industrial ventilation: a manual of recommended practice. 19th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.. American Cancer Society [1980]. Guidelines for the cancer-related check-up: recommendations and rationale. Cancer 30:4-50.. Ames BN, McCann J, Yamasaki E [1975]. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella /mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test. Mutat Res 31:347-363.. ANSI [1988]. American national standard fundamental governing the design and operation of local exhaust systems. New York, NY: American National Standards Institute, ANSI Z129.1-1988.. Asmussen E, Hald J, Larsen V [1948]. The pharmacological action of acetaldehyde on the human organism. Acta Pharmacol 4:311-320.. Auerbach C, Moutschen-Dahmen M Moutschen J [1977]. Genetic ...
The chromosome aberration test is designed to evaluate the potential of a test compound to induce structural chromosomal abnormalities such as breaks and exchanges.
Cancer persists as a worldwide disease and remains among the most common causes of death in the human population. Validated, dependable techniques that predict carcinogenic chemicals and provide information on human risk also remain elusive. A wide range of research methods have been explored, each aimed at predicting the carcinogenic potential of an untested chemical. For example, automated computer systems predict carcinogenicity based on mathematical models created by statistical analysis to correlate relationships between chemical structure similarities to a defined biological activity (Cunningham et al., 1998; Richard, 1998). In vitro methods such as the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and the micronucleus test are used to evaluate the ability of a compound to interact with DNA. Other mammalian cell-based assays have been implemented for nongenotoxic carcinogenicity predictions (Aardema et al., 1996; Foster, 1997). In vivo assays that reduce the term of the traditional 2-year bioassay, ...
Water quality - Determination of the genotoxicity of water and waste water - Salmonella/microsome fluctuation test (Ames fluctuation test)
1,3-Butadiene-Induced Adenine DNA Adducts Are Genotoxic but Only Weakly Mutagenic When Replicated in Escherichia coli of Various Repair and Replication Backgrounds ...
Pharmacists cannot dispense the item as a pharmaceutical benefit unless it has been approved by Medicare Australia indicated by the presence of the approval number. Do not give Epiduo gel to other people, even if they have the same symptoms you have. Companies could still be very successful without pulling bizarre tricks like this one with epiduo this is hardly the worst case. Epiduo gel contains the following inactive ingredients: Bacterial mutagenicity assays Ames test with benzoyl peroxide has provided mixed results, mutagenic potential was observed in a few but not in a majority of investigations. In Study 1, subjects were randomized to Epiduo gel, adapalene 0. Posted January 8, edited. These are most likely to occur during the first four weeks of treatment, are mostly mild to moderate in intensity, and usually lessen with continued use of the medication. Well-formulated products from honest suppliers are too hard to come by these days. Posted January 5, edited. Ask for generic Differin. ...
We have previously suggested that differences in cancer incidence between Polynesians (including Maoris and people from several Pacific islands) and Europeans in New Zealand may at least partially relate to differences in the species of food plants (fruits, vegetables and cereals) preferentially eat …
Acetone is a common alternative solvent used in the Ames test when test chemicals are unstable or poorly soluble in water or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Yet, there is a very limited number of studies evaluating acetone as a solvent in the modified Ames test with preincubation (preincubation test). We evaluated the acetone as a solvent for the preincubation test. Fourteen mutagens dissolved in acetone was added each to the reaction mixture at 2 different volumes (25 or 50 μL) to examine mutagenicity using bacterial test strains recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 471, and compared with DMSO (100 μL). Cytotoxicity of acetone was also examined in these bacterial strains. TA1537 was most sensitive to the cytotoxicity of acetone, the degree of which was moderate and similar to DMSO in TA1537 without S9 mix. In other strains, cytotoxicity was limited to a mild degree with or without S9 mix. Cytotoxicity of acetone did not affect detection of
Discussion The results of this study indicate that chapéu-decouro (E. macrophyllus) extract is genotoxic and mutagenic to E. coli. The extract induced A prophage in the E. coli strain WP2s(A) and induced the expression of β-galactosidase in E. coli strain PQ37. The treatment of S. typhimurium strains CC103 and CC104 with chapéu-decouro extract indicated that GC sites may be the targets for mutagenic compounds since these strains are sensitive to base substitution at purine sites. ROS are deleterious to many organisms and have been implicated in aging and in degenerative diseases such as cancer (Harman, 1956; Valko et al., 2007). The consecutive univalent reduction of molecular oxygen to water produces three active intermediates: superoxide anion (O2.-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (OH.). These oxygen species are potent oxidants of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, and may be related to the genotoxicity of several substances present in human foods (Ames and Gold, 1991). ...
Primary human hepatocyte cell line validated for genotoxicity micronucleus assays. Division-competent human hepatocytes that are easy to plate.
Carbon, Ability, Allium, Allium Cepa, Carbon Nanotubes, Concentrations, DNA, DNA Damage, Drosophila, Drosophila Melanogaster, Environment, Genotype, Health, Human, Mutagenicity Test, Mutation, Nanotubes, Recombination, Safety, Survival
The genotoxic potential of acrylamide monomer (AA), a compound familiar as a raw material of polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel, was extensively investigated in vitro. The results were clear cut: AA did not induce any gene mutations in Salmonella/microsome test systems (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537), Escherichia coli/microsome assay (WP2 uvrA-) up to a dose of 50 mg AA/plate, or in HPRT-locus in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells (AA, 1-7 mM, 24 h treatment). On the other hand, AA showed a strong positive response: (a) in a Bacillus subtilis spore-rec assay (DNA damage) at 10-50 mg/disc, (b) to a chromosomal structural change test (AA, 2-5 mM, 24 h treatment), (c) to a polyploidy test (AA, 1-5 mM, 24 h treatment) in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells, (d) to a cell transformation assay in mouse BALB/c3T3 cells (AA, 1-2 mM, 72 h treatment). Sister chromatid exchange was also weakly but significantly induced by AA (AA, 1-2.5 mM, 24 h treatment) in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells. Carcinogenic potential of AA was ...
A total of 27 dyes and related chemicals were tested for mutagenicity in both the Salmonella typhimurium plate-incorporation and FMN-modified assays as well as the mouse lymphoma TK+/- assay. Half of the compounds tested were monoazo dyes (14); the remainder consisted of disazo (3), aminotriphenylmethane derivatives (4), and other miscellaneous (6) color compounds. The results obtained in this study are compared with data from dyes of the same batch tested in other laboratories in the Salmonella plate-incorporation assay and in both in vitro and in vivo/in vitro UDS assays. Agreement of results from the various assays that could be compared (excluding results that were equivocal or indeterminate) ranged from 80 to 91%. Sufficient data were available to provide an overall index of in vitro activity for 15 chemicals; of these, 14 compounds could be compared to and agreed with reports of their carcinogenic potential in the literature.
Genotoxicity studies are conducted to detect the risk of gene mutations, change in number or structure of a cell, and chromosomal or DNA damage caused by a medical device, bio-material, or their extracts. Since no single test can detect all genotoxic agents, a battery approach is usually taken to meet study and regulatory objective utilizing both mammalian and non-mammalian cell culture models. ...
Carcinogenicity studies with docetaxel have not been performed.. Docetaxel was clastogenic in the in vitro chromosome aberration test in CHO-K1 cells and in the in vivo micronucleus test in mice administered doses of 0.39 to 1.56 mg/kg (about 1/60th to 1/15th the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis). Docetaxel was not mutagenic in the Ames test or the CHO/HGPRT gene mutation assays.. Docetaxel did not reduce fertility in rats when administered in multiple intravenous doses of up to 0.3 mg/kg (about 1/50th the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis), but decreased testicular weights were reported. This correlates with findings of a 10-cycle toxicity study (dosing once every 21 days for 6 months) in rats and dogs in which testicular atrophy or degeneration was observed at intravenous doses of 5 mg/kg in rats and 0.375 mg/kg in dogs (about 1/3rd and 1/15th the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis, respectively). An increased frequency of dosing in rats produced similar effects at lower dose ...
Recently, investigators at Universität Ulm have been investigating the low molecular weight DNA diffusion assay (LMW assay) to measure cytotoxicity in comet assays.. The comet assay is a well-established in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity test. However, there has always been concern that the comet assay (as with all DNA strand break assays) may possibly detect exposure-related cytotoxicity rather than genotoxic effects. This is because DNA degradation is frequently involved in processes leading to cell death. Concurrent measures for cytotoxicity are required for standard genotoxicity testing to assess genotoxicity and to address possible effects of cytotoxicity in comet assay data interpretation.. Typically, histopathology has been accepted as a suitable cytotoxicity detection method when using the in vivo comet assay. By looking at the histology, levels of necrosis and apoptosis can be determined. However, there are other assays available for assessing cytotoxicity.. Here, the LMW assay has ...
Fecapentaenes are a class of conjugated ether lipids which have been identified as the major component of human fecal mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis assay. Human epidemiologic data have indicated that most healthy North American populations eating a western diet do excrete detectable levels of fecapentaenes. Excreted fecapentaene levels seem to reflect levels throughout the colonic lumen, and levels vary characteristically between individuals. Those individuals found to excrete high levels of fecapentaene appear, based on limited data, to be at decreased risk of colorectal neoplasia. Carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice have been predominantly negative, however, increased tumor incidence in mice exposed to fecapentaenes as neonates has recently been reported. Fecapentaenes are direct-acting genotoxins, which may react with DNA through free radical mechanisms, and/or aldehyde formation. Mechanisms by which fecapentaene-induced DNA damage may mediate carcinogenesis are ...
Mutagenicity is a toxicity endpoint associated with the chronic exposure to chemicals. Aromatic amines have considerable industrial and environmental importance due to their widespread use in industry and their mutagenic capacity. Biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC), a mode of micellar liquid chromatography that uses micellar mobile phases of Brij35 in adequate experimental conditions, has demonstrated to be useful in mimicking the drug partitioning process into biological systems. In this paper, the usefulness of BMC for predicting mutagenicity of aromatic amines is demonstrated. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model based on BMC retention data is proposed and compared with other ones reported in bibliography. The proposed model present better or similar descriptive and predictive capability ...
Mutagenicity is a toxicity endpoint associated with the chronic exposure to chemicals. Aromatic amines have considerable industrial and environmental importance due to their widespread use in industry and their mutagenic capacity. Biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC), a mode of micellar liquid chromatography that uses micellar mobile phases of Brij35 in adequate experimental conditions, has demonstrated to be useful in mimicking the drug partitioning process into biological systems. In this paper, the usefulness of BMC for predicting mutagenicity of aromatic amines is demonstrated. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model based on BMC retention data is proposed and compared with other ones reported in bibliography. The proposed model present better or similar descriptive and predictive capability ...
Abstract from a paper by Ujvarosi et al. (2019), published in Chemospere : Microginins (MGs) are bioactive metabolites mainly produced by Microcystis spp., (Cyanobacteria) commonly found in eutrophic environments. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of four MG congeners (MG FR3, MG GH787, cyanostatin B, MGL 402) and a well characterized cyanobacterial extract…
In this lab simulation students conduct a modified Ames Test, which predicts carcinogenicity of chemicals. Students are provided with a virtual strain of Escherichia coli that is sensitive to (killed by) the antibiotic streptomycin, several virtual chemicals to test for mutagenicity, and two types of media (nutrient Agar and nutrient Agar + Streptomycin). The simulation allows students to propose a hypothesis about the types of chemicals that are likely to be mutagens and design an experiment to test their hypothesis.. ...
Even if Kozmin et al. had used authentic 6-HAP, the assays they used were not physiologically relevant. To measure mutagenic activity by Ames test or a mouse lymphoma assay, target cells must be incubated with a mutagen for 4 and 7 days, respectively. This is much longer than the term of stability of 6-HAP in solution. In addition, as shown in our original manuscript, mitochondorial amidoxyme-reducing components in normal human cells rescue cells from the antimetabolite activity of 6-HAP. As a consequence of this rapid inactivation reaction, 6-HAP does not show systemic toxicity in mice and does not inhibit the growth of normal human keratinocytes.. To avoid the natural instability of 6-HAP, Kozmin et al. conducted their mutagenic assays using a ΔmoaA bacterial mutant, which cannot detoxify 6-HAP to the canonical nucleobase. They detected mutagenic activity only in the ΔmoaA mutant but not in wild-type bacteria. This illuminates another example of why the conclusions in their commentary are ...
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Molecular diagnostics firm Biocartis has launched Idylla ctEGFR Mutation Assay (RUO), a liquid biopsy version of its solid biopsy Idylla EGFR Mutation Test.